China: Political, Commercial, and Social; in an Official Report to Her Majesty's Government | VOL 1 | 1847





POLITICAL, COMMERCIAL ,

AND

SOCIAL ;

IN AN OFFICIAL REPORT TO HER MAJESTY'S GOVERNMENT.

BY

R. MONTGOMERY MARTIN , Esq .,

7

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LATE HER MAJESTY'S TREASURER FOR THE COLONIAL, CONSULAR AND DIPLOMATIC SERVICES IN

CHINA AND A MEMBER OF HER MAJESTY'S LEGISLATIVE COUNCIL XT HONG KONG.

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VOL. I.

LONDON :

JAMES MADDEN, 8, LEADENHALL STREET .

MDCCCXLVII.

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DEDICATION.

1

TO THE QUEEN .

MADAM ,

The gracious permission to dedicate these Volumes to

Your Majesty, induces me to solicit a consideration of the great

interests involved in the British relations with China ; an Empire

first opened to our commerce by the patriotic spirit of Queen

Elizabeth, and with which our intercourse has been enlarged

during the auspicious reign of Your Majesty.

 

1

To extend personal communication with nearly four hundred

million comparatively civilized people - to establish mercantile

relations with the immense regions of Central Asia- and to pro

mote the blessings of Christian civilization among myriads of

mankind, are the principal objects of this work ; and, however

imperfectly developed , I trust they will receive the favourable

notice of Your Majesty.

* Vol, ii., page 1 .

DEDICATION .

A vast Empire, which has been almost miraculously preserved

for more than two thousand years, is now in friendly alliance with

Your Majesty, and with two of the most powerful Sovereigns of

Europe, (those of France and Russia), the isolation of ages has

been destroyed- and China is now admitted into the social

compact of the western hemisphere.

England, France, and Russia, are the representatives of three

great principles in politics— the Aristocratic - the Democratic, and

the Absolute ; they are also identified with three forms of Chris

tianity-the Protestant- the Romanist, and the Greek ; they are

antagonistic in Creed, Constitution, and Character. The domi

nions of Your Majesty, and those of the Emperor of Russia, now

adjoin those of the Emperor of China.

It is consistent with the experience of history, that at no dis

tant period a rivalry will arise in the East, that a strenuous endea

vour will be made to establish a dominant influence in China

to stamp an impress on a materialist people admirably adapted

for the reception of superior intelligence, and to wield for ulterior

purposes a mighty nation which, although long dormant, is capa

}

ble of producing an extraordinary influence on mankind .

It is, therefore, of great importance that international relations

<

be established on the most amicable basis, and that the divine prin

ciples of Justice, revealed for the guidance of kingdoms as well as

of individuals, shall characterize every transaction with the

Chinese government and people.

It is thus only that England can possess a valuable and

!

DEDICATION .

permanent influence in China, —it is by such means a mutuality

of interests may best be consolidated, —and an opening intercourse

be disarmed of that fear or jealousy which destroys confidence,

and may eventually lead to hostilities between the two Empires.

The exalted character of Your Majesty precludes the idea that

any other course of policy would receive the Royal sanction ; and

I am, therefore, emboldened to entreat the attention of Your

Majesty to the section in this Report on the " English Opium

Traffic in China .” * It is impossible to peruse the official docu

ments on this point without acknowledging that Your Majesty's

subjects are engaged in the commission of a fearful crime in

China ; that they are actively embarked in a traffic which is des

troying the lives and deteriorating the morals of thousands of our

fellow creatures ; and that the Emperor of China, after waging

an ineffectual war to stop this calamity, is now compelled to

endure the continued and encreasing perpetration of an offence

which would not be permitted against any Sovereignty in Eu

rope ; and which our superior strength enables us to commit

with impunity .

The island of Hong Kong was ceded to Your Majesty by the

Emperor of China, as a residence for British merchants, and as a

careening station for their ships . That island has been converted

by the Representative of Your Majesty into an Opium depôt, and

under the purchased license of Your Majesty, a drug justly deno

minated by the Emperor of China, as a "flowing poison," is sold

in defiance of the Chinese Government , for the avowed purpose

of being smuggled into China, -or for the use of such of His

* Vol. ii. p. 174 to 262.

I

DEDICATION .

Majesty's subjects as may seek protection under the flag of

England, from the adjacent mainland, where the " opium offence"

is punishable with death !*

I crave the attention of Your Majesty to another matter dis

cussed in this Report. It is a suggestive fact that England did

not become a colonizing and commercial nation until

ና Protestanism

was established, and the Bible translated for dissemination

in distant lands. A maritime and mercantile nation appears

71

to have been specially chosen by the Supreme Disposer of

Events for this hallowed purpose . ެ‫ތ ގ‬ . $

Ther ... * ... '

The English language is now more extensively spoken than any

other in the World, and in due time will most probably be the me

dium of communication among all Nations ; the British Sovereignty

is more widely spread than that of any known Empire,-the richest

plains, the loftiest mountains, the largest rivers, the most

capacious lakes, -the best placed islands, the securest havens,

and the strongest fortresses are all within the dominions of Your

Majesty, the commerce and wealth of this Empire have no parallel

in Ancient or Modern record ; enterprize, skill, and capital have

brought the most distant regions of the earth by steam navigation

within constant, speedy, and certain communication ; and the bles

sings of civil and religious liberty, -of political and moral freedom,

are firmly established throughout an Empire- on which the sun

never sets .

Such have been the glorious results of the principles established

* Vol. ii . p . 186 , 187 , 188 , 221 .

+ State of Religion and Christianity in China. Vol. ii . ch. 10 , p . 428 to 501 .

DEDICATION .

and inculcated by the regal predecessor of Your Majesty, Queen

Elizabeth ; their operating effects were manifested in the found

ation of Colonies, -in the extension of commerce,-and in the

dissemination of a pure Christianity to which colonies and com·

merce have largely contributed.

Yet the British Empire is but in the infancy of its power,

and we have scarcely commenced the moral and spiritual duties

for which dominion has been granted.

We are still on the threshold of an Empire, whose territory

is nearly as large as Europe, with a population equal in numbers

to one third of mankind ; and we have no intercourse whatever

with the extensive and populous kingdoms ofJapan, Corea, Cochin

China, and Siam, which contain about one hundred million of

civilized inhabitants,* and which I humbly seek permission to

open to British trade and intercourse.

An interchange of the peculiar products of each Country tends

to the establishment of friendly relations, and may be made the

medium for promoting civilization . Commerce is thus rendered

auxiliary to the extension of Christianity, which rightly understood

is inseparable from the enjoyment of the highest range of earthly

power and happiness.

There is, therefore, every inducement to encourage the esta

blishment of a pure faith in the regions recently opened, and still

1 to be opened, to British intercourse ; it is thus only, under Divine

* Vol i., c. ix. p . 295 to p. 361 .

DEDICATION .

Providence, that the sceptre of Your Majesty may be upheld ,

and it appears to be for this sacred purpose that vast power and

wide spread dominion have been granted to England .

I should have been unworthy of the honourable station entrusted

to me by the Gracious favour of Your Majesty, had I failed to

prepare to the best of my ability, the statements contained in

these volumes, which have occupied my sedulous attention for the

past three years ; I conceived it to be an object of national impor

tance to examine in detail our new and complex position in

China ;-to investigate the value or worthlessness of Hong Kong ; *

to check to the utmost of my power, a wasteful application of

the resources of Your Majesty's treasury ; -and to point out

what appeared to be an erroneous course of national policy, which

required timely correction previous to the evacuation of Chusan .†

To accomplish these objects , I conscientiously believed that I

should most efficiently fulfil my grateful duty as a servant of the

Crown, by returning without delay to England , even at the sacri

fice of my position in China, to lay this official report before Your

Majesty's government. ‡

If it be deemed that I have erred in so doing, I trust Your

Majesty will indulgently consider the originating motive, and that

a zealous desire to promote the welfare of my country, may be

pleaded in extenuation .

With an heartfelt prayer, that it may please an Overruling

* Vol. ii. page 317. + Vol . ii . page 369 .

Correspondence on resignation, vol. ii. p . 404 to 410, and Appendix, p . xiv. to xviii.

DEDICATION .

Providence to vouchsafe to Your Majesty a continuance of that

Wisdom which can alone benefit the counsels of a nation ; —and

a full enjoyment of those blessings which have hitherto resulted

from the admirable fulfilment of the exalted station devolving

on the Sovereign of this great Empire, -I beg permission to

subscribe myself,

Your Majesty's dutiful subject,

R. M. MARTIN.

London,

March 1st, 1847 .

+

1

LIST OF MR. MARTIN'S WORKS .

Copies

printed

I. History of the British Colonies, 5 vols. ; 28 Maps, Charts, & c. 8,500

II. Marquis Wellesley's Indian Despatches, 5 vols.; Maps, Plans , &c. 8,000

III. British Colonial Library, 10 vols.; Engravings , Maps, &c. 22,000

IV. Eastern India, 3 vols.; 200 Drawings, Maps, Plans, &c. 4,500

V. Statistics of the British Colonies, I large vol.; 3,000,000 Figures,

Seals, & c. 3,000

VI. Ireland as it was- is-and ought to be ( 1833 ) ; Tabular Charts, &c. 1,500

VII. Political, Commercial, and Financial Condition of Anglo - Eastern

Empire in 1832, 8vo . 1,500

VIII. British relations with the Chinese Empire in 1832, 8vo. 3,000

IX. Taxation of the British Empire ; with Tabular Views, &c. 1,500

X. Past and Present State of Tea Trade of England, Europe, and America 1,500

XI. Analysis of Parliamentary Evidence on China Trade, 1832 3,000

XII. Colonial Policy of the British Empire ; Part I., Government 1,500

XIII. Marquis Wellesley's Spanish Despatches, 1 vol. , 8vo. 1,500

XIV. Colonial Magazine, 7 vols. 8vo . , completed , Engravings, &c. 12,000

XV. Ireland before and after the Union ; ( 1844) Map, Tables, & c. 3,000

XVI. Analysis of the Bible, two Editions, and a Translation into Chinese 5,000

XVII. China : Political , Commercial, and Social , with Maps and Tables,

2 vols. 8vo. 2,000

Evidence before Parliament on Taxation , in 1836-37.

Examination before Select Committee of House of Commons, on the

Commerce of India, the Subsidiary States, &c., 1839-40.

Poor Laws for Ireland , a Measure of Justice for England, & c.

Pamphlet : impressions circulated • 10,000

East and West India Sugar Duties Equalization : impressions circulated 40,000

Monetary System of British India : impressions circulated 10,000

Analysis of the Evidence before Parliament for two Sessions, on the

Handloom Weavers ; prepared at the unanimous request of

the Parliamentary Committee, and printed by order of the

House of Commons.

The Bank of England and the Country Bankers 3,000

Effects of Climate , Food, and Drink upon Man 2,000

Colonial Atlas, with Maps of each Colony, Engraving.

Various Pamphlets on Commerce, Finance, Shipping, & c.

The foregoing publications comprise about seventy thousand octavo volumes, illus

trated by numerous Maps, Engravings, Plans, and Statistical Charts. The mere

mechanical expenditure on those works, for printing, paper, engraving, &c., has been

upwards of twenty thousand pounds sterling, towards which not the slightest assist

ance has been afforded by Her Majesty's Government.

9

STATISTICAL VIEW OF CHINA PROPER, BY R. M. MARTIN .

Sea Coast, Distance Area Population Quantity ofLand Salt Revenue Total fixed Sent to the Emperor . Remains in Soldiers and ‡ I

on each Quantity in Land Tax in Chau ‡

Provinces. Provincial Capital. Geographical Position . or from in Square Population. in Cultivation in in Taels of Sundry Duties Revenue of the Provincial Militia in each Foo Ting

Ting Chau Heen

Inland. Miles. Square English Acres. English Acres. Taels of Silver. Silver. in Taels. Province. Depart Depart- Depart- Districts . Districts . Districts . Topography of the Provinces. Principal Productions.

Peking. Mile. each Province . Money in Taels. Rice in Shih. † Treasury.

ments. ments. ments.

Lat. N. Long. E.

0 / // 0 / // in Taels.

CHIH-LE PEKING . 39.54.13 116.28.00 Inland .. 58,949 27,990,871 473 37,727,360 13,143,837 1,334,457 437,949 153,272 1,925,650 1,939,941 621,813 151,000 11 6 3 17 124 Westward very flat, sloping towards the sea, sterile.

Le. * Millet, ginseng, fruits, tobacco, coal, saltpetre, skins .

SHAN-TUNG TSE-NAN-FOO • 36.44.24 117.07.30 Sea Coast 800 65,104 28,958,764 515 41,666,560 19,421,081 3,396,165 120,720 70,661 3,930,513 2,730,736 353,973 691,141 35,000 10 2 9 96 Mountainous, a bracing climate, bold and good harbours. Corn and fruits, drugs, wines, skins .

SHAN -SE TAE-YUEN- FOO • 37.53.30 112.30.30 Inland .. 1200 55,268 14,004,210 253 35,371,520 6,591,724 2,990,675 507,828 82,944 3,580,647 2,702,285 169,240 328,290 35,000 9 10 3 6 85 Very mountainous, sterile and woody. Silks, wines, iron, salt, marble, jasper, musk.

:

HONAN KAE-Fung- FOO • 34.55.00 113.20.00 Inland . • 1540 65,104 23,037,171 353 41,676,300 14,456,407 3,164,758 44,950 3,420,940 2,441,110 221,242 626,623 24,000 9 4 6 97 Flat, very fertile, climate agreeable. The garden of China ; rhubarb, musk, indigo .

NANKING . 32.04.40 118.47.00 Sea Coast 2400 37,843,501 13,797,689 3,116,826 2,085,282 142,317 6,475,690 2,564,728 1,401,273 8 1 3

2

KANG-SOO 422,709 3 62 Very low and fertile, climate good . Medical herbs, China-ware, gold, tin, lead, salt.

92,661 774 59,595,040 132,000

GAN-HWUY GAN - KING- FOO 30.37.10 117.04.13 Sea Coast 2700 34,168,059 6,762,418 1,174,110 1,174,110 776,173 8 5 4 50 Romantic scenery, and fertile on banks of Yang. Varnish trees, green teas, silks, rice, millet.

KIANG-SI NAN-CHANG-FOO • 28.37.12 115.48.17 Inland . 2850 72,176 30,426,999 421 46,192,640 9,585,412 1,878,682 5,150 38,593 2,719,488 1,602,431 795,863 540,705 39,000 13 1 2 1 75 Sterile and hilly, climate healthy . Coarse cloths, hemp, China-ware, drugs.

FOO-KEEN FUH-CHOO- FOO 26.02.24 119.25.00 Sea Coast 4845 53,480 14,777,410 276 34,227,200 2,565,417 1,074,490 85,470 42,630 1,202,590 1,055,109 208,050 76,000 10 2 3 62 Very mountainous, good harbours, fertile where capable of cultivation . Black teas, camphor, sugar, indigo, tobacco.

CHE-KEANG . • HANG- CHOO-FOO 30.20.20 | 120.07.34 Sea Coast 3300 39,150 26,256,784 671 25,056,000 9,195,754 2,914,946 501,034 49,037 2,532,327 2,287,346 66,600 687,277 35,000 11 1 1 76 On the sea coast very hilly but fertile. Silk, paper, wines, Lung-tsing-cha, a costly tea.

:

HOO-PIH . WOO-CHANG-FOO 30.34.50 114.13.30 Inland . • 3155 37,370,098 11,338,269 1,174,110 11,554 1,282,598 776,173 96,934 333,543 37,000 10 1 7 60 Well watered, numerous lakes and rivers.

Teas, paper, rice, rhubarb, musk, tobacco .

:

144,770 317 92,652,800

HUNAN CHANG-CHA- FOO 28.12.00 112.46.57 Inland .. 4550 18,652,507 6,245,759 882,745 44,345 924,302 944,422 96,214 265,379 51,000 9 3 4 3 64 Slightly elevated and fertile, a good climate. Gold, silver, tin, drugs, mercury, hemp.

: LO5

LO

LO

SHEN-SE SE-GAN-FOO 34.16.45 108.57.45 Inland .. 2650 10,207,256 5,047,420 1,658,700 507,028 40,623 2,206,351 306,336 265,498 104,000 7 5 5 73 Plains and mountains, cold and barren.

164 98,565,120 < Woollens, iron, copper, drugs, furs, millet.

154,008

KAN -SUH LAN-CHOO-FOO • 36.08.24 103.55.00 Inland .. 4040 15,193,135 ) 3,556,626 280,652 39,450 60,787 380,889 1,082,644 72,274 123,000 9 6 7 7 51 Mountainous, fertile fields, and sandy deserts. Gold, quicksilver, musk, tobacco .

:

SZE-CHUEN . . CHING-TOO-FOO · • 30.40.41 103.10.30 Inland .. 5700 166,800 21,435,678 128 106,752,000 9,182,933 631,094 31,782 662,880 13,029 85,000 12 6 8 3 11 111 Bold coast, good harbours, fertile, fine climate. Copper, iron, tin, rhubarb, rice, salt, drugs .

:

KWANG - TUNG ,

OR CANTO KWANG - CHOO-FOO 23.08.09 111.16.30 Sea Coast 7570 79,456 19,147,030 214 50,851,840 6,576,658 1,364,364 47,913 65,220 1,477,497 719,307 339,143 99,000 9 2 4 3 7 79 Excellent harbours, fertile soil, climate good. Rice, silks, fish, vegetables, copper, iron, tin.

KWANG-SI • KWE-LIN- FOO 25.13.12110.13.50 Sea Coast 7460 78,250 7,313,895 93 50,080,000 1,748,012 416,399 47,150 52,660 516,149 275,559 86,945 42,000 11 1 3 16 47 Bold mountains, fertile valleys, large forests . Fruits, rice, cassia, iron, lead, sugar, tin .

YUN -NAN . YUN -NAN-FOO . 25.06.00 | 102.51.40 Inland .. 8200❘ 107,969 5,561,320 51 69,100,160 1,389,996 209,582 227,626 34,256 471,464 188,927 227,626 53,596 53,000 14 3 4 5 27 39 The Switzerland of China, very wild and jungley . Rich in metals, rice, musk, betel-nut .

LO

KWEI-CHOO . • KWEI-YANG-FOO 26.30.00 106.36.10 Inland .. 7640 64,554 5,288,219 82 41,314,560 513,835 181,268 6,234 24,431 131,938 52,846 13,314 70,000 12 3 1 5 13 34 Wild and mountainous, intersected by several rivers . Considerable metallic wealth, tobacco, drugs.

Total 1,297,999 367,632,907 283 830,829,100 141,119,347 | 27,854,023 | 4,618,834 991,092 | 35,016,023 22,445,573 | 3,428,955 | 5,569,329 1,232,000 182 18 67 45 143 1285

This Table is prepared from various authorities : the greater portion was furnished to me in China, translated from the Official Records . Dr. Gutzlaff and other Chinese scholars considered the Population Census correct. The number of inhabitants to the square mile is about the same as in England, and less than the number in Ireland . The most dense population in China is along the banks of the great rivers, particularly near the

great Yangtzekang, and central districts of the country, where the waters, furnish large supplies of food. The fecundity of the Chinese is visible in every village, where children are grouped in considerable numbers. It is probable that the dependent Provinces of Mongolia, Mantchouria, Turkestan, and Tibet, contain a population of forty millions : thus making the inhabitants of the whole Empire more than four hundred millions !

* A Le is about 631 yards English . + A Shih is 160 lbs. Avoirdupois. See Page 6, Chapter 1.

ì

PREFA C E.

THE object of the following pages is to awaken an earnest interest

in England in behalf of one- third of the human race ; to offer,

in a condensed view, the past history and present state of China

in its domestic and foreign relations ; to investigate the causes

which prevent four hundred million * industrious, sober, obedient,

pacific, and educated people, holding the position to which they are

entitled among the other kingdoms of the earth ; to examine our

own political, commercial, and social position in that vast country,

in order that the statesman, the merchant, and the philanthropist,

may be the better enabled to direct their course of action to the

production of some beneficial result equally conducive to the

welfare and concord of England and China.

Hitherto, we have acted in ignorance of the internal state of

China, and without any defined system . The result has been a

disappointment of sanguine expectations, and the practical exclu

sion of Europeans from that internal communication by which

trade could be best extended, and social intercourse beneficially

promoted .

To remedy this and other serious defects in our past pro

ceedings, all the useful information collected by trustworthy

observers at different periods, has been collated under different

* In China Proper there are 367,632,907 inhabitants, (sce Statistical Chart of

Provinces) , and in the Dependencies of Mantchooria, Mongolia, Turkestan, Tibet ,

&c. at least 30,000,000 , making a total of FOUR HUNDRED MILLION people under one

government. The population of the whole carth is estimated at 800,000,000 to

1,000,000,000 million.

.

‫مر‬

ii PREFACE .

heads. The accuracy of this information has been substantiated

by the testimony of several learned and intelligent gentlemen,

long resident in China ; and every accessible part of the country

has been visited to verify the statements subjected to examination .

The following documents were, accordingly, transmitted to Her

Majesty's Government, in the hope they might prove of some

utility ; and the Lords' Committee of the Privy Council for Trade

having offered no objection to their publication, they are now

submitted for public perusal, divested of several voluminous

statistical tables and official returns .

The plan adopted has been to shew, in the first part, the

physical geography ; the population, and, so far as may be

necessary to an understanding of character, their customs, habits

and classification ; the agricultural, manufacturing, and mineral

products ; the imperial, provincial, and municipal governments ;

the monetary system ; and the amount and state of the revenue

of China.

The second part contains the early history of this ancient

empire, and its intercourse with foreign nations-European and

Asiatic,-in elucidation of the line of policy which it seems

advisable to pursue .

The third part details the internal, coasting, and foreign traffic,

and the regulations under which it is conducted . To this is

subjoined a separate section on the tea trade, and another on

opium, with the state papers of the Chinese ministers and au

thorities on this highly-important and still unsettled question.

The fourth part describes the Consular Ports of Canton, Amoy,

Foochoo, Ningpo, and Shanghai ; and the stations of Hong- Kong,

Chusan, Macao, and Kiackta . To this has been added a succinct

exposition, deducible from the facts detailed, on our present posi

tion and future prospects in China.

If wealth and power involve a responsibility to Him who per

mits their acquisition ;-if England have been almost miraculously

raised from a small insular kingdom, to become the dominant

Empire of the earth ; -if her destiny be, through the apparent

instrumentality of her commerce, to civilize mankind ; —then ,

indeed , a fearful responsibility attends her proceedings in China .

PREFACE . iii

The onward progress of England, in political and commercial

freedom-in the practical application of science- in the accumu

lation of capital-in the extension of maritime communication , —

indicates that she cannot be passive : action is essential to her

J

existence- it is the main spring of her life-the animating im

pulse which produces evil or good ; if not rightly directed, it

will tend to her downfal, after the manner of other states ; but,

under wise and righteous principles, this very law of her being

will conduce to the establishment of her supremacy over the earth

so long as Christianity shall exist.

It is the direct interest of all other nations that this supremacy

be maintained ; a republic of kingdoms is as utopian as a republic

of individuals : —some powerful Empire has always swayed the

world, but whoever possessed the dominion has unfortunately used

its power for the subjugation and enslavement, rather than for the

elevation and liberty, of weaker states .

This has not been the career of England ; her insularity has

happily prevented the necessity of seeking continental European

territory ; her free political institutions have naturally rendered

her desirous of extending their advantages to other nations ; and

her pure and tolerant religion has made her the ark to which the

oppressed can flee for safety and repose ; and , while placing a salu

tary check on ambition or mere aggrandizement, it has inspired

the desire, and furnished the means, of contributing to the ad

vancement of all countries .

What then have the nations of Europe to fear from the

supremacy of England ? She has thrown open the ports of her

wide-spread maritime dominion to every nation ; whatever new

territory she conquers, or reclaims from the desert, it is freely

opened to mercantile competition ; she retains no selfish monopoly

——-claims no undue privilege, —exercises no arbitrary sway to the

prejudice of Europe. Possessed of a power, which could at any

moment arouse a general war, -with resources at her command far

greater than she ever possessed, -of a magnitude which strangers

cannot see, and which are comprehended but by few, she yet

earnestly seeks peace, because it is a Christian duty, and desires

no other rivalry with her surrounding competitors than that of

iv PREFACE ,

extending the blessings of order, industry, and intelligence, -of

promoting the interchange of commodities, and of facilitating

intercourse with the most distant regions . These unquestionable

facts demonstrate, that whatever position England may acquire in

China it will not be for her exclusive advantage ; the time is

happily arriving, when nations, as well as individuals, learn that

a benefit conferred returns to the donor with a blessing,—that

injuries reflect punishment on the perpetrators,-and thus even in

a selfish point of view, the exercise of good is a far better policy

than the commission of injustice .

A conviction of the truth of this divine precept is slowly dawning

on the minds of men ; it is the high behest of England to prove

the reality by its practical application . No sphere could be more

appropriate for its exercise than China, where myriads of our

fellow creatures seem specially adapted for, and prepared to receive ,

the influence of a Christian civilization . It is impossible to

estimate fully the effects of such an influence on so vast a mass

of mankind ;—it is difficult to calculate the extraordinary commer

cial power which would be created by four hundred million active

and intelligent beings, with numerous desires, keen perceptions,

and indomitable industry, having full scope given to their sin

gular energies ; —it is deeply interesting to consider the physical,

moral, and intellectual results which would accrue not only to

the continent of Asia, but also to those of Europe and of America,

from the christianization of China. Under Providence, this glori

ous consummation may be witnessed by the existing generation ;

but whether this be permitted or not, it is the bounden duty of

all Christians to aid in its accomplishment.

An humble labourer in a vineyard teeming with promises,

sincerely trusts, that this truly important subject will be examined

without reference to its comparatively feeble exposition, and that

the facts submitted for consideration , may induce those who have

the means, to assist in opening China to perfect freedom of inA

tercourse with all Europe and America, for the sake of extending

the commerce, and promoting the freedom, the welfare, and the

happiness of mankind.

CHINA ;

GEOGRAPHICAL , POLITICAL , COMMERCIAL ,

AND SOCIAL .

CHAPTER I.

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY .

THE Chinese Empire extends through about thirty- five degrees of

latitude, and about sixty-five degrees of longitude, bounded on the

east by the Pacific Ocean for upwards of 2000 miles ; on the south by

Cochin-China, Tonquin, Laos, Siam, Birmah, Assam, and Tibet ;

on the west by Independent Tartary or Great Bukhara and Tur

kestan ; and on the north by the Russian Empire, the Siberian

region, and tribes of nomadic Tartars .

The length of the territory, including the dependent provinces, is

computed at 3000 miles, the breadth at 2000 miles, and the area at

five million square miles ; ofwhich about 1,300,000 square miles are

covered by China Proper, which extends from Pekin in 40° N. to

the Gulf of Tonquin in 20° S. ,. and from the sea coast in 121 ° E.

to the frontiers of Tibet in the 100th degree of longitude . There

are also several large islands attached or tributary to China ; such as

Hainan in 20° N. latitude, Formosa in 25°, the Chusan Archipelago

in 30°, and Segalien in 50° N.

The physical aspect of China, so far as we know, is varied by three

great features : an elevated northern region, or plateau, on which

Pekin is situated ; an alluvial plain through which the Yangtzekang

and Hwang-ho rivers flow to the sea ; and a broken, undulating terri

tory in the south, with broad valleys and lofty mountains . The coast

line from Hainan Island in 20° S. , to the Quesan group of islets in

29° 22′, forms a segment of a circle, and consists generally of a

bold, rugged, mountainous sea-frontage sloping to the westward,

seldom assuming a tabular form,. but frequently rising to cones, or

" haycocks " of 1000 feet, with supporting spurs or buttresses in

every direction ; some connected with an inland ridge of moun

tains, which, at a distance of about 150 to 200 miles from the

coast, traverse the provinces of Fokien and Chekeang, and is then

B

2 PHYSICAL ASPECT OF CHINA .

continued to the northern boundary of Kwantung (Canton) pro

vince, and to the westward towards Bootan . The whole of this

coast line is broken into bays, inlets, and coves, with numerous

islands and rocks, allowing free entrance, and affording good shelter

for vessels. There are few hidden dangers ; the rocks have gene

rally deep water alongside ; and as the wind seldom blows direct on

the shore, navigation is comparatively easy and safe. The aspect

of the south coast is very sterile ; its geological formation appears

to consist of red and grey sandstone, intermixed with coarse granite

in various stages of decomposition . As the sea is receding from

the land,. large boulder stones, and grotesquely formed rocks, worn

by wind and water, give a wild and singular appearance to the

coast . At every nook, or on any rock containing the smallest

patch of arable surface, a fishing village or small trading town is to

be found : but the general feature is aridness, and its concomitant

poverty. There are, therefore, only three large maritime cities,

Canton, Amoy, and Fuchoo, in this division . The first deriving

its support chiefly from foreign , European, and American com

merce ; the second principally from its trade with Canton, Formosa,

Singapore, and the Eastern Archipelago ; and the third owing its

importance to being the principal city of the large province of

Fokien .

Passing northward from the Quesan Group, the aspect of the

country begins to change, the land dipping to the northward as the

delta of the Yangtzekang is approached. At the Chusan Archi

pelago, the geological structure appears to be principally a por

phyritic claystone, tabular, and columnar ; no granite is seen ; the

hills and mountains are clothed with stately trees, or cultivated to

their very summits with crops requiring various altitudes ; rich

vegetation and continuous grain and cotton cultivation abound ;

cattle and sheep become more plentiful ; the sea runs deeply into

the land, which is watered by numerous rivers, and which, together

with the adjacent seas, abound in varieties of fish.

Chekeang is indented with bays and rivers. Keangsoo is acces

sible by the large rivers Yangtzekang and Hwang-ho or Yellow River,

so called from its immense discharge of yellow clay and sand, which

colours the neighbouring sea. Shantung is rugged, and marked

by promontories ; the southern part of Chih-li province is flat and

sandy. Tientsen, or the White River, is the only port available

for vessels of burthen.

In such a vast extent of territory the aspect and climate must be

very diversified : —thus there are some tracts similar to the swampy

plains of Holland ; others like the mountains and valleys of

Switzerland, —the fertile plains of Lombardy- the champagne

country of France-the dreary steppes of Russia-the sandy deserts

of Africa- and the beautiful hills and dales, the corn and wood

lands, of our own incomparable country.

It is difficult to trace the mountain ridges : one appears to ex

1

ng.

MOUNTAINS OF CHINA .

tend from the province of Yunnan, through Canton province in a

N.E. direction, through Fokein to Chekeang ; it is through this

ridge that the Meling road or pass has been cut, for interior traffic

between Canton and Keangsoo . Another chain passes from Sze

chuen to Shense, and givesthe Yellow River a northerly direc

tion through the great wall. Two mountains extend westward of

Peking. Generally speaking, the mountains in the N.W. are not

continuous ranges, but " table lands," which extend N. and S. of

the Yellow River, over the provinces of Kansuh and Shense.

The provinces of Shanse, Shense, Sze- chuen, and Yunnan con

stitute a part of the table land of central Asia. In Yunnan the

mountains are said to form a gigantic wall, with but one pass,

which is closed with two gates, guarded on one side by Tonquinese,

on the other by Chinese.

The three lines of mountains, which begin respectively at the

Yellow Sea, at the Yangtzekang, and at the coast of Canton , run

their course to the eastward , north- east and south-east, until they

unite in the great range of European Tibet, a spur or buttress of

the mighty Himalaya. Two great branches from the Tibetian

chain, are called by the Chinese Pih-ling (northern ) and Nan- ling

(southern) chain . The Yunling, which is an offshoot of the Pihling,

separates China from Tibet, and branches to lake Kokonor (Blue

Sea.) The Yang range N. W. of Peking is a portion of the Yin

elevation, which divides China Proper from Mongolia, and which

is continued to the Corean mountains .

The three basins which determine the course of the water

courses, are, 1st, that S. of the Nanling chain, through which the

rivers flow in the Fokeen and Canton provinces ;-2nd, the middle

basin N. of the Nanling, and S. of the Pihling mountains, which

collects the waters that become tributary to the Yangtzekang,

the 3rd is N. of the Pihling, extending to the mountain ridges of

Tartary, called the Yang, through which the Hwang-ho flows into

the Yellow Sea.

It is estimated that two- thirds of China Proper are studded with

lofty mountains, some of which are perpetually covered with snow.

The Chinese geographers enumerate 5,270 celebrated mountains,

of which they say 467 yield copper, and 3,609 iron. There is no

known volcano in China ; some natives say a lofty mountain peak

near Yunnan occasionally emits flame. In Shen-se there are

said to be two mountains which have chasms on their summits ,

which give off flame and smoke when dry grass is thrown therein .

The lakes of China are of two descriptions ; those of the moun

tains, and those of the plains. The surface of the upland districts ,

and especially that of the province of Yunnan, is diversified with

frequently occurring and widely extended collections of water,

lodged in the depressed and pent-up places of the glens and valleys.

The lakes of the plains are mere dilatations of the rivers, or the

estuaries in which they terminate ; and they are so numerous and

B 2

4 LAKES OF CHINA .

expansive, that, inclusive of the marshy places with which they are

associated, they are supposed to occupy a fourth part of the whole

surface of the low country. The plains of China are to all appear

ance usurpations of the land upon the once undisputed domains

of the water. This enlargement of the land is in active operation ,

by the continued deposition of alluvial matter. The Yellow Sea,

with all its creeks, bays and gulfs, is daily becoming less deep, and

more broken with banks and islands . The Po-yang, the largest

of these lakes, lies between 28° and 30° North in the province of

Keang- soo, and receives rivers from most points of the compass ;

the water of which collected into one stream , forms one of the

tributaries of the Yangtzekang. This lake, including its marshes,

is said to be 100 miles in length, and is called the " Inland Sea."

Two hundred miles westward of this lake, in the province of

Hunan a labyrinth of lakes spreads over an extensive surface on

both sides of the river Yangtzekang .

Of this group the lake Tong-ting is said to be the largest ; it is esti

mated at nearly 300 miles in circumference. It form is irregular,

and it receives the waters of many rivers of various sizes .

A great portion of the Imperial Canal lies through a dreary waste

of morass, which occasionally assumes the appearance of a sea,

interspersed with islands .

When the floods subside, the district still retains numerous

groups of large and permanent lakes ; among which are the Po- yang,

and the Lemaare to the west of the canal; the Tai, extended at the

feet of picturesque hills ; together with many more dispersed over

the space which intervenes between the two great rivers.

The Si-hu Lake, situated in the department of Hangchoo, in the

province of Chekeang , covers an area of about four miles in dia

meter. Barrow says, its natural and artificial beauties far surpass

any others he met with in China. The lake extends from the

walls of the city to the foot of the mountains, spreading its arms

here and there into the wooded valleys . The margin of the lake

is adorned with summer houses, grottoes, and light fancy buildings,

and it is covered with innumerable pleasure-boats ; the lake teems

with fish, is not deep , has a gravelly bottom, and excellent water.

The Great River, Yangtzekang, is the largest in Asia, and is

scarcely inferior to any in America ; it is said to measure 2,283

miles in length . It is seen in the western part of the Kokonor

country, the southern division of Mongolia. Its sources are pro

bably in the mountain ridge that furnish the Bhramaputra, and

Irrawaddy. There seem to be three branches, which flow in an

easterly direction and unite at a place called Woo - shoo -too - sze-too,

in latitude 26° ; from thence the river runs south-east and enters

Szechuen province . Even in Tsing-hae many places are situated

on its banks ; which proves that the region around it must be fer

tile, and the river navigable. This river, by means of canals and

lakes, stands in connection with the whole empire ; it is the key to

10

RIVERS AND GREAT WALL . 5

China and central Asia, and has been aptly named the "girdle of the

empire." The mouth of the Yangtzekang is about thirty miles

wide, between the 31 ° and 32° N. latitude, divided into several

channels by low islands, defended by dykes and cultivated by

Chinese. The largest, Tsungming, lying W. N. W. and E. S. E, is

thirty miles long by six to nine broad, and richly productive . We

know, from our fleet under the able command of Admiral Sir Wil-

liam Parker, that this noble river is navigable 200 miles for the

largest class vessels . Coal abounds everywhere on its banks ; and

under a wise policy, our steam-boats would be freely traversing this

vast artery to the rich central regions of China, and spreading civi

lization, peace, commerce, and science among millions of mankind .

The Hwang-ho, or Yellow River, affords inland communication

for nearly 2,000 miles ; but from its low and loose banks and rapid

floods, the country on its margin is subject to frequent inunda

tions. From both these great rivers we are still excluded .

The Grand Canal, called in Chinese the Yunho, or " Transit River,"

is a stupendous work- especially when we consider the period at

which it was finished ; namely, in the fourteenth century. It con

nects the Yangtzekang and Hwang-ho Rivers at a point near

their embouche, where they are about 100 miles apart. The canal

passes through the great plain which extends from Peking through

the deserts of Chihli, part of Shantung, and Keangsoo , to Hang- choo

in Chekeang . We are excluded from traffic on this canal, and have

no port or trading station on its banks . The canal is about 800

miles long, and, in Shantung, where it is fed at its greatest eleva

tion by the Wien-ho, the banks are protected by strong masonry.

Vessels of large burden are raised over the sluices (which serve

instead of locks) by rude but effective machinery constructed in

the twelfth and thirteenth centuries . Chinkeangfoo , on the Yang

tzekang, communicates with the Grand Canal, and would be an

excellent station for our trade.

The far-famed Great Wall of China was commenced by the Em

peror Hwangte, who reigned B.C. 246. His reign may be justly

termed an iron rule, that drew forth sufficient means and men to

complete in a few years this gigantic work. The intention and

object of this wall was to fortify China against the inroads of the

Tartars. The wall is 1,500 miles long ; in height varying according

to the locality—in some parts the elevation is twenty-five feet, with

towers forty feet high erected at not more than 100 yards distance

from each other, for a considerable portion of the entire wall. The

country on which a portion of the wall is erected is hilly and wild ;

it is built on the steep sides of mountains, between five and six

thousand feet above the level of the sea ; it surmounts their sum

mits, and again descends into the valleys : on crossing a river it

forms a ponderous arch. A large mound of stone erected in the

province of Chih- li, east of Peking, formed the beginning of this

mighty bulwark . Its principal direction is from E. to W.; the ram

6 TOPOGRAPHY OF PROVINCES .

part runs along the northern confines of three provinces, Chih -li,

Shan-sc, and Shen-se ; and thus defends in some measure a popula

tion of fifty million of inhabitants, which are scattered along the

whole northern frontier of the empire. This great wall terminates

in latitude 40° 4′ N. , longitude 120° 2 ′ E. A sketch was taken of

its termination by one of our war-party in 1840. The wall, after

descending from the highlands, which are very rugged , stretches

northward a few miles across a narrow plain to a ledge of rocks,

with which it seems to unite, and there loses itself in the waters of

the gulf of Leaontung. The celebrated passes through the Great

Wall,. proceeding westward from the coast, are the following :

Hifung-kau, lat . 40° 26′ N. , Kupe-kau, lat. 40° 43′ N. , (Lord Ma

cartney's embassy passed through Kupe-kau gate) , Tushi-kau, lat.

41° 19′ 20″ N.: the fourth gate is the key of the commerce of Russia

and China ; it is called Chang-kau, in lat. 40° 51 ′ 15″ N. and is the

fixed residence of a great number of merchants, who carry on a large

trade with Mongolia. It is the residence of the Commander-in

Chief, or the Keeper- General of Chahar, who has a large military

force at his command at all times.

In order to convey some idea of the topography of the different

provinces, the following abstract is subjoined .

CHIH- LI OF PE- CHELE has had its northern boundaries greatly ex

tended . It was anciently called Yu and Yen , and is now the capital

province of the Empire. The sea coast forms the boundary from

Shan Tung Province to the Great Wall, which for a short dis

tance divides Chih-li ; thence a palisade is the separating line, to

the River Hwang-ho. This river marks the northern boundary of

the province from the palisade to its source among the peaks of the

Hingan. Thence the boundary runs nearly due east and west, in

lat. 42° 30′ N. The western boundary running nearly N. and S.

extends over more than seven and a half degrees of latitude, and

divides Chih -li from Shense and Honan . The western parts of the

province are flat, and slope towards the sea, but the country towards.

Shan-se rises and is hilly. There are two lakes in the E. and S.

division of the province . The great canal passes through the E.

part, and falls into the Pei- ho in lat . 39° 11 ', long. 0° 48′ east of

Peking. The Pei-ho river takes its rise a little beyond the Great

Wall and disembogues in the gulph of Pe- chele. It has no tides,

but flows very rapidly. The entrance to the river Pei-ho is rather

shallow, in consequence of a bar which stretches for a considerable

distance into the sea. The province is divided into districts and

and departments, called foo, ting, chaw and heen. A foo is a large

portion or department of a province. A ting is a division of a

province smaller than a foo . A chaw is a division similar to a ting,

and, like it, independent of any other. A heen may be called a

district, or small division of a department, whether of a foo, or of

an independent chaw or ting . Each foo, ting, chaw, and heen,

possesses one walled town, which is the seat of its government .

TOPOGRAPHY OF PROVINCES . 7

This province contains eleven foo, six chaw departments, three

ting districts, seventeen chau districts, and one hundred and

twenty-four heen districts ; and is compared in size with England

and Wales united , or to Michigan, Illinois or Arkansas in the

United States .

SHANTUNG (i. e. " East of the hills") province, anciently called Tsi

and Lu, bounded by Chih-li, is a mountainous country, the coast

bold and well indented . The whole surface of the province is

intersected by rivers, at no great distance from each other. The

Tatsing-ho is the largest river in the province, the Yu-ho, is a

branch of the Pei-ho . The rivers are short. The grand canal

commences at Lingsing-chau ; from this point north to Tientsin ,

the communication is along the channel of a branch of the Pei-ho .

The native maps point out numerous harbours and bays, which

are almost unknown to foreigners . Shantung is about the size

of Wales in Great Britain, or of Georgia in the United States .

SHAN-SE province, called " West of the Hills," anciently Tsin

and Chau, is one of the central divisions of the Empire . It is

bounded on the east by Chih-li and Honan ; on the south by Honan ;

on the west by Shensi ; and on the north by Chahur in Mongolia.

The whole western , and half of the southern boundary, are formed

by the Yellow River. The province is nearly in the form of a

parallelogram, of which the river is one of the longest sides . Its

boundaries are marked to the north by the Great Wall, which sepa

rates the province from Mongolia . Shan-se is mountainous, has

no lakes, but numerous rivers ; the Hwang-ho runs for 180 miles

through the province.

HONAN province, anciently called Yen and Yu, the centre region

of China, borders to the north on Chih-li, Shan-se, and Shan

tung, south upon Hoo -pih, east upon Keang-nan, (Keangso and

Anhwin) , and west upon Shan-se . Its greatest limits to the north,

are lat. 37° ; to the south, 31° 30′ ; to the west, 6° 20′ west of

Peking ; to the east, 25' long. east of Peking. The northern part

stretches into the provinces of Chih-le, and Shan-tung. The river

Hwang-ho runs through its whole breadth . The rivers in the

north are the Chang-ho, Hin-ho, and Ke-ho ; in the south there

is the Foo-ho, with several others . Ho -nan-foo, in lat. 34° 43′ in

the western part of the province, near Hwang-ho river, is surrounded

with mountains , and lies between three rivers, which disembogue

into the Hwang-ho .

KEANG - SOO AND GAN- HWUY provinces were formerly united

under the name of Keang-nan . On the north they border Shan

tung and Honan ; on the south Keang- si and Che-keang ; on the

east the Yellow Sea ; on the west Hoo-pih and Hu-nan. The coun

try extends from 29° to 35° 8′ lat. N., and from 5° 10′ E. of Peking,

to 1° 30 ′ W. The rivers are mostly tributary to the Yangtze

kang, or to the river Hwai. Those that flow into the last, come

from Honan, and run to the S.E. Mountains are seen in the

8 TOPOGRAPHY OF PROVINCES.

PROVINCES .

southern part of the province ; and the ranges form the high

lands on each side of the Great River, where many of the streams

have their sources . The coast is low and flat. The country, for

ten miles inland, is alluvial soil. The only island along the sea

coast of any height is Tac-shan, to the north of the Yellow River,

in lat. 34° 40 ' ; and this is intersected by a double ridge of hills.

The province is about half as large as Spain .

KIANG - SI (west of the river) extends from lat. 24° 30' to 30° 10″,

and from long. 1° 50′ E. of Peking ; bounded on the N.E. by Hu

pih and Anhwui ; on the E. by Che-kiang and Fo - Keen ; on the

S. by Kwang-tung ; and on the W. by Hunan . Its shape is irre

gular, about 400 miles up the Yangtzekang, in a north-westernly

and then in a south-westernly, direction, through the united pro

vinces of Keang- soo and Anhwui. On the north-eastern borders

of Kiang-si, the river leaves the province, after a course of about

eighty miles along its northern frontier, through a part of which

distance it forms the boundary line. The country is hilly, but not

mountainous. The south-western hills separate it from Kwang

tung Province . The province is about the size of Virginia, U.S. ,

or twice the size of Portugal.

Foo -KEEN, anciently called Min or Ho - Keen, borders towards

the N. upon Che- Keang, S. upon Kwang-tung (Canton), E. upon

the Ocean and Formosa Channel, and towards the W. on Keang-se.

It extends from lat. 25° 35' to 28° 47', from long. W. of Peking

0° 22′, to long. E. of Peking 4°, (the Formosa island not included) .

The province is very mountainous. Its sea - coast abounds with

harbours, many of them spacious and safe ; the whole coast is more

indented than any other maritime province . Not far from the

main are several islands, the principal ones are Namoa, Tungshan,

Heaman, Kinmun, and Haytan . The Min is the chief river ; its

branches extend over half the province, and unite into one channel

near the city of Fuchoo. Nearly every branch of the Min has its

fountain-head within the boundaries of the province. A high

range of mountains extend from S. to the N., the highest form

ing the line of demarcation between Kiangse and Foo -keen.

its general features it presents very little level ground.

CHEKIANG province, originally the country of Yue, is of a

circular form, extending from lat. 27° 20′ to 31° 20′ N. , and from

long. 1° 48′ to 6° 30′ E. of Peking, and includes the principal

islands of the Chusan Archipelago. On the N. it is bounded by

the province of Kiang- see, E. by the sea, S. by Foo-keen, and W.

by Kiang-si and Anhwui. The country is in general hilly. The

rivers of the province are numerous, and all of them have a westerly

course . The chief river is the Tang-keang, a navigable river, near

the mouth of which Hang-choo, the capital, is situated ; further

to the S. the Gow-keang and Nan-keang flow into the sea. Its

coasts are studded with islands , which extend as far as the Great

Yangtzekang ; the most important are the Chusan group, of

TOPOGRAPHY OF PROVINCES . 9

about seventeen or eighteen islands ; the largest island is Ting-hae,

or the Great Chusan. The harbours are Cha-poo, Hang-choo,

Ning-po, Ting-hae, Ship-po, Wan-choo, and Tae-choo.

HOO - PIH AND HU- NAN, formerly Hoo -kwang, borders to the

N. on the province of Ho-nan ; the S. on Kwang-tung (Canton)

and Kwang-se ; to the E. upon Kiang-nan andKiang-si ; and

the W. upon Shen-se, Sze-chuen, and Kwei-choo ; and extends

from lat. 24° 45′ to 33° 20' , and from long . W. of Peking,

0° 20′ to 8°. It is divided by the Yangtzekang into two

parts, the northern being called the Hoo-pih, the southern the

Hu-nan . The former is the largest. The Yangtzekang in

its serpentine course receives the Han- Keang : there are several

rivers, which flow near the city of Han Yang, into the same river.

The large and numerous lakes in the neighbourhood of the Yang

tzekang have given the name to this province. This province is

as well watered as any in China .

SHEN- SE AND KANSUH (west of the Pass) previous to the reign

of Keen-lung, were only one province. These provinces extend

from lat. 32° to 40′ and from longitude W. of Peking, 5° 25′ to

17°. They border to the N. upon Mongolia, to the S. upon Hoo

pih and Sze-chuen , to the E. upon Shan-se, and to the W. upon

Mongolia and Soungaria ; the Great Wall runs along its northern

frontiers. Several mountain ridges pass through Shen-se . The

river Hwang-ho flows along the great wall, crossing it twice before

it takes its course into Mongolia. The Wei-ho, one r of the large

rivers in China, flows into the Yellow River in lat . 34° 40′ . The

Han-ho, and Kin-tsin-ho rise in Shen-se and run into Hoo-pih.

SZE -CHUEN , anciently called Sishu, the westernmost and largest

of all the Chinese provinces, extends from lat. 25° 57′ to 33 °, and

from long. W. of Peking, 6° 50′ to 15° 43'. It borders to the N.

upon Shen- se ; to the S. upon Yun-nan and Kwei-choo ; to the

Ŵ. upon the territory of the Kokonor Tartars and the country of

the Tufans ; and the E. upon Hu-nan and Hoo-pih. The Yang

tzekang river travels all through this province. All the other

rivers in the province, (which are numerous) fall into that noble

stream .

KWANG -TUNG, (i.e. Canton, " Eastern -breadth," -also called Yue

tung,) extends from lat. 20° 13′ to 25° 34′, and from long. E. of

Peking 0° 53′ to long. W. of Peking. It borders to the N. upon

Keang-se and Fo-keen ; S. upon the ocean ; E. upon Foo-keen ; W.

upon Hu-nan, Kwang-se, and Ton- quin, from which it is separated

by the Gan-nan River, the natural boundary .

The south-western chain of mountains runs along its northern

boundaries and the Mei-ling mountain, through which a road is

cut. The principal islands along the coast are Hae-nan, to the

south, and the Ladrone group , to which Hong-kong belongs . The

island of Hae-nan is mountainous , extends about fifty leagues in a

N.E. and S.W. direction, and is about thirty-five leagues in breadth ;

10 TOPOGRAPHY OF PROVINCES .

its N.W. and W. coasts are said to be skirted with shoal banks

extending six or seven leagues from the shore. There are seve

ral fine harbours on the south coast . The island of " Namoa,'‫در‬

(under the government of Canton) , is thirteen miles in length , and

about three in breadth . The eastern point of the island is in lat .

23° 28′ N., and long. 116° 59′ 30″ E .; it has two mountains, con

nected by a low isthmus . The province is well watered ; the chief

river is called Choo -keang, (Pearl River,) on which the capital

(Canton) is situated. East of Canton is the Tung-keang ; W. the

Yang-keang ; Chaou- choo-foo is situated on the Han -keang, a con

siderable river.

KWANG- SE (called formerly Yuesi) extends from 21° 50′ 15″ lat. ,

from long. W. of Peking, 4° 10' to 12°. It borders towards the

N. upon Kwei-choo and Hu-nan ; E. upon Kwang-tung (Canton) ;

W. upon Yun-nan ; and S. upon Canton and Ton- quin, a province

in Cochin China, formerly in the possession of the Chinese ; brass

pillars mark the boundary. The chief river is the Sang-koi , which

annually overflows its banks. Kwang-se has numerous small rivers

+ which flow between its mountains.

YUN-NAN (anciently called Tien) extends from lat . 21° 40′ to 28°;

from 10° 30′ to 18° 50′ long . W. of Peking. It borders towards

the N. upon Sze-chuen ; towards the E. on Kwei- choo and Kwang

se ; W. upon Tibet, and the territory of savage nations ; S. upon

Ava, Laos, and Ton -quin . Yun-nan is separated from Sze-chuen

on the N. by the Kin-sha-keang. The Mei-nan-korn, Kew-lung

keang, are all rivers of considerable breadth, and disembogue them

selves, the former in the gulph of Cambodia, the latter near Bang

kok. In the centre of the province are four lakes, the largest,

Shang-kwan, is about thirty miles long. The mountains are bold

and steep. The westernmost city is called Ta-le, situated in the

Se-urh, a lake which gives rise to the Ho-te River. It runs into

Ton-quin.

KWEI - CHOO ( or " rich district," anciently Land of Kien ,) extends

from lat. 24° 40' to 29°, and from long. W. of Peking 7° 17′ to

12° 36'. It borders towards the N. upon Sze-chuen ; S. upon the

Kwang-se and Yun-nan ; towards the E. upon Hu-nan ; and to

wards the W. upon Sze-chuen . It is a wild mountainous coun

try . There are several large rivers which intersect the province .

The principal rivers are the Woo -keang, Chang-keho, and the

Shin - ho . It may be seen from the foregoing how little we really

know of this vast Empire, but a few remarks on some of the cities

in the north of China will indicate how erroneously we have re

stricted our intercourse to Canton, and the more southern pro

vinces .

Not less than five cities of the first order, among which are the

celebrated ones of Su-chaw and Hang- Chew, are situated on the

banks of that part of the Grand Canal, between the basin at Hang

Chew, and its junction with the Yangtzekang, a distance of only

CHIEF CITIES - SUCHAW . 11

200 miles ; besides Nankin, and Tong-Kiang foo, and Hew-Chewfoo,

with many other innumerable cities and towns .

Suchaw was recently visited by one of the commercial deputies

attached to the French mission, and ought to have been explored

by British enterprize. It is two days distant from the sea, acces

sible only by inland water communication ; is the second city of

the province of Kiangsoo, and the residence of a governor. Shang

hai is merely its port, and may be compared to Gravesend or

Greenock, in comparison to London or Glasgow. Yet our inter

course is restricted to Shanghai . The situation is beautiful ; the

country all around very pleasant ; the climate delightful, and it is

represented to be the most populous city of the empire. From

Shanghai the route is through cities and villages ; not a yard of

ground is left uncultivated . The country around is flat, the soil of

a rich alluvial character. Cotton, silk, rice, wheat, rye, barley,

and vegetables, are the productions . The intercommunication is

carried on by means of rivers, canals, and lakes, surrounded by

the most flourishing vegetation .

The mulberry, the tallow tree, the black bamboo, green willow,

the paper tree, cypress, the pine, and the wide-spreading banian

tree, all flourish. Machines, moved by men or buffaloes, keep up

constant irrigation : granite sluices are constructed for the same

purpose : all the canals are full of boats, lighters, and junks ,

laden with grain, fruit and other products . Suchaw, like

Hangchew, is not only a town of large commerce and silk-manu

factures, it is also devoted to pleasure . The Chinese say, "Above is

Paradise, below Suchaw ; to be happy on earth, one must be born

here, live in Canton, and die in Lian-chau." Suchaw has a high

reputation in every part of China for its splendid marble buildings,

the elegance of its tombs, the number of its granite bridges, and

artificial canals, gardens, streets and quays ; as also for the

politeness of its inhabitants, and especially for the beauty of the

• female sex .

It is said that the city contains one million of inhabitants,

and that there is another million in the vicinity. Indeed there

are several towns included in one, comprising what is called

Suchaw the city proper, is inclosed with high walls, which are

about ten miles in circumference ; the suburbs are four dis

tinct towns, about ten miles in length, and nearly the same in

breadth ; the population living on the waters is also very great.

Lord Macartney passed through this beautiful city, and fully

confirms the foregoing statement. His boats were nearly three

hours passing the suburbs before they reached the city walls . In

one building-yard, not less than sixteen vessels of 200 tons each

were observed on the stocks. The intelligent and adventurous

Mr. Fortune, agent for the Horticultural Society, whom I had

the pleasure to meet in the North of China, and to accompany to

Ningpo, attempted to enter the city, without success , The French

12 CHIEF CITIES- HAUCHEW.

government were anxious to learn some information on the mul

berry, and silk-manufacture, and a Mr. Isadore Hedde traversed

the city and suburbs in a silk dress, and was not discovered .

He visited the Mint, and all the public buildings, examined

the great and extensive manufacturing locality in the western

portion of the city, where there are manufactories of iron, ivory,

bone, gold, silver, glass, paper, cotton and silk ; and saw them

making that beautiful silk called (Keh Sz' , ) the knowledge of

which is confined to Suchaw : M. Hedde says it surpasses any

thing known in Europe in its representation of figures and flowers .

M. Hedde ascended the Tiger- nose hill Pagoda, from whence he

had a good view of the town, the fortifications, the great imperial

canal, rivers, streams, and pools which intersect the city ; at the

foot of the hill he saw beautiful shops of every description .

The enterprizing Frenchman who undertook this interesting

exploration (for which an Englishman would be liable to deporta

tion and penalties by his own government, under our mistaken

policy,) passed along the imperial canal, among elegant boats

conducted by young girls, richly dressed, and having their heads

decked with gold and flowers and among several junks laden

with the imperial revenues . He saw fields of mulberry trees, and

learned the mode of their cultivation, visited several establishments

and observed the ingenious apparatus for avoiding double cocoons,

the simple process for reeling the fine white silk, named t's ih li,

and the well known seven cocoon thread .

The city of Hang-chew is situated between the basin of the

Grand Canal and the river Yangtzekang, which flows into the

sea about sixty miles eastward of the city. The tide, when full,

increases the width of the river about four miles opposite to the

city. At low water there is a level strand two miles broad . All

goods brought by sea into the river from the southward, as well as

whatever comes from the lakes and rivers of Che-kiang and Fo

kien , must be landed at this city in their way to the northward ;

the city is therefore the general emporium between the northern

and southern provinces.

The population of this city is supposed to be equal to that of

Peking. It is the residence of the viceroy, and the capital of the

province of Che-keang, which produces more silk than all the other

districts of the empire ; not less than 60,000 workmen of this

article are said to be employed within the walls of the city .

The town of Han-ken, situated in the northern division of the

province of Hou-quang, i.e. Hoo -pih, ranks next the above-named

cities, in the estimation of the Chinese at Canton, as a place of

trade . The city of Vu-chang, is the centre of China, and the

place from whence it is the easiest to keep open a communication

with the rest of the provinces . This city, in conjunction with

Hang-yang (only separated by the Yangtzekang) forms the most

populous and frequented portion of China. The two cities may

CHAPOO AND CHAUCHEW . 13

be compared to Paris and Lyons in size, &c. The Yangtzekang

is here 150 leagues from the sea, yet it is three miles wide, and

deep enough for vessels of any size ; the number of vessels navi

1

gating the river is incredible.

CHAPOO is situated on the northern side of the great bay of Hang 1

chew, in the province of Che-keang, it is a place of considerable

trading importance, and the only port from which the trade between

China and Japan is permitted .

During the war, when our troops took possession of this place,

the well-known policy of the Chinese government was clearly

developed. Like all the considerable cities of China, the Tartar

troops had a portion of the city allotted to themselves, which is

surrounded by a wall. The style of the houses are of mixed cha

racter, some being small and others of a more spacious dimension.

One, in particular, was every way suited as a residence for some

distinguished personage. Each is detached , and surrounded with

a wall of about seven feet high, and almost every yard has a well

sunk very deep . The walls of the houses are constructed of brick,

which is plastered and whitened . The average number of the

houses consisted of only two apartments, with a kitchen at the

rear ; the furniture consisted of tables, chairs, and a kind of side

board, together with presses, and wardrobes which were well sup

plied with female habiliments. Every where was seen the comforts,

if not the elegancies, of life.

The Mantchou Emperor, Yung-ching, in 1730, devoted great

attention to the defences of Chapoo, and provided it with a garrison

of 2,000 men, 1,500 matchlocks, 30,000 arrow-men, and a regular

armoury .

CHANG- CHEW, is a large city in the province of Foo-keen, about

thirty-six miles from Amoy, which is merely the port of Chang

chow, from which we are excluded — or, rather, from which we have

voluntarily excluded ourselves . The city lies in a valley nearly em

bosomed in hills, with a river running through it, surrounded by a

wall, inside of which it is thickly planted with trees of large dimen

sions . The population is said to exceed 800,000, independent of

the suburbs .

From an eminence near the city a large plain may be seen,

about thirty miles long and nearly twenty broad, on which there

are not less than eighty villages teeming with an agricultural popu

lation . The streets of the city are from ten to twelve feet wide, some

of them well paved.

The shops are numerous, and appeared well stocked with a

coarse description of goods much resembling those of Canton .

The houses are fronted with wood, with brick side-walls, and gene

rally about two stories high. The crowds and bustle in the streets

prove the city to be populous. The bridges over the river are two

in number ; one of them is built on twenty- six piles of stone about

thirty feet apart and twenty feet each in height ; beams are laid

>

14 PEKING THE CAPITAL.

from pile to pile, and others across, and then paved with granite

blocks, some of which extend from pile to pile in length ; a few

may be seen full forty feet long and two-and- a-half broad : the

width of the bridge is about nine feet, and full one half is covered

with shops and cooking stalls . The temples are large, and spacious

1 grounds are attached to them ; they are said to be one thousand

} years old, and have every appearance of great antiquity : the idols

are large, averaging from ten to sixteen feet high, cut out of granite .

There are two large cities on the Canton River of which we know

nothing, and there must be many wealthy and populous towns of

which we are entirely ignorant, and likely to continue so unless we

adopt a wiser policy.

Peking, the capital of the Chinese Empire, stands on a

vast plain in the interior of the province of Chih-li, the most

northern province of China Proper. It is situated in lat . 39° 55′

N., and in long. 116° 45′ E. from Greenwich and about 3° 30′ E.

of Canton . On the E. and S. the sandy plain extends farther

than the eye can reach ; on the W. and N. hills begin to rise

above the plain only a few miles from the walls of the city ; a

short distance beyond, the prospect is bounded by mountains

which separate Chih- li from Mantchouria. From the Great Wall,

which passes along upon this ridge of mountains, Peking is about

fifty miles distant ; and about 100 miles from the gulph of Chih-li .

The Pei-ho river rising in the N. near the Great Wall, flows within

twelve miles of the city on the E. and passes down in a S. E.

direction by Tientsin into the sea. Some small rivers issuing

from the mountains on the N. W. water a part of the plain ; one

of them, Tunghwuy, descends to the city and supplies its numerous

canals and tanks ; it then flows eastward, and uniting with one of

the larger rivers, forms an extensive water communication, by

which the city is supplied with provisions. The style of the archi

tecture and general appearance of the buildings is similar to that of

Canton, except that the streets are rather wider, and generally run

straight, but they are not paved . The multitude of moveable work

shops of tinkers , barbers, cobblers, and blacksmiths ; and the tents

and booths where eatables are exposed for sale, contract a spacious.

street to a narrow path .

The northern division of Peking, consists of three inclosures, one

within another, each surrounded by its own wall. The first con

tains the imperial palace and the abodes of the different members

of the imperial household ; the second was designed for the resi

dence of the officers of the court, but is now occupied by Chinese

merchants ; the third consists of the space inclosed by the outer

walls, and was formerly inhabited by Tartar soldiers ; but is now

in the possession of Chinese shop-keepers and traders .

The first enclosure (" forbidden city ") is the most splendid and

important part of Peking . It is situated nearly in the centre of

the northern division of the city. It is an oblong parallelogram

PEKING PALACES . 15

about two miles in circumference, and enclosed by a wall nearly

thirty feet high. This wall is built of polished red brick, sur

rounded by a ditch lined with hewn stone, and covered with

varnished tiles of a brilliant yellow, which gives it the appearance,

when seen under the rays of the sun, of being covered with a roof

of gold. The interior of this inclosure is occupied by a suite of

court-yards and apartments, which, it is said, for beauty and splen

dour cannot be surpassed . It is divided into three parts, the

eastern, middle and western . The middle division contains the

imperial buildings, which are subdivided into several distinct

palaces. They are represented by the Jesuits as perfect models

of architecture .

The gates and halls are thus described :

1. The Meridian Gate ! Before this gate on the E. is a lunar

dial, and on the W. a solar, and in the tower above it a large bell

and gong. All public officers enter and leave the palace by the

eastern avenue ; none but the princes of the imperial blood are

permitted to pass the western, and none but the emperor the

southern avenue. At this gate are distributed the presents to

embassies ; and all war captives are here received by His Majesty

in person .

2. The Gate of Peace has five avenues, and is a superb building

of white marble . The height of the basement is twenty feet, and

the whole edifice one hundred and ten . The ascent to it is by

five flights of forty steps each, and it is highly ornamented with

tripods and other figures in bronze . Here, on all the holidays

and on the anniversary of the emperor's birth-day, he receives the

congratulations of his officers, who prostrate themselves to the

earth before him, and strike the ground with their foreheads.

3. The Hall of Perfect Peace. Here the emperor comes to

examine the implements prepared for the annual ceremony of

ploughing.

4. The Hall of Secure Peace ; in this the Emperor gives a banquet

to his foreign guests on new year's day.

5. The Tranquil Palace of Heaven, i.e. of the Emperor . This is a

private retreat, to which no one can approach without special per

mission. This palace is described by the Russians, who have had

many opportunities of seeing it, as " the loftiest, richest, and most

magnificent of all the palaces." On each side of the tower is a

large copper vessel, in which incense is burnt day and night.

6. The Palace of Earth's Repose, i.e. of the Empress , which is said

to be very beautiful ; adjoining this is the imperial flower garden,

which is laid out in walks for Her Majesty, who being a Tartar,

has not adopted the Chinese custom of crippling her feet, and

therefore is said to enjoy herself in what is called "Earth's Repose ."

In this garden is a library, said to contain a collection of all the

books published in China.

Hwang-ching, another imperial city, constitutes the second en

16 PEKING PALACES .

closure, and surrounds the " forbidden city." It is about six miles

in circumference, and surrounded by a wall twenty feet high. It

has four large gates . Tae-meaou, " the great temple," is dedicated

to the ancestors of the reigning family. The outer wall, which

includes several buildings, is about 3,000 feet in circumference.

Near the eastern gate of the forbidden city is a depository of

military stores : and a vast number of workshops for their manu

facture. Northward from these is the Russian College, designed to

furnish interpreters for the government in its intercourse with

Russia.

Kingshan, an artificial mountain, is situated directly N. from

the imperial palace. Its base is said to consist of coal, which is

kept in reserve in case of siege, and its surface is the earth dug

from the ditches that surround the walls . It is about 150 feet in

height, and encircled by a wall . It has five summits lying east

and west from each other. This mountain is planted and laid out

in shady walks .

The western part of this enclosure is ornamented with an arti

ficial lake, more than a mile in length, and about one-eighth of a

mile in breadth . The lake is crossed by a bridge of nine arches,

200 paces in length, and ten feet wide, built of white marble.

This lake is represented by the Missionaries as " a most enchanting

place . "

Near the western gardens is a temple consecrated to the

discoverer of the silk worm, reputed to have been the wife of

the Emperor Hwang-te, who, according to Chinese history,

reigned long previous to our era. The empress, and other great

ladies of the court, assist in tending the worms, in order to encou

rage this branch of industry . The moveable type printing office

is on the east side of the gardens ; these types were formerly cast

in copper, like so many seals . In the reign of Kang-he, a collec

tion of books was printed with these types, forming in all 10,000

sheets, which is bound into 500 volumes.

The imperial city contains a great many palaces, temples, and

other public edifices, independent of those noticed here. The

Roman Catholic Missionaries reckon the number of palaces alone

ea

in this division, and in the forbidden city, at two hundred ; " ch

palace large enough to accommodate the most wealthy European

nobleman ! " In the third and outer inclosure, which constitutes

the remainder of the northern division, are situated five of the six

supreme tribunals of the empire ; the Board of Civil Office ; the

Board of Revenue ; the Board of Rites ; the Board of War ; the

Board of Public Works ; and the Board of Punishments .

At the distance of about ten miles west and north-west from

the city are several extensive gardens, with thirty distinct places

of residences for the emperor and the officers of state, whose pre

sence is occasionally required . Each of those constitute a con

siderable village, which are occupied by eunuchs, servants, and His

PEKING AND TIEN -TSIN . 17

majesty's artificers : but these imperial abodes scarcely deserve the

appellation of palaces. All the palaces of the emperor are filled with

eunuchs, who are required to look after the gardens, and attend

on the harem.

Peking is sustained by its being the seat of government. It

has no trade, except that which is produced by the wants of its

numerous inhabitants, who are said to amount to between two and

three millions, including those that live in the suburbs . The

country around Peking is less productive than many other parts

of China. The provisions and manufactured goods required by

the inhabitants are conveyed by the Grand Canal. Beef and

mutton are brought from Mongolia ; and coals from the mountains

of the north-west. A considerable portion of the taxes levied

upon the productions of the whole empire, is paid in kind, and is

here stored up ; the amount of rice alone in these granaries, at one

portion of the year, is enormous ; but they are often empty before

the new crop is gathered , so that a great many die for want of

food . The large establishment of the emperor, and the numerous

persons in the employment of the government, who are paid out

of the public revenue, absorb a great portion of the grain .

Tien-tsin, situated in the province of Chih-le, on the right bank

of the Peiho, about thirty miles up the river, is the emporium of

the capital,. not two days' journey from Peking, and is one of

the richest trading places in the empire. The junks of Siam,

Cochin-China, and the south of China Proper, (Keang-nan and

Shan-tung) , may be seen here for miles together, as close as they

can possibly stow, from June to October. Near the city, the

Great Canal joins the Peiho, and thus it is the resort of some

thousands of grain junks. The chief article for sale here is salt,

which may be seen piled in mounds for miles , on the north side

of the river ; it is chiefly procured in the eastern and southern

provinces, several thousand boats are constantly engaged in its

transport. Mr. Barrow calculated the quantity he saw in 1816, to

be six hundred millions of pounds in weight.

The land in the vicinity yields few productions , and the only

articles manufactured are a coarse kind of woollen cloth, tapestry,

and glass. Woollens and furs are large articles of import, and all

transactions are paid for in silver and in bills of exchange on the

southern provinces. The few privileged salt merchants who reside

here live in the style of princes . The city, with all its wealth and

extensive trade, has a miserable appearance , from the government

prohibiting the use of bricks in building their houses . Tien -tsin

ought to have been one of our consular ports ; and by prudent

negotiation we may yet be enabled to establish a trade there, to

supply Peking and Tartary with our manufactures, and especially

with woollen cloths, which are worn for six months, at least, by

those who do not use furs, skins, or wadded garments .

с

18

CLIMATE OF CHINA.

The varied latitude and elevation of China must necessarily pro

duce great difference of temperature ; but China, being situated on

the eastern side of a great continent, is subject to the usual ex

tremes of heat and cold . Peking is said to be most salubrious ;

the frost usually sets in about the middle of December, and remains

for about two months . The heat in June and July is very great ;

in September the thermometer is 96 in the shade, yet this month

is considered the most pleasant in the year. The refreshing

showers that fall during the hottest weather mitigate the direful

effects of the intense heat : altogether the climate of China may

be said to be as varied as its surface . The rivers of the northern

provinces, and particularly the Yellow River, are covered with ice,

(which becomes an article of commerce) and communication to the

interior is stopped by the frost. Europeans who have lived in China

for years, feel the cold weather much more penetrating than what

is experienced in Europe, which is accounted for by the large

quantities of nitre with which the earth is charged . The heat in

summer causes , in the south, a dampness on the walls and pillars

of most buildings. Canton and Macao are the only portions of

China in which Europeans have had a long opportunity of judging

of the climate ; and it appears that 70° of Fahrenheit is the average

temperature of Canton and Macao : October and April give nearly

the mean heat of the year. Vegetation ceases from the first week

in November to February, during which period scarcely any rain

falls . In the month of May the fall of rain has exceeded eighteen

inches, being a fourth of the year. On the whole, the climate of

China Proper is much the same as that of Asia in general. The

number of people met with of an advanced age in the northern pro

vinces, is the best proof that the air is salubrious and bracing ; it

neither approximates to the rigour of the northern regions, nor to

the wasting influence of the southern . The tropical monsoons do

not extend much beyond Canton City. The ty-foons only occur

during the hottest months, about August or September : they are

equally as destructive as the West Indian tornadoes, the extensive

sea-coast appears to conduct the wind . Along the extensive chan

nel of Formosa, N. E. winds are prevalent for full eight months

out of twelve . The winds in the interior are conducted by the

vast chains of mountains.

CHINESE DEPENDENCIES .

The provinces or countries dependent on or contiguous to China

are so little known that a connected statement may be useful.

Soungaria and Eastern Turkeston, called Chinese Tartary, is

separated from China by the Teenshan , or Celestial Mountains .

The district extends from lat . 47° 30′ N. to 33° 30′, and from 22°

DEPENDENT PROVINCES OF CHINA . 19

23′ W. of Peking to 42° 25' . It is bounded on the N. by the

Altai Mountains, which separate it from the Kirghis territory, the

Chamor Mountains, and River Irtish ; on the N. E. from the

Mongolian district, Oulai- Soutai ; to the E. it borders on Kansuh,

in China Proper ; the Kwanben and Kobi separate Turkestan from

Tibet ; and the Belour Mountains from Buckharia.

The whole of this territory, up to the year 1772, was in the pos

session of the Kalmucks, or Eleuths ; and each district was

governed by a chief (turah) . The Emperor Keen -lung conquered,

and successfully governed the whole province . In 1833, a descend

ant of the ancient princes, Jehangir Khojeh, took advantage of

the unpopularity of the Chinese government, and rose in rebellion,

aided by a large body of Khirgiz, and 8,000 troops from the Khan

of Kokan. Kashgar was taken from the Chinese, who, it is said,

lost a large army. One victory followed another, so that the whole

of the territory was in Jehangir's possession for more than seven

months .

From the tyranny and oppression practised by the new ruler,

he became unpopular ; and the Chinese returning with a large

force, Ishak Khojeh, a chief of some Kashgar tribes, betrayed his

ally to the Chinese, who sent him to Peking, where he was exe

cuted . The betrayer was made Prince of Kashgar by the Emperor

of China ; and on visiting Peking, the following year, never re

turned . He is said to have been poisoned , the government being

afraid of his influence .

Chinese Tartary contains many towns, the chief are : Yarkand,

Kashgar, Oksei, Ele, Yengi Hissar, Ooch Turfan, and Koneh Turfan,

(called Hami,) Gummi, and Lopp.

Yarkand is the capital of a large territory. The population of

Yarkand is said to be 80,000 families : there are resident in Yar

kand 200 Chinese merchants ; but many others visit it at stated

times . A considerable number of Tungani merchants are perma

nently settled there . The Tungani are Mussulmans, and said to

be descended from the soldiers of Alexander the Great, who pushed

his conquests as far as Solar. (Tungani signifies " left behind ," or

CC

looking back .") It has two forts of large extent ; one of them sur

rounded with a mud wall. There are 300 Tartar, and 600 Chinese

soldiers. Horse-flesh sells for the same price as mutton . Yarkand

is surrounded by a number of towns and villages, which are very

populous. Traffic is very active, as Chinese traders from Shanse,

Shense, Keagnan, and Chekeang, proceed thither to meet traders

from various countries not governed by China.

The productions of Yarkand are wheat, rice, barley, and a variety

of seeds, from which oil is extracted . Fruit and vegetables are very

abundant. Raw silk is cultivated in large quantities : but the

staple article is the wool of the shawl goat (aklehah) ; the dumba,

sheep with a large tail, is abundant. The celebrated jade - stone is

found near Yarkand in large quantities. About 10,000 lbs . weight

c 2

20 DEPENDENCIES- KASHGAR, ELE .

of the spotless yu is sent annually to the Emperor, from a neigh

bouring mountain. Private individuals are prohibited trading in

this gem. The customs produce 35,000 taels of silver annually ;

30 taels of gold, 35,000 sacks of corn, 800 measures of oil, and

1649 taels for military expenses . The Mahomedans furnish 57,569

pieces of linen, 15,000 lbs. of cotton, 1,400 linen sacks, 1,300

hempen ropes, and 3,000 lbs . of copper ; all of which is sent to

Ele.

Kashgar is a large frontier town on the N.W. extremity of

Se-Yu, beyond the snowy mountains, distant about five days'

journey from Yarkand, and was the ancient capital of the province,

until the late rebellion , since which time it is declining . The city

contains about 15,000 inhabitants . There are constantly 8,000

Chinese troops quartered in and around the city. It has also an

Usbeck chief, with a nominal authority. The Chinese government

keep a close watch on the Khan of Kokan. The country is fertile :

the Mahomedans contribute every year 3,600 small carpets ; 3,600

taels of silver ; 14,000 sacks of grain ; and 10,000 pieces of linen ;

all of which are sent to Ele. Large quantities of gold and silver

brocades are manufactured and sent to the emperor. Merchandise

pays a custom-duty of one-tenth . There are eight towns dependent

on the chief officer of Kashgar.

Yengi Hissar lies half way between Yarkand and Kashgar.

Oksu is N.E. from Yarkand, and distant about twenty days'

caravan travelling. It is a large commercial mart, for the produc

tions of China and Russian Tartary. Coined silver is the circu

lating medium (tankeh) . There are 2,000 Chinese troops stationed

here. The population of the town is said to be 20,000 families .

The country around produces great abundance of provisions ;

there are large herds of cattle, sheep , camels, and horses ; the

Mahomedans collect from every quarter for trade, and much com

fort prevails among the people .

Eela or Ele is situated N. of Oksu, distant twenty-five days'

journey, and forty from Yarkand . It is a walled town, and is the

penal settlement of China. The climate is destructive to the con

stitution of the Chinese ; a Tartar general has charge of the civil

as well as military administration .

Kouche is N.W. of Oksu, and S. of Ele, and three months'

journey from the Russian frontier. The inhabitants are chiefly

Kalmuks, who follow a pastoral life . Great quantities of cattle

are reared . It is called the eastern gate of China .

Ooch Turfan is two days' journey from Yarkand. Konih Turfan ,

called Hami, two months' journey from Yarkand, is a place of

great trade in all kinds of merchandize ; it is governed by two

great officers and 1,000 soldiers, and is four le * in circumference .

* The Chinese le, or measure of distance , varies in the north and south of China,

those of the south being the longest : 200 le are said to be equal to a degree of latitude.

DEPENDENCIES, GOVERNMENT. 21

Lopp is two months ' journey from Yarkand, and is inhabited by

Chinese principally .

Gummi lies between Yarkand and Eelchi (in Khoten) .

Khoten . This country contains many large towns, Karakash,

Eelchi, and Kirrea, with many others . Karakash is the capital,

within ten days' journey from Yarkand, and twenty days' from

Tibet. It is governed by two Chinese Umbauns, or residents, to

whom are subordinate two Usbeck Karims ; one in Eelchi, and the

other in Kirrea. The taxable subjects are estimated at 700,000 .

The military force is 2,000 . The country is flat, and the soil very

productive. The Yu (jade) is found in considerable quantities .

Eelchi is twelve days' journey from Yarkand .

Kirrea is about five days' journey from Eelchi. The Chinese

government work the gold mines here, and monopolize the pro

duce. The sand of the river is said to contain a large portion of

gold. The commercial intercourse is with Yarkand, and is very

considerable in silk, gold- dust, grapes, raisins, &c . Caravans come

from the Russian frontier vid Eela, Oksu, and Kouche, and bring

broad cloth, brocades, furs, and steel ; and take in return, tea,

rhubarb, sal- ammoniac, &c.

About ten days' journey from Oksu are two very high moun

tains ; the valley between them is covered for a considerable depth

with sal-ammoniac . During the eruptions, (the natives call it

God's fire), the sal-ammoniac falls like a mist, and in winter be

comes crystallized .

Near Yarkand is a river called Zurufshan, which is frozen over

three months in the winter .

Chinese Tartary is subject to the extremes of cold and heat; but

except on the mountains snow is never seen in the capital . Rain

does not fall more than three or four times in the year.

About the year 1832 the country was much ravaged by earth

quakes and the cholera.

We know very little of this region, which separates China

Proper from the Russian territories, and may ere long be the

battle-field between the two empires, if Peking be made the " Con

stantinople, " or place of intrigue, for the Muscovite policy.

The government of Soungaria and Turkestan is of three kinds :

-1st. In the easternmost districts of Soungaria, Barkoul, and

Orountchi, it is much the same as China, and these districts have

been incorporated with the province of Kansuh ; 2nd. In the west

ern districts around Ele , where the Chinese convicts are sent, it is

strictly military, being occupied by Mantchou troops, who are

considered as inhabitants of the soil ; they are commanded by a

general and subordinate officers, whose authority extends to the

eastern districts, and to Turkestan ; in Turkestan, the government

is left in the hands of the native nobles, who are Begs of different

degrees of rank, under the control of Chinese residents at the

principal cities.

22 MONGOLIA DEPENDENCY .

MONGOLIA .— The eastern boundary of Mongolia is the Tchitchi

har district of Mantchouria ; to the N. it is separated from Siberia

by the Altai Mountains ; to the S. it has the Chinese Great Wall ;

to the W. it borders on the government of Ele and Kan-suh pro

vince . It is situated to the N.W. of Tibet, whilst Kokonor stretches

along the western boundaries of Sz -chuen province. It extends

from lat. 34° to 55° N. , and from east of Peking, 5° to 20° W.; it is

about 1,400 miles in length, and 1,000 in breadth .

The government of Mongolia remains, for the most part, in the

hands of the native princes . The male population is enrolled, and

formed into bodies called Ke, the same as the Mantchou troops,

who are called Pa-ke. Each ke is under a tchassak, or dzassak,

who is hereditary. The tchassaks are all nobles . The ke, or stan

dards, are united into corps, over which a commander-general

and a deputy preside . There are six such corps in Inner Mongo

lia, four in Outer Mongolia, and eight between Kokonor and Ou

liasoutai on the Russian frontier . The ke are sub-divided into

companies. In a few districts in Mongolia, in place of the tchassak,

either generals or residents are put at the head of the government .

There are two residents in Outer Mongolia, at Kourun, for regu

lating the intercourse of the Chinese, Mongols, and Russians.

Notwithstanding their anxiety, the Tartar government are quite

ignorant of the amount of the population of the Mongols. Each

Mongol prince engages to furnish to China from four to twenty

squadrons, each consisting of 150 horsemen. Taking thirteen

squadrons as an average for each banner, it appears that the

forty-nine banners of the southern Mongols, or Kalkas, formed a

total amount of 260,000 men ; and eight banners of the Tsakhars,

which are estimated at 24,000 men. This return was made after

the great struggle between the Soungarians and Chinese ; ever since

that period ( 1696) the Mongolians have had uninterrupted peace,

and the population must have increased .

It is said there are at least 500,000 tents, each of which contains

a soldier ; reckoning four to each family, the total population would

be 2,000,000 .

In the northern part of Mongolia there is an abundance of tim

ber, such as the pine, fir, larch, and poplar ; the elm is very com

mon. The Selengar, Orchou, Iro, Khara, and other rivers abound .

in fish ; such as salmon, sturgeon, trout, pike, and various other

kinds. The quadrupeds are wild boars, wild horses , bears, wolves ,

hares, sables, foxes, and squirrels . The birds are cranes, geese,

All

ducks, quails, and swans. The horse is small, but strong.

the camels of Mongolia have two humps ; those of Gobi are very

large and strong. The sheep, which are all white, constitute the

riches of the Mongols, and supply them with milk and meat, their

only subsistence . Millet, barley, and wheat, are sown in small

quantities.

MANTCHOURIA . - The Mantchous, who now govern China, are

MANTCHOURIA DEPENDENCY . 23

said to be of Tongouse origin ; and have scarcely existed more than

three centuries as a distinct and independent nation . Their coun

try is mountainous and barren, and thinly populated. It was for

merly divided among a number of petty chieftains , who seldom

remained long at peace with each other. Hence, the people be

came more hardy and vigorous than their neighbours, the Chinese ;

and at a period when the empire was torn by dissensions be

tween the imperial princes, and revolts among the people, a Mant

chou chieftain began to attack China, over which, after thirty

years' warfare, in the middle of the seventeenth century, the Mant

chons obtained the dominion they now hold, under the title of the

Tat-sing dynasty.

The Mantchou territory is divided in three provinces, viz .:

Shingking, or Moukden (the ancient Leaoutung) ; 2. Kirin ; and

3. Kihlung-keang, or Tsitsihar . The first of these borders on

China, Mongolia, and the gulf of Pechilee, or of Leaoutung ; the

second on Corea, and the sea of Japan ; and the third, on Siberia

and Mongolia .

Mantchouria is situated between 29° and 55° north lat. and from

the meridian of Peking to 30° 20′ E. To the north it borders Si

beria, from which it is separated by the Daourian Mountains ; the

River Kerbechi constitutes the natural boundary. The boundary

line between Mantchouria and Mongolia is a wooden wall, running

from the Great Wall along the N.E. boundaries of Leaoutung ;

the frontiers take then a N.W. direction, along the Songaria and

other rivers, to Kobi, and the territory of the Kalkas. On the E.

it borders on the channel of Tartary and the Japan Sea ; on the S.,

the Yellow Sea and Corea. The extent from N. to S. is about 700

miles ; from E. to W. 900. The principal rivers are the Amour, or

Segalien, Songari, the Noun, or Nonni, and Ousouri . The Sega

lien rises in Mongolia, and forms the boundary between Mongolia

and the Siberian province of Nertchinsk. The Songari rises in the

Chang-pih-shan, near the northern frontier of Corea ; running

N.E. by E. it unites in lat. 47° 50′, long. 16° 10′ with the Sega

lien . The Nonni rises near the inner Daourian Mountains, and

falls into the Songari . The Ousouri rises in the Seih-hih-tih

Mountains, and falls into the Amour .

The lakes of Mantchouria are the Hin-ka, situated in Kirin ;

the Hoo -rien and Pir, and several smaller ones . The Seih-hin-tih

Mountains lie along the sea- coast. The Daourian Mountains are

branches of the Stanovoy chain. These mountains form the

northern boundaries : they are high, and are covered with perpe

tual snow. Between Leaoutung and Corea are several other high

mountains .

The description of Mantchouria as given by the Emperor Keen

lung, may be correct, but it has been greatly improved since the

present dynasty came on the throne. He commences thus : " In

a space of ten thousand le (Chinese mile) you find a succession of

24 MANTCHOURIA , MOUKDEN ,

hills and vallies, parched lands and well irrigated territories, ma

jestic rivers, impetuous torrents, graceful streams, smiling plains,

and forests impenetrable to the rays of the sun. The Iron Moun

tain and the Ornamented Mountain are seen from a great distance.

Wheat returns the labour expended on it one hundred -fold ; fruits

are produced in great abundance. Gin-seng grows on all the

mountains . Leaoutung exports large quantities of wheat, peas,

rice, and rhubarb." The population are returned at 943,000,

which is considered too little. The Chinese residents far outnum

ber the Mantchous , who are both proud and indolent .

Moukden, the capital, is built on an eminence, in lat . 41 ° 56′, and

7° 11′ E. of Peking. Great efforts have been made by the Chinese

Sovereigns to make this a large and elegant city.

Kin- choo is a considerable emporium, in lat. 40° 10′, long. 4° 55'

E. of Peking. As a market, it ranks high for drugs, peas, and flour ;

upwards of 1000 junks obtain cargoes . Kae-choo, in the neigh

bourhood of the capital, in lat. 40° 30′, long. 6° E. of Peking, is a

place of great trade ; the produce of the surrounding country is

collected here, and exported to Fo-keen, Canton, and Keang-nan.

In the season, the mercantile activity is very great : the town is

nearly eight miles from the sea, and the merchandize is sent

thither by horses and carts . Fung-hwang-ching is the only em

porium between Manchouria and Corea. The Coreans are per

mitted this for the purpose of exchanging their paper and raw

produce for Chinese manufactures. The Corean commerce is so

much fettered by restrictions and heavy duties, that the trade is

almost stationary. The Chinese merchants have engrossed nearly

all the commerce of the place.

The government of the provinces of Mantchouria consists of a

supreme government at Moukden, and three provincial govern

ments. That of Moukden is the same as in China Proper, while

that of the other provinces is wholly military. The province of

Moukden includes two departments, that of Fungteen -foo, the

metropolitan department, and Hingking, or Kinchou-foo . These

are sub-divided into chow and heen districts, as in China . The

City of Moukden is not under a che-foo, but one of higher rank, .

called foo-yuen, who cooperates with one of the Boards in the govern

ment ofthe metropolitan department. His assistant has the direc

tion of the literary branch of the administration. The three eastern

provinces, Moukden, Kirin, and Tsitsihar, are under the govern

ment of a general, who is always a Mantchou . His subordinate

officers are lieutenant-generals, at the head of each principal divi

sion of the province. Subordinate to these are garrison officers, of

rank varying according to the importance of the districts under

them ; these delegate their authority to officers, or assistant direc

tors . The frontiers are under a separate class of officers .

The emigration to Mantchouria, from the province of Shan

tung, is very great, so that, in a few years, there will not be a spot

TIBET DEPENDENCY. 25

uncultivated. The summers are short, but very hot. The cold

weather commences in October, and the whole country is one sheet

of ice until March. The changes of heat to cold are sudden ;

within a few hours the thermometer falls from 40° to 10°. Fruits,

and even tropical productions, are grown to perfection . The

Chinese and Mantchoo languages are in use ; the latter is the lan

guage of the court.

Sagalien Island, or Tahoka, on the coast of Mantchouria, is repre

sented in Chinese maps as an island, with a small islet between it

and the main land . Late travellers represent the intervening

water to be so shallow, that the natives ford it. On the northern

side of the mouth of the river Amour, the Tartar- Chinese have a

town, and general mart (Tsetaleho) , to which the Chinese resort,

and carry on a large trade.

The extent of the rivers which disembogue at the mouth of the

Amour, is amazing ; and all the principal cities of eastern Tar

tary are accessible by them. They extend to upwards of 30° of

longitude. The river, nearest the sea, runs N.E. and has two

forked branches ; the one in the E. and W. direction, and the

other in the same direction, nearly, as the trunk or stem ; in Eu

ropean maps, it is called Songari. The stem and branch Songari,

which communicates with Kirin Ula, and Ningkuta, the principal

cities in Mantchou Tartary, the Chinese call Hwan-tung-keang, {

and the Japanese give the same name to the great stem which

enters the sea at Okotsk . The branch which lies E. and W.

extends beyond the Russian city Nipcha, and is called Hilung

keang (Dragon River) . This is the Amour of the Russians, and

the Sagalien of the Tartars.

ļ

TIBET DEPENDENCY.

TIBET may be considered as comprehending all the tract of

country from the eastern boundaries of Cashmere to the frontiers

of Kokonor, from long. W. of Peking 18° to 42°, and from lat. 28°

to 35°, Ladhak included . Its eastern frontiers are Sefan, Kokonor,

and Turkestan ; its northern, the government of Ele and Great

Bukharia ; its southern, Nepaul, Sikkim, and Bootan ; its western,

Bukharia and Cashmere. Its divisions are two, Anterior and

Ulterior Tibet ; by the Chinese it is called Se-tsang. Anterior

Tibet, called Lassa, is the most eastern part ; it borders upon

China, its capital is Lassa, and it contains eight cantons. Ulterior

Tibet, called Tes-hoo, Loomboo, and the Umdes, contains six

cantons, all situated to the west of the capital.

LASSA, in 30° 43′ north latitude, the chief city of Anterior

Tibet, is situated in an extensive valley, which is forty le from

N. to S., and about 450 le from E. to W. Under this name

is understood all the country Yuiba, which runs eastward to

Kamba, the greater part of which is incorporated with China.

26 LASSA, CAPITAL OF TIBET.

The district of Lassa is bounded on the east by the province of

Sze-chuen and Yun-nan ; in China proper, on the N.E., by Ko

konor ; on the N. by the Hwang-ho, or Yellow River ; on the

W. by the Western Sea, or Lake Terkiri ; on the S. by Tako . It

is stated that the numerous temples and splendid edifices, noble

strects, and large market places, prove it to be one of the most

flourishing cities of the West.

The next considerable city in Tibet to Lassa is Jiga-gounggar,

in the province of Wei, 104 le S.W. of Lassa, which contains 20,000

families . Its position is 29° 58′ N. lat .

The government of Tibet, like Turkestan, remains in the hands

of native authorities, but with an inferior degree of control on the

part of the Chinese residents. The chief native authority lies in the

dalai lama for Anterior Tibet, and in the bantchin-erdeni lama for

Ulterior Tibet ; both these have secular deputies. There is a

Chinese resident at the court of each lama, who is consulted in all

important affairs . There are also feudal townships , called Toosze,

and some Mongols in Tibet, entirely under the authority of the

residents .

There are said to be upwards of 60,000 soldiers in Tibet ; at

Lassa, 3,000 cavalry ; 2,000 in Dzang ; 5,000 in Ngari ; 1,000 in

Koba ; 3,000 in Tardzi, Landzi, Lanmautso, and among the Mon

gols living in black tents in Ngari. The troops are recruited by

taking one man out of ten or five ; the same with horses .

FORMOSA, (" the beautiful island "), or Tewan, is about 300 miles

long. A chain of mountains runs through its centre, from N. to

S.; beyond this on both sides there is a continued flat, and towards

the sea a barren alluvial sand, nearly four miles in breadth . The

south -east point of Formosa is in lat. 21 ° 53′ 30″ N. , and in long.

120° 57′ E. Ke-lung, the most northern point, is 25° 16' N. , and

121 ° 4′ 3″ E. from Greenwich. The channel which separates For

mosa from the Chinese coast, is from 70 to 100 miles in breadth ;

about 24 miles from the island lie the Pang-hoo , or Pescadore

islands . The position of Formosa for trade is excellent, within one

day's sail of the port of Amoy, within thirty leagues of the coast of

China, about 150 from Japan, and nearly the same distance from

the Philippines, Except Ke-lung harbour, there is no other that

has yet been explored . Nieuhoff visited the island, and states that

Pang-hoo-ting has several good harbours, and two commodious

bays, where ships may ride safely in eight or nine fathoms of

water. The islands are numerous ; the best is Fisher's Island

(western) .

The aborigines of the island of Formosa are divided into three

classes -first, those who have not only submitted to the Chinese,

but have advanced towards civilisation . This class was instructed

by the Dutch, when they had possession of the island ; many of

them still have some slight knowledge of the language, although a

period of 170 years has elapsed since the Dutch occupied part of

FORMOSA ISLAND . 27

the island . The second class is composed of aborigines, who sub

mit to the Chinese authority, yet retain their own habits and

customs ; these are styled " raw natives ." The third portion in

cludes all the unsubdued tribes, whose number is unknown. They

are ruled by a chief and elders, and are of a slender shape, and

olive complexion ; live in wretched huts, have no written language,

or established religion .

Formosa, together with the Pescadore islands, forms one foo, or

department, of the province of Foo -keen, which is subject to the

foo-yuen of that province. The departments comprise six heen, or

districts ; five of which are in Formosa, the other includes the Pes

cadore isles. Tae-wan, the chief district, is a narrow tract of land,

in lat . 23° N., and is considered equal to the first-class cities of

China in wealth and appearance . Attached to it are twenty

Chinese and three native villages . Its harbours are not good, one

of the entrances being closed with sand . To the north of Tae-wan ,

is Choo-lo -heen, which comprises one town , four Chinese and

thirty-two native villages, with a tolerable harbour (Lo-kang) ;

next is Chang-hwa-heen, which has one good town, fifteen villages,

and 132 Chinese farms, and 51 native villages .

Tan-shwuy-heen has one town, 133 farms, and 70 native vil

lages . Fung-shou-heen lies in a southern point, and has one

town. The native villages are 73, of which eight only are occu

pied by civilised natives. The Pescadore, or Pang-hoo, constitutes

the sixth heen, or district . This cluster of islands, 36 in number,

although barren, forms an important naval and military station for

the Chinese government, who find it necessary to watch the in

habitants, as they have a reputation for lawlessness, occasioned it is

said by the unjust extortions of the Mandarins, on the thousands

of emigrants who come from Foo-keen, Canton, and Che-keang

provinces. The eastern part of the island of Formosa is still in

possession of the native chiefs . The revenue of Formosa exceeds

1,000,000 taels of silver, and the whole population is between two

and three millions of inhabitants .

The portion of Formosa under the government of China is most

fruitful and healthy. The vast plains of the southern part may

justly be called a garden. Every kind of grain and fruit may be

produced on the island ; but rice, sugar, tobacco, and camphor,

are the chief articles of export. The number of junks employed

in conveying rice to Fo-keen and Che-keang provinces is upwards.

of 200. For sugar, more than 70 junks are annually employed

between the single port of Tein-tsin . The camphor is sent to

Canton, and the quantity is very considerable . Cattle, sheep,

goats, and poultry, are abundant. The mountains produce gold,

silver, cinnabar, copper, and coal, of which latter some excellent

specimens have been recently sent to England. Formosa exceeds

Manilla and Java in the quantity of its exports ; and the circu

lating capital is in proportion to the commerce.

28 POPULATION OF CHINA .

The whole of the preceding details must necessarily be con

sidered as vague in many points ; they are derived from various

sources, which will be particularized at the end of the work ; and

they are given rather as an incitement to further inquiry, and as

illustrative of the vastness and importance of the empire of China,

than from any implicit reliance on their accuracy. At any rate,

this imperfect description may awaken investigation, by showing

what immense regions yet remain for exploration, and it is to be

hoped for commercial profit.

CHAPTER II .

POPULATION, CHARACTER, -MANNERS, & c.

THERE is no country in the world where there are more opportu

nities of knowing the amount of the population than China, as

every district has its officer ; every street its constable ; every ten

houses, its tything-man ; and every family is required to have a

board always hanging up in the house, ready for the inspection of

the regular officer, on which the name of every man, woman, or

child, in the house, must be inscribed . There is even a law to

constrain Chinese householders to give a faithful return . All per

sons are required to be registered according to their several avo

cations .

When the master of a family, who holds land that is chargeable

with contributions to the revenue, omits to make any entry in the

public register, he is liable to be punished with one hundred blows ;

but if he possess no such property, with eighty blows. When any

master of a family has strangers, who constitute, in fact, a distinct

family, he shall be punished with one hundred blows, if such

strangers possess taxable property ; and eighty, if not. In all cases,

the register must be immediately corrected .

The reigning dynasty has adopted a system, that a reasonable

proportion of money and grain shall be retained by each province

for the use of the state, to meet the wants of the people : the

government could not know the amount to be reserved, if they did

not know the average amount of inhabitants ; so that, it seems

most likely that it is to help the government, and not to impose

on foreigners, that the census is taken . The following table is from

Chinese authorities .

POPULATION CENSUSES. 29

YEAR OF A. D. POPULATION.

DYNASTY . EMPEROR. REIGN.

Ming Tae- tsoo 27 1393 60,5 15,811

Tsing Shun che 18 1662 21,068,600

"" Kang-he 6 1668 25,386,209

"" "" 49 1710 23,312,200

"" "" 50 1711 28,605,716

རྒྱལ་

"" Keen -lung 18 1753 102,328,258

"" "" 57 1792 307,467,200

‫در‬ Kea- king 16 1812 361,221,900

The first period of 60,000,000 was under the peaceful rule of

the old Ming dynasty. The falling off in the second period may

be occasioned by the sanguinary wars that took place between the

Tartars and Chinese, before the accession of the former to the

Chinese dynasty ; and from the want of knowledge of the state of

the country, which the Chinese themselves were not inclined to

give willingly to their conquerors ; it may likewise be accounted

for by emigration, and because the Tartars could not reckon the

people of the western and southern provinces as their subjects, as

they were not subdued for several generations : moreover, the

present dynasty levied a capitation tax and many evaded enrolment. !

In the year 1710 the capitation tax was annulled , and a land tax

substituted ; and in year 1711 , according to the census returns,

there is an increase of upwards of 5,000,000, and it is very likely,

had there been a return for the following year, there would have

been four times as large an increase. The increase from 1711 to

1753 may be accounted for by the increasing power of the Tartar

dynasty, and partly by the facts above mentioned . The next in

crease is from 1753 to 1792 , which seems enormous ; the length of

peace that was enjoyed for years, and the encouragement given to

cultivate waste lands, which the terrified people had abandoned ,

and now received bounties to cultivate and re-inhabit, render it by

no means improbable.

The increase from 1792 to 1812 seems very inconsiderable when

compared with former years, scarcely one per cent. per annum ;

this may be accounted for by the large number of inhabitants now

in the country, and as a matter of course, by emigration ; and

likewise, in the opinion of Mr. Medhurst and others, by the intro

duction of the opium to an enormous extent, sufficient to check

population, for it ruins the constitution, the health, and energies,

and cuts off in a few years all those that indulge in it .

In the statement given to Sir G. Staunton, in 1795 , by Chew

ta-jin, a Mandarin of high rank, the population of Fokien pro

vince is stated to be 15,000,000 ; and that of the whole empire

330,000,000 . In the Appendix to the Report of the Anglo- Chinese

College for 1829, it is stated, on the authority of the Tae-Ch'heng

30 LONGEVITY OF THE CHINESE .

hwuy-teen, or collection of statutes of the Tae-Ch'heng dynasty,

in 261 volumes, that the Emperor Keen- lung, in his 57th year

(A.D. 1793) , found the amount of the whole population to be

307,467,200.

The Jesuit Missionaries, and those who have traversed various

parts of China, see no reason to doubt the accuracy of these

statements : indeed, if we examine the amount of population in

China, in proportion to the area of surface, the density of indi

viduals to each square mile will be found less than it is in Ireland,

and not much greater than in England .

Father Alvarez Semedo, a Portuguese, who resided twenty years

at Peking and various other parts of the empire, in his History of

China, published in London in the year 1655, thus speaks of the

population : " I am amazed at the great population of this empire ;

it is not alone in cities, towns, and public places, but also in the

highways, there is as great a concourse of people met with every

day, as you may only occasionally see in Europe on some particu

lar festival- day : and by a reference to the general register-book,

wherein only the common men are enrolled, leaving out women,

children, eunuchs, professors of letters and arms, there are reckoned

of them to be fifty-eight millions, fifty-five thousand, one hundred,

and fourscore ."

China is not remarkable for longevity. An examination was

made in 1827, by the Emperor Kang-he, to ascertain how many

persons were above seventy years of age, that they might be

exempted from the public service and nourished by the state.

Those of eighty, ninety, and one hundred were successively

honoured with higher rewards .

In nine provinces, containing 158,793,306 inhabitants, there

were but 194,086 of seventy and upwards- which latter sum is the

eight hundred and eighteenth part of the former.

In sixteen provinces- the number of people at eighty years of

age was 168,850 ; at ninety years, 9,996 ; and at or above one

hundred years of age, but 21. Not a two-thousandth part of the

whole empire reached the age of eighty years ; not the thirty - six

thousandth part, ninety years ; and only about one in seventeen

million inhabitants reached the age of a century.

Only three provinces evince this longevity ; viz .: Shan-tung, 9 ;

Ho -nan , 5 ; Hu-nan, or Hon - quang, 4 ; Keang- nan , 3 =21 .

In the Canton province, on a population of 19,147,030, but

9,415 reached the age of eighty, and only 519, that of ninety

years : none attained a century.

Amidst such a vast mass of human beings there must necessarily

be a very great variety of individual character ; but the Chinese , in

general, may be said to be mild, laborious, and patient. No occu

pation is considered mean, provided they can become rich by it ;

this desire for riches is so great that it is generally asserted they

will lie and cheat any one with whom they have dealings . The

ነ CONDITION OF THE PEOPLE . 31

vicissitudes of life are very marked : the children of men who have

held the highest offices under the government, are often reduced

to poverty . The poor are divided into two classes : the labourer

and the mendicant ; the latter are a most degraded class, resem

bling somewhat the gipsies, and may be seen in the streets almost

in a state of nudity ; no one will shelter them, lest they should rob

the house . They sleep at night on bridges, and in public places,

being denied even the caves of rocks, lest they should die there,

for, in that case, the proprietor would be obliged to pay the officer

whose duty it is to inter the corpse . The love of gambling is said

to be the cause of great destitution : the poorest labourer will

gamble for his breakfast or dinner, and may be seen doing so at

the road-side.

I visited various parts of the country, and found the inhabitants

in the north of China much more civilised and social than those in

the south . Dr. Gutzlaff, who has examined a great portion of the

empire, thus writes of the population on the coast :-" I invariably

found the people civil and obliging, but for the most part poor and

wretched, and dreadfully diseased . Books and medicines were

received with avidity . What appeared most surprising was, their

submitting to surgical operations by barbarians." The villages a

few miles from the coast, visited by the medical Missionaries , were

not much better than those along the coast . The houses, built of

red and white bricks, have a neat appearance at a distance ; but

on entering them, a bedstead and one or two stools constitute the

whole of the furniture .

The government, in theory at least, allot waste lands for the

poor ; but local extortions prevent such proclamations as the follow

ing being carried into effect :

" Loo, Governor of Canton, & c. & c.

" Choo, the Foo-yuen, &c. &c. A.D.. 1834.

" Hereby issue a proclamation to make known the regulations to

be observed on commencing the cultivation of waste lands . In

government there is nothing so important as a sufficient supply of

food for the people. In villages the most honourable occupation

is agriculture . In Canton province thieves and robbers are ex

ceedingly numerous, which no doubt have originated from the

want of a suitable employment . In endeavouring to eradicate evil

practices , the first thing is to provide the means of subsistence .

" The plan is to invite poor people to locate themselves on waste

spots of land, wherever they may find them, on hills or plains, and

cultivate them in any way of which the land is capable, and for

the cultivators' sole benefit, without land-tax or quit-rent, or any

charge whatever from the local officers. The land thus cultivated

may be liable to land -tax hereafter, but the land itself is to become

the freehold estates of the occupants for ever . Government will

give a grant or deed of occupation to the settlers . Only small lots

are granted, and none but poor people need apply. The local

32 STATE OF THE TOWNS AND HOUSES .

magistrates are strictly charged not to extort money from the

settlers."

The Missionaries , who travelled through the province of Shau

tung, in 1837, thus write : -" We saw nothing of the squalid

misery that was every where to be met with in many of the

other provinces . The men were robust, and apparently well fed

and cheerful. We saw no beggars, and very few ragged people ;

their clothing was chiefly cotton, sometimes doubled and quilted ;

most of the people wore shoes and stockings . Some wore coats

made of skins , with the hair or wool inside. Every one carries a

smoking pipe, and a bit of steel, and as the ground is covered with

a kind of quartz, a light is easily procured . The females were

pale-faced, and had an unhealthy look, with any thing but pleasing

features. The poorer sort of females work in the fields up to their

knees in mud, and with truth may be said to drag out a miserable

existence. The majority of the houses are about thirty feet

long, ten wide, and eight high . The streets are from ten to

twenty feet wide, running parallel to each other, crossed by narrow

dirty lanes. Each village is supplied with a temple ; small shrines.

may be seen in fields, with a simple inscription on them. The

houses of the better class are built of granite ; those of the poor,

of mud. The people possess few of the comforts of life ; neither

table, chair, nor any article of furniture can be seen in the dwell

ings of the poor ."

Nowhere did I observe great individual wealth, property seems

much subdivided. The Chinese buildings have a striking appear

ance, which is more from their extent than their magnificence.

Those of the princes and great men contain four or six outer

courts, in each of which is a separate building, with three gates .

The halls set apart for receiving visitors are provided with chairs

and tables ; but there is an absence of all grandeur. The chambers

appropriated for the females and children, are inaccessible to even

the most intimate friend . The beds of the opulent are furnished

in winter with curtains of double satin, and in summer with white

plain taffety. The common people use curtains of linen , with

mattrasses stuffed with cotton ; in the northern provinces, they

sleep upon beds constructed of brick. These beds are larger or

smaller in proportion to the family. They are kept warm by

means of a small stove, placed on one side, in which a coal fire is

lighted, while a small funnel, that rises above the roof, carries off

the smoke. Some place over the bricks a mattrass, which is re

moved in the day, and the bed becomes a couch, upon which the

whole family work.

Among other indications of an altered state of society in China,

the following lamentations of a Chinaman at Whampoo may be

quoted :-" The times are changed , and the people are rapidly

growing worse. The people of frugal and honest habits are fast

disappearing ; a new and bad race is growing up. Formerly it

THE CHIN- CHEW MEN. 33

was not the rage to gain wealth, but when a man carned a sub

sistence he retired, and thus gave an opportunity to others.

Thus, when a ferryman had earned sufficient in the morning to

support him for the day, he retired, and made room for others who

were not so fortunate . The thirst for gain is so great, that the

people will work both day and night, and yet are not satisfied.

Robberies, kidnapping, and keeping the well- disposed in alarm ,

are more and more frequent. The common crime is carrying off

young girls, and selling them as slaves, unless ransomed by their

friends. These kidnappers treat in the most open manner with their

parents, and fix a price, which averages from 15 to 100 dollars ."

There is, however, much difference in the character and con

dition of the people, and no general description will suffice to

pourtray them. For instance, the men of Chin-chew are the

most industrious and independent people in China. The " celes

tial empire " has few spots so remarkable as the territory situ

ated between the 23° and 26° of lat . , and the 116° and 119 °

of longitude. It is divided into three districts, or fooritz : -Tseun

choo (Chin-chew ), about 54 miles in length, and 24 in breadth ;

Chang-choo, 65 miles in length, and 83 in breadth ; and Chau

choo, 90 miles in length, and 50 in breadth : the two former

are the south- westernmost parts of Fokeen ; the latter, the

easternmost of Canton . The mountains are barren, the tracts

along the sea- coast are sterile in the extreme, and only yield by

dint of hard labour a scanty crop of sweet potatoes. With the

exception of sugar, this country has no staple article of export ;

the rice cultivated is not sufficient for the consumption of the

population, which is immense. The territory, being indented, has

many good harbours, and nearly the entire of the maritime com

merce of China is in the hands of the Chin- chew men. Almost

the whole of the imperial and mercantile navy is manned by

1 natives of this territory, and there are not less than 150,000 sailors

amongst them. The number of fishermen is not inferior. In the

interior cities there are tens of thousands of the natives of this ter

ritory ; they do not confine themselves to the coast . The bankers

of the capital, the pedlars, the actors in all hazardous under

takings, are natives of Chin- chew. They cultivate the most barren

soil, and may be seen perched on rocks, that would not apparently

yield a blade of grass ; yet, from those mountains and rocks, by

labour and attention, they extract three crops annually.

In Canton almost every article of traffic is under their direction .

They have penetrated to the Woo E. tea-hills, planted the Ankoi

regions with this shrub, and nearly engrossed its commerce.

More than a million of these people are scattered over China ; the

island of Haenan was reclaimed by them . Formosa has only for

the last two centuries become the scene of their industry, and is

now the most productive island in Asia . There are about two

million of their tribe, who, as peasants and merchants, have pos

D

3.1 TRADING CHARACTER OF PEOPLE .

sessed themselves of the fairest portion of that island . It is said

that the fecundity of this tribe is so great, as to furnish a suf

ficient number of inhabitants for all the islands of the Indian

Archipelago ; yet they have never been encouraged to emigrate in

so large a number as to Formosa. The Chin-chew men, who

inhabit Siam, Annam, and Tonquin, with the other parts and

isles of Southern Asia, cannot be less than two million . They

are in those countries, as well as in all Chinese locations, the very

soul of commercial enterprise. In examining the districts from

whence these swarms issued, there is no diminution of the popula

tion ; on the contrary, those regions are teeming with human

beings . Thus, a district not larger than a county in England,

pours forth thousands of colonists, in defiance of the laws of their

country. The fecundity of population must be very great, which

can establish colonies greater in extent some hundred times than

the native land . It is not by the sword, but by the plough that

they conquer and they are still opening new roads for other

needy adventurers, from China .

It is truly observed, in an official report to the British government

in 1837, that the Jews perhaps excepted, no nation is so much

influenced by the love of gain ; and at the same time, so utterly re

gardless about the means to attain this end. The more wealthy

classes absorb their very existence in trade. Commerce is the in

variable topic of conversation, the most important pursuit, the

highest object of pleasure, and the goal of all their wishes. Trade

is the first and last word in which all unanimously join, whilst the

energies of mind and body are consumed in following up this bent .

Trade is not here confined to one class of men, but to all ranks

and ages. Scarcely can a boy lisp, when he begins to sell a few

cakes, or a little sugar- cane. The poorest try to gain a subsistence,

if it be only to dispose of a few rags. There is nothing in all

nature which a Chinaman might not turn to advantage, and trade F

in . All recesses are ransacked to find a few trifles which may

be sold to advantage, and he would rather procure a pittance in

this way, than receive the money without displaying his inventive

genius .

The Chinese may justly be termed the pedlars of the world ;

wherever you go, there seem to be more sellers than buyers .

Nothing can exceed their affability if they think you are going to

purchase anything from them : they will refuse no money if they

can be ever so little gainers ; they are therefore quite the reverse of

the Japanese, who are rough, disobliging, and positive ; and when

they ask a price, will not abate their demand. But the Chinese

turn every thing to advantage that offers, and undertake the most

difficult things for the least hope of gain .

The Chinese maxim is, that he who buys is for getting things as

cheap as he can, and would give nothing, did the seller consent to

it ; upon this principle, they think they have a right to ask the

CEREMONIAL AND CUSTOMS. 35

greatest price. The dealer does not deceive, say they ; it is the

buyer who deceives himself. The buyer is under no compulsion ;

and the profit which the merchant gets is the fruit of his industry.

In all ranks of life, but more especially among the magistrates

and officers of government, vivacity and activity are less esteemed

than sedateness and deliberation ; gravity is considered as the test

of wisdom, and silence of discretion. A magistrate should never

attempt to joke, and should forbear to talk ; he should " resemble

great bells, which seldom strike, and full vessels, which give little

sound." He should never show his anger, as this would put the

person that has offended him on his guard . If two persons meet

they know, from the button on the cap, their respective ranks. If

any of the poor people should fail to pay proper respect in meet

ing a superior, he is instantly ordered fifteen or twenty blows of

the bamboo.

Amusements, when resorted to, are either childish, or have re

ference to gambling . Kite-flying, and shuttlecock (played with

the feet) are favorite pastimes with the men . Among the amuse

ments to which they are addicted, notwithstanding the doctrine of

Buddah, is cricket-fighting. While the British are preparing for

the Derby and Epsom, the Chinese are matching their crickets.

About Midsummer the cricket fights commence ; and all classes,

young and old, rich and poor, take part in this sport. The species

selected is the male of the common gryllus campestris, which is

found on the neighbouring hills ; their price varies from one cash

to fifty dollars ; and the wagers on favorite crickets amount to an

incredible sum .

In the higher circles of society the mode adopted of cultivating

friendship with foreigners (and probably amongst themselves) is

the day after a visit is paid, to send a present of tea, fruit,

and sweetmeats, in separate baskets ; the total of the lots being

even, and the contents of each made up of an even number of

packets ; a superstitious idea is very prevalent against an odd num•

ber. The contrary is practised on the occasion of a death in a

family. If the present sent is of any magnitude in size, it is ex

pected that only a portion of it will be retained, and the remainder

returned with your card as an acknowledgement . The persons

who convey the presents must be handed a gift in money ; and not

unfrequently three or four will accompany the gift, each of whom

must get an equal sum.

Ceremonial is the most essential branch of education, and is the

study of a life . The master of a house meets an approaching

guest half- way, with his head covered . At entertainments , the

guest is always at the upper hand . If the guest is from the south

ern provinces, he sits on the right ; the northern, the left the

guest takes the right or left hand of his host, (according to the

difference in north and south,) who consequently stands on the

other hand ; they bow very low three or four times, with their

D2

36 POLITE INVITATIONS. -GUESTS .

hands towards the head ; some are so polite as to change places

right and left on meeting.

In the house the guest is conducted to the upper seat, foreigners

in preference to all others. The forms observed at departure are

still more ceremonious, as the servants have their part to go

through. After paying a visit, the visited sends his card, and

messengers to enquire if the visitor has got safe home. The size of

the card, or coloured paper, (some are a foot long and upwards,) in

dicates the rank and respect paid ; but a smaller card accompanies

the large, to shew independence.

Interviews and social visits between officers of government, are

conducted with minute regard as to ceremony and dress ; the offi-

cial robes are always at hand, as they never appear to each other

en déshabille ; nor do they travel any distance without them.

An interview, after a long absence, is usually on the knees, or

three bows with the fingers touching the ground.

An invitation to an entertainment is not supposed to be given

with sincerity, until it has been renewed three or four times in

writing. A card is sent on the evening before the entertainment ;

another on the morning of the appointed day ; and a third when

every thing is prepared and nothing to do but sit down to table.

A Chinese classical book prescribes the following rules : " When

you entertain any one, or eat at his table, pay the strictest atten

tion to decency ; be careful not to devour your victuals greedily ;

never drink at long draughts ; avoid making a noise with your

mouth or teeth ; never sup up the broth that is left when every

one is done ; nor testify, by exterior signs, the pleasure you receive

from any particular kind of food or wine ; neither pick your teeth,

nor blow upon wine to cool it ; take small bits at a time ; chew your

victuals well, and never let your mouth be too full. The ancient

Emperors established it as a law, for those who might give enter

tainments, that they should salute each guest, separately, every

time they drank."

. Previous to the Tartar dynasty, the Chinese allowed their hair

to grow, both men and women, without ever cutting ; and being

almost universally black-haired , were called the black-haired people

by foreign nations. When the Tartars obtained dominion, they

introduced many changes, and among others, barbers, a calling pre

viously unknown in China. At the first city taken by the Tartars

a proclamation was issued, which declared that none of the inhabit

ants should be killed, if they would cut their hair and beard, and

use the Tartars' dress, viz .: garments, or long robes, falling down

to the feet, with sleeves not so wide or large as the Chinese use.

No difference is perceptible between the male and female garments .

As in all countries devoid of a true knowledge of God, supersti

tion has strong hold on the people . When the father of a family

is at the point of death, they put a piece of silver to his mouth,

and cover his nose and ears, which must really hasten his death .

DEATHS AND BURIALS . 37

The moment life departs, they make a hole in the roof of the house,

to permit the spirits that leave his body a free exit ; then the

priests are brought in, and prayers commence. A tablet is first set

up (beside the coffin) to keep away evil spirits ; and beside it, on a

table, a quantity of eatables, perfumes, and lamps . If the family

are not too wealthy, every visitor is expected to bring some presents .

The Buddhist priests call on the visitor to assist them in weep

ing and wailing ; this lasts several days, until the priests, by the

dint of prayers, make a breach in the " nether world," for the es

cape of the departed spirit : when the soul is released from purga

tory, the priests give it a letter to Buddah, which procures it a

residence in the " western heavens ."

When the interment takes place, the corpse is dressed in the

best clothes the family can afford . All who attend the funeral

must be dressed in mourning (white) , or, at least, some conspicuous

part of their dress must be white . The body is laid in the tomb,

under the discharge of rockets and fireworks .

After the interment all return to the house of the deceased,

where feasting and enjoyment is carried to an excess.

The doctrine preached by this sect, is that every man has three

souls the first comes to live in the body ; the second goes to

Hades ; and the third resides in the tablet which has been pre

pared for it.

They regard the perpetuation of their names to posterity as an

important matter. Daughters inherit nothing from their parents,

and anything bestowed is in the nature of a present. The eldest

son of the principal wife, or the grandson of this eldest son, if he

be dead, becomes the head of the family at the death of the

father ; it is his duty to support the other children of the two beds

as if he were their father. If the principal wife has not had a son

when she is fifty years old, the husband can choose as his heir the

1 eldest son of any of his other wives : but the eldest only. If there

are no sons from the first or second beds, the husband can adopt

the son of one of his relations, provided he bears the same name as

himself.

So stringent is custom, a Chinese is less the master of his

own movements than any other part of mankind . When born,

if a boy, he is taken care of; if a girl, she stands a chance of being

drowned . Infanticide is not confined to the poorer classes : as a

proof of the existence of that crime, foundling hospitals are erected

in all large towns to receive girls only, in which they are kept

until they are fourteen years of age. Some contend that child mur

der does not exist to a great extent, in some provinces, as the fe

males are more numerous than the men in several districts . The

crime, however, is not held in the abhorrence it should be . The

first instruction of a boy consists in making obeisance and pros

trating himself in company ; this ceremony is instituted at an early

period, and not forgotten in old age.

38 DECEIT. - WOMEN . - MARRIAGES .

Rich and poor are polite in the extreme, until their interests or

passions are disturbed ; then they are equal to the savage, and

their manners coarse and insulting ; but they are early taught to

hide their real sentiments ; their politeness and meekness are only

assumed, the better to enable them to overreach their fellows . Their

minds are perverted by unmeaning compliments, and truth is sacri

ficed to gain their object ; deceit and hypocrisy seem the ruling

passions of their nature . When a boy goes to school he is taught

nothing but the classics of Confucius, as whatever was not taught

‫در‬

by the ancients is not fit to be learned by any of the " sons ofHan ;

by this means, the Tartars are better enabled to rule and oppress

the Chinese . To attain this end, the system of education is the

same all over the empire ; so that when all minds are tutored in

the same mould , the restraining powers, when necessary to be en

forced, answer for the whole community. The officers of govern

ment keep the people in constant terror ; and having no opportu

nity of resisting or revenging by open force, they resort to crafti

ness, deceit, and lying, to escape the myrmidons of the law. To

this may be traced the cause why the Chinese character is pro

verbially deceitful .

A Chinese woman spends her time at home, and, if poor, works

at the loom . Ladies prepare embroidery, and are fond of gaudy

dress . Girls get little or no education, and boys are sent to school

at an early age. Match-makers are in much repute, as ladies are

not allowed to make a selection for themselves . The marriage

vow is said to be strictly observed on the female side, but the

same cannot be said of the men . A small foot and a pale com

plexion are the tests of beauty . Celibacy is only known to a poor

man who cannot buy a wife : all parents expect a dowry for their

daughter, to repay them the expense of bringing her up.

The suspicion of the Chinese character is manifest even in their

marriages. The wedding- day being fixed on, the bridegroom sends

a sedan (a particular kind is made for this purpose) . The mother

of the bride puts her in the sedan, securely locks the door, and

sends the key to the mother- in-law. On the arrival at the

bridegroom's house his mother unlocks the door, and delivers

her to her intended husband, when both repair to the chapel of

the idols, where are kept the names of their ancestors . In the

outer temple they bow themselves four times upon their knees,

and then enter the inner temple where their parents are sitting,

to whom they make the same reverences . All parties then re

tire to the bridegroom's house, where a private room is set apart

for the bride, into which no male relative can ever enter, not

even the father of either parties . Should the father have occa

sion to chastise his son, which is not uncommon, the son con

trives to get into this private apartment, and is safe .

Marriage appears to have been a formal ceremony in use from

the earliest time. There are two kinds of marriage : the first is

CLANS AND FEUDS . 39

called a true marriage and lasts for the life of both parties, un

less causes of divorce can be shown, which are numerous and

trivial. The second marriage is permitted by the laws in case

they have no sons ; these concubines, or second wives, are regu

larly purchased from their parents, or some other person who

has brought them up from childhood with that object. The price.

obtained for an accomplished female is very considerable. As

soon as she brings forth a son she is probably parted with, and

disposed of to another ; the first wife takes the son, and the real

mother never sees it again. There is no prohibition against

widows marrying ; but the higher classes never do .

Clanships in China are very general, and many small islands

and villages are solely inhabited by one or more clans, and probably

only two surnames among them. By this means feuds are perpe

tuated from one generation to another, and occasionally break out

into fatal quarrels. Two families , Chung and Chuy, —the former

inhabits Dane's Island at Whampoa, and the latter the second

Pagoda- have for years been on the most unfriendly terms with

each other. The head of the Chung family at the near approach

of death bit off his finger, and with the blood wrote the wrongs

which had been perpetrated by the other clan, enjoining on them

to exact full vengeance . From that day to this, if any member of

either clan is found alone , he is sure to be robbed and beaten .

On the north side of the river, their lands adjoin each other. The

watercourses are generally a fruitful source of contention . If

death ensues, it is rigidly kept secret from the authorities, as their

mutual interests are concerned . But if the affair gets wind, and

an investigation takes place, to meet the charge, a society is

formed, the members of which voluntarily surrender themselves to

government as the real perpetrators. The society then employs

lawyers, and makes the case out one of homicide, which is pun

ished by fine or banishment. The society lay a tax on the mem

bers of the clan, to provide support for the families of the con

victed . The guaranteed amount is 300 dollars when capital pu

nishment takes place.

There is a strange mixture of self- government mingled with the

despotism of the Pekin government.

Many villages in China are without a single government- officer

or policeman ; and in that case the inhabitants combine together

and select a head-man , pay him a yearly salary, and depose him

and elect another should his conduct not meet the wishes of the

majority of the inhabitants . Custom has given this head -man a

degree of authority. Although unconnected with government, as

the head of the village he is held responsible . His duties are

chiefly arranging petty disputes, but his powers extend to flogging .

The salary of this head man, in the village of Whampoa (7,000

inhabitants) is 300 dollars per annum : and he has under him

fourteen policemen . Appeals from the decision of the head-man

40 DIVORCE CAUSES .

are to the seunkeen, the chief officer of a sze, which is the name of

the subdivisions of a heen or district. Of these sze, the district of

Pinanyu has four ; and the sze which includes Whampoa com2

prises 164 villages, each having a head-man .

Secret societies (the triad) have lately caused a great increase of

crime among this population. And for the better government of

its affairs, twenty villages have subscribed, and built a court-house

in a market town on the island of Honan . A president is elected

with a salary of 400 dollars per annum, who is chairman over the

other head-men , when they deliberate in secret. When a man is

selected for prosecution, he is forwarded to the cheheen, and

seldom returns .

Moral apothegms are much in favour among the Chinese,

although there, as elsewhere, not carried into practice. These

inculcations are painted on their temples, on tablets hung up in

halls, on pictures, vases, &c. A few examples will indicate their

nature. "A woman has merit no longer than while she applies

herself to the virtues proper to her rank in society ; and these are,

filial reverence, respectful fear, sweetness, modesty, gravity, sin

cerity, complaisance, a spirit of economy, and a compassion for the

wretched . What she ought to shun is, levity, pride, anger, indis

cretion, and a hardness of heart towards the unhappy, idleness,

& c.; but most particularly, not to be guilty of anything which

gives her husband a right to divorce her."

The faults authorizing divorce according to ancient laws, are seven

in number :-1st, To be otherwise than submissive ; 2nd, to be

barren ; 3rd, to be guilty of adultery ; 4th, to be jealous : 5th, to

have some grievous disease ; 6th, to talk too much ; 7th, to steal.

Any of these gives a husband a right to put away his wife . The

fourth article is such as would cause a primary or legitimate wife,

to hinder her husband taking a second wife or concubine. The

fifth is meant by such a disease as leprosy, epilepsy, and the like.

The four other articles require no explanation. Theft is a sub

ject of divorce only when a wife robs her husband to enrich her

relations. Among other aphorisms we find

" Learn to conquer your passions, to regulate your heart, and

form it to virtue. Should you commit any crime, be very careful

never to do it any more ; the dike once broken, you can never

stem the torrent . The desire of gaining riches never ceases but

with life, which men are very often indifferent how they accumu

late, and which extravagant children soon squander.

" Do not be one of those gloomy spirits that everything dis

pleases, and who dislike everything belonging to the whole human

race ; but at the same time do not give your heart up to everything

tender, nor trust to slight protestations of fidelity. In the ways of

civil life observe a just road, and you will escape a great deal of

trouble and repentance .

" You have secret dislike to good men, and you do not like their

MORAL APHORISMS . 41

conversation ; a certain proof of the depravity of your heart, and a

disordered understanding : you are richly clothed, you ride fine

horses, nothing disturbs your tranquillity ; your table abounds in

delicate meats, you swim in joy and pleasure ; death will come

and surprize you in the very midst of your delights, and perhaps

asleep, and you will cause passengers to say, ' Whose son was this

young man ?'

" If your friend has different notions from you and won't give

the least concession, if it only relates to indifferent things, let him

indulge in them ; if, on the contrary you always contradict him,

what will you gain ? You will breed ill- blood between you, and

""

will lose by little and little his affection and confidence.'

The following are classed as rules of conduct relative to ourselves :

"Never employ your authority in its full extent ; temper what

ever is severe in it by an air of sweetness and goodnature. Neither

abuse the fear and respect which your rank and dignity inspire.

It will do you honour to adapt the exercise of your power to the

circumstances and situation of the persons with whom you live.

" If some disaster or great misfortune befall you , and you see no

means to extricate yourself ; submit to the will of Heaven. To

complain, to sigh, to bemoan youaself, to strike the earth with

your foot, is not to diminish but increase the evil. No one is

ignorant of this truth : but how seldom do we see it regarded in

men's practice ?

" Think much and speak little. A great parade of words only

dazzles the eyes of fools ; and is far inferior to a judicious silence .

There are especially certain occasions, when a wise man, how fine

a speaker soever he be, and whatever inclination he may have to

speak, will always put a seal upon his lips.

" Forget the services you have done to others : it is their business

to remember them. Do not point out the shining advantages

which distinguish you from the common run of mankind : it is the

part of others to find them out. The peach and the plumb speak

not, they naturally leave traces of their worth .

" If you have a sharp , subtle, penetrating spirit ; only apply it to

the well governing of your domestic affairs : in your commerce

with the world study simplicity and plain-dealing. If you affect

to appear more cunning than others ; if there are discovered in your

air and expressions, constraint and artifice ; you will always be

distrusted , and will never acquire sincere friends .

" Do you love sweet things ? Taste first those that are sour. Do

you seek repose and pleasure ? First experience fatigue and toil.

He that would take a high leap, must first of all stoop and bend

his body .

" It is not enough to study the world in order to adapt yourself

well to it ; study yourself, and examine every evening what you

have done during the day . If any action hath escaped you which

you have reason to be sorry for, take proper means to correct your

42 SELF DISCIPLINE AND REGULATION .

self, and commit it no more . If, on the contrary, you have no

thing to reproach yourself with, taste the sweet pleasure which

arises from the testimony of a good conscience.

" If you hear the praises, which are bestowed on you, with a

modest simplicity, you add a new lustre to your merit. If, on the

contrary, you are puffed up with this slight mark of esteem, and

are seduced to assume an important and supercilious air, the

favourable opinion that was entertained of you is instantly con

verted to prejudice, and people retract in secret the applauses of

which they think you no longer worthy.

" Ruin follows gain very near : and misery is at the tail of good

fortune. He alone leads a tranquil life, who is content with a

decent mediocrity.

" How difficult it is to live in the world and to preserve therein

irreproachable manners ! It is nevertheless possible ; but for this

end one hath need of a continual attention and watchfulness over

one's self.

" The soul ought to rule the body. How unhappy is he who

suffers himself to be governed by his passions and irregular desires !

You see that great man : he is an hero, that hath not his equal

among all our warriors : his name makes the earth tremble ; he

hath crossed the four seas, he hath subdued all before him ; him

self is the only one he hath not been able to conquer ; for he is

still a slave to his body.

" You employ yourself in study, with outendeavouring to compre

hend what you study : the time you spend therein, is to you so

much time lost. When you read the books which the sages have

left us, read them with reflection : every letter, every expression,

ought to appear precious to you : the doctrine ought to be deeply

engraven on your heart : that which goes no farther than the eyes

and ears, is like a repast which one only makes in a dream .

"A kindness or favour opportunely done, may procure sometimes

to him who did it a considerable fortune . A trifle often occasions

great joy. Excessive love frequently turns to bitter hatred.

" Neglect not an affair because it appears of small importance : a

slight chink may cause shipwreck to the greatest vessel . An

insect never so small may by its bite occasion your death .

" If you are charged with an important and difficult employ, away

with sound and colour ; but on the other hand, imitate not those

senseless young men, who take their pleasure, and at the same

time make complaint ; who are overpowered with the slightest

business, and who trouble their neighbours incessantly about it.

" If you have but a small share of genius and virtue, and have

nothing to recommend you but a self- sufficient and decisive air,

your fall is certain : of ten, who resemble you, nine fall . If you

have never seen the heavens, but from the bottom of a pit ; if you

can only show the road by the direction of a wall, the best advice

is never singly to undertake any great affair.

DUTIES OF CHILDREN AND PARENTS . 43

" Propose great models for your imitation . Yao, Shun, Yu, Ven

vang, Chew-cong, Cong-tse, differed not in shape from common

men, but in the qualities of the mind and heart, which have

rendered them famous to ten thousand generations. Form your

self after the pattern of their integrity, their greatness of soul,

their sweetness , their facility of pardoning, and their other virtues,

and you will become a real sage : but if you neglect to improve

the talents you have received from nature ; if you are blunt, impe

rious, and harsh to others, you will only be a despicable creature .

" Do you see this frantic person- this madman ? he tears his

clothes, he runs about everywhere, he would get upon the top of

the house naked , he bites, he tears those who endeavour to stop

him. It is the picture of a hair-brained man, who will do every

thing head foremost, and in the manner he likes best ; that is to

say, in the most unreasonable manner in the world . If you make

the least remonstrance, he chafes himself, he is in a heat, he flies

out into a rage, and only repays the affection you show him, with

ingratitude and hatred .

" One of the best actions we can do in this life is to succour the

afflicted and to relieve the indigent. If Heaven did not send cala

mities into the world , we should have no opportunity to exercise

mercy.

" Three things are absolutely necessary to him who addicts him

self to study. In the first place, to conquer his passions, and to

render himself their master. Secondly, to have a sweet, tractable,

complying temper. Thirdly, to hold all bad doctrines in abhor

rence, and never to engage in any false sect .

" Who hath loved you more than your father and mother ? What

inquietudes hath your infancy caused them ? What pains have

they taken to bring you up ? How many kinds of labour and toil

have they endured to place you in your present condition ? And

can you carry your ingratitude and harshness so far, as to displease

and afflict them ?

" Yet this will be the consequence , ye fathers and mothers, if you

do not pay attention to the faults of your children, and if you

neglect to correct them in their tender age. Above all, never per-

mit them, under a pretence of showing their wit, to answer you

pertly, or to contradict those whom they ought to reverence : if

this is permitted, you must never expect to see them obedient and

respectful when more advanced in years .

" What shall we say of that person, who labours under great igno

rance ; who knows but imperfectly the nature of things, and the

true principles of morality, and who nevertheless appears with his

head lifted up, opening great eyes, bridling his chin, thrusting out

his belly, marching haughtily and as if he counted his steps ? Is

there an object more worthy of compassion ? Were he a hundred

years upon the earth, could one say of such a one he had lived a

day ?

44 BASENESS OF THE HEART.

" If you have reason on your side make it appear with a soft and

gentle air ; to what end those emotions of anger ? This is not the

way to persuade a reasonable mind . But if you have not reason

on your side, and yet would carry it by downright force , you are

no better than the public robbers .

" Your neighbour hath acquired a large fortune ; gold and silver

melt in his house ; everything prospers with him, and you are

ready to burst with spite . Another groans under a weight of

affliction which overwhelms him, and you feel at the bottom of

your soul a secret joy at it. Sad effects of the malignity and base

ness of your heart !

" You are only employed in procuring for yourself all sorts of

pleasures, and in leading a sensual and voluptuous life ; you enjoy

calmly all the favours of fortune, think yourself secure from

hunger, thirst and poverty ; senseless, as you are, are you igno

rant that heaven endures not the wicked, and leaves not any evil

unpunished ?

"Would you become skilful in the administration of public affairs ?

Apply yourself to the reading of our history. But if you have an

antipathy to books, if you cannot endure them in your house, your

children will be worse than if they were born blind.

" In a famine the sourest and bitterest things are pleasant to your

taste. Are you in abundance, the best meats seem to you tasteless

and insipid. The heart of heaven cannot content your heart.

Did you ever see any one die of hunger, who knew how to be con

tent with what little he had ?

" There are three things you should always have before your eyes :

the law of heaven, the law of the empire, and the honour of your

neighbour. If you neglect these three articles, go wherever you

will, you must not hope to live at ease.

" Study, science, and virtue, make whole families shine : applica

tion and economy serve to govern them : complaisance and pacific

disposition, to keep them united : tranquillity and conformity to

reason, to preserve them. A man who hath neither equity, appli

cation, nor politeness, is a savage beast, whose head is covered with

a bonnet .

"However dexterous a man may be, whatever service he may have

performed, if he is vain enough to make it the subject of his con

versation, if there escape a single word in his own praise, it is all

over with him, he loses all the merit of it. If, on the contrary, he

chance to fall into any fault, and do but acknowledge it and

humble himself, his fault is repaired .

" If the father of a family bathe every day, his children will be

skilful swimmers . If the father steal melons or fruits, his sons will

be assassins and incendiaries. One is apt to spare a child, and

laugh at his faults, instead of correcting them ; it is pretended he

is still young ; and while this is incessantly said and repeated, the

child grows up ; he is now a great boy and becomes your punish

TREATMENT OF BRUTES . 45

ment. People torment and afflict themselves when they have no

children, and yet they frequently suffer much more when they have

them .

" How hard is it to escape a bad character ? It is still more diffi

cult to deserve general esteem and approbation .

" Be not too eager and lively, have no precipitation in your words

and in your motions ; he who is least pressing often arrives first at

the goal ; too much vivacity only serves to perplex affairs . When one

swallows whole morsels, one is liable to cast them up : when one

runs too fast, one is liable to fall headlong to the ground.

"What end do you think can be answered by that blunt and

haughty air, which distinguishes you ? Be good and severe at the

same time ; eternal peace shall reign in your family. Put a seal

upon your mouth, and guard your heart as you would guard the

walls of a city. Above all, do not become a relater of false reports,

nor of all you hear said at random.

" Suffer not yourself to be hurried away by excess of joy for any

unforeseen good luck. Be always equal and cool at either fortune ."

The rules of conduct relative to the brute creation , translated

from the Kung- Kwo-Kih, evince an excess of amiability ; and yet

there is scarcely any nation more cruel or indifferent to human or

animal suffering.

The rewards and penalties, are thus estimated by comparative

numerals

1. To save from death an animal that is unable to render any

service by way of recompense. (e . g. swine, sheep, geese, & c . ) 1

2. To save the lives of an hundred insects. 1

3. To bury an animal that has died of itself • 1

4. To relieve a brute that is greatly wearied with work 1

5. To purchase and set at liberty, animals intended to be

slaughtered. (For each hundred STSEEN so employed.) 1

6. Not to eat the flesh of an animal killed on purpose for our

own use. (Perhaps so killed without thought-or by the kindness

of a friend. ) 2

7. To abstain for a whole year from the flesh of oxen and dogs 5

8. To save the life of a brute, which, by its services, can re

compense us. (e. g. the dog, the ox, the ass, the horse, &c . ) 20

9. To abstain from killing every kind of animal for one whole

year. 20

10. To take the lead in exhorting men from the slaughter of

animals, and in advising them to set free those which are appointed

for slaughter. 100

A LIST OF ERRORS ON THE SAME SUBJECT .

1. To confine birds in a cage. 1

2. To kill ten insects . 1

3. To be unsparing of the strength of wearied animals . 1

4. To kill an animal that is without the power of remunerating

kind treatment. (e. g. poultry, sheep, &c.) 3

46 SLAVERY AND ITS LAWS .

5. To disturb insects in their holes, and to frighten away birds

perching on the boughs. 3

6. To despise those persons who compassionately set at liberty,

brutes that were intended for the shambles 3

7. To stop up the dens of wild beasts, and destroy the nests of

birds. 20

8. Without great reason to kill and dress animals for food 20

9. Secretly to butcher oxen and dogs. 100

10. To be the foremost to encourage the slaughter of animals,

or to hinder persons from setting them at liberty. 100

Notwithstanding this apparent sensibility, one of the ordinary

punishments for criminals is to place them in the town square, fixed

in a wooden collar, with a guard to prevent any food being given

them, and nothing but a little water allowed daily, in order to

render their sufferings more severe. The torture is thus prolonged

for ten or more days, until death releases the victims of barbar

ism. A people who would suffer this mode of punishment must

be as cruel as they are selfish and sensual.

There can be no doubt that slavery exists in China. Several of

the Europeans engaged in the opium trade on the coast, buy Chi

nese girls, at a price from 100 dollars and upwards according to

their beauty .

Mr. Biot has minutely investigated the laws relative to the hired

servant and the slave. The law protects the two last classes against

their masters . The punishment varies according to the condition

of the parties, for the purpose of keeping up the distinction . Mar

riage between slaves and free persons is strictly forbidden, and

punished by banishment, and the marriage is declared null and

void. A slave guilty of criminal intercourse with a wife or daughter

of a freeman, shall be punished more severely than a freeman would

have been under similar circumstances . The punishment of a free

man under similar circumstances, is much lighter, as it is con

sidered he has disgraced his character. The penal code lays down

responsibility on all parties of the social circle, for the concealment

of the untimely death of either master or slave.

The laws are severe against slaves, and decree that any slave who

purposely strikes his master shall be beheaded . All slaves design

edly killing, or striking their master, with a design to kill , shall

suffer death by a slow and painful execution . All slaves who ac

cidentally kill their masters, shall be strangled after having been

imprisoned the usual time. Every slave who shall accidentally

wound his master, shall suffer one hundred blows, and perpetual

banishment to the distance of three thousand le.

Every hired servant who strikes his master, or the maternal

grandfather or grandmother of his master, shall be punished with

one hundred blows and three years banishment ; if he wounds the

said persons, he shall be punished with one hundred blows, and per

petual banishment to the distance of 3,000 le.

SLAVES AND EUNUCHS. 47

Section 314 of the penal code decrees, that in case of theft or

adultery committed by a slave, if the master or one of his near

relatives secretly beats the slave to death, instead of informing the

magistrate, this master or his relation shall be sentenced to receive

one hundred blows. If the master of a slave, or the relation of a

master in the first degree, intentionally kills this slave, or beats him

to death ; the slave not being guilty of any crime, the delinquent

shall be punished with 60 blows and one year's banishment. The

family of the slave killed have a right to be affranchised . A master

can beat his hired servant without being punished ; but if he kills

him he is punished by strangulation .

Section 322 relates to a master who strikes his late slave, and re

ciprocally. Both shall be punished as equals, the tie between them

having been broken by the sale of the slave ; but if the master

has freed his slave, his right is not transferred to any other, and

thus the sentence is pronounced as if the slave had not been set

free .

Section 328 provides against abusive language from a slave or

hired servant to his master or his relations. If the words are ad

dressed to his master, the slave is punished with strangulation . If

they are addressed to the relations of his master in the first degree,

the slave receives 50 blows and two years banishment . In all cases

the language must have been heard by the person so insulted, and

such person must always complain of it publicly.

There can be no doubt, from a perusal of these laws, that slavery

is general is various parts of China, but it appears specially so in

the southern provinces . The number of slaves that are annually

sent to the island of Formosa from Fookeen is very great. The

Chinese when spoken to, gravely answer, " What can poor people

do that have no rice ? " It is possible that the Chinese authorities

are disposed to subdue the whole island to themselves : lately they

have formed new settlements on the N.E. and E. side of Formosa .

An eye-witness who had seen 150 slaves shipped by natives of

China, says, the junk was only about ninety tons burthen, . divided

into compartments. Previous to the celebration of the new year,

children are regularly sold, and the money is squandered . The

prices average from twenty to fifty dollars each : elderly women

bring about thirty dollars ; female children, who are goodlooking,

bring very high prices, from 500 to 5,000 dollars . The price is

said to go towards foundling hospitals, in which many of them

have been brought up .

The Emperors of the Han, Tang, and Sung dynasties bestowed

most of the civil offices of state on the eunuchs : there is no doubt

that political principles governed their choice ; in this they were

disappointed, as the eunuchs have often excited the greatest dis

sension in the Chinese empire. Since the Mantchou dynasty, the

number of these dependents has been reduced : according to law,

there can be no eunuchs in a private house ; this right is only con

48 INFANTICIDE- PROCLAMATION .

ferred on the princes of the imperial family ; the number at pre

sent in China is about six thousand . By law castration is per

formed on the children of rebels, under sixteen years of age. All

the male relations of criminals guilty of high treason suffer death,

if over sixteen years of age ; and all under that age are made

eunuchs of, to be employed in the palace.

The existence of infanticide in China has been often asserted ;

and either doubted or totally disbelieved , especially by those who

extol Chinese civilization . In proof of its existence, the annexed

proclamation from the Governor of Canton is given :

February 19 , 1838.

" Lieutenant- Governor Ke, to the People of Canton .

" Whereas heaven and earth display their benevolent power in

giving existence, and fathers and mothers exhibit their tender

affection in loving their offspring ; it is, therefore, incumbent on

you, inhabitants of the land, to nurse and rear all your infants,

whether male or female . On inquiry, I find that the drowning of

females is quite common, and practised by both rich and poor.

Had there been no mothers, whence would you have obtained your

own bodies ? If you had no wives, where will be your posterity ?

Reflect consider what you are doing. The destruction of female

infants is nothing less than the murder of human beings . That

those who kill shall themselves be killed , is the sure retribution of

omniscient Heaven. And you , elders and gentry, ought by ex

hortations and kindness to prevent the destruction of human life.

Hereafter no clemency will be shown to such offenders : so give

heed to these instructions ."

The medical missionaries, since the opening of the northern

ports, have been ceaseless in their endeavours to check this cruel

system, and have endeavoured to trace the probable extent to which

it is carried .

The excellent missionary, Mr. Abeel, who was for several years

at Koolungsoo and Amoy, says, that from a comparison with many

other parts of the country, there is reason to believe that a greater

number of children are destroyed at birth in this district , than in

any other department. By an inquiry of persons from forty dif

ferent towns and villages (of which the names are here omitted),

the number destroyed varies exceedingly in different places ; the

extremes extending from seven to eight tenths (Chinese mode), i.e.

seventy or eighty per cent. to one-tenth, or ten per cent.; and the

mean of the whole number, the average proportion destroyed in all

these places, amounted to nearly four- tenths, or exactly thirty-nine

per cent.

In seventeen of these forty towns and villages, the informants

declared that more than one -half of the children born are deprived

of existence. Taking eight other places, as a standard, it lies be

tween one-fourth and three-tenths, or near thirty per cent .

According to the opinion of the inhabitants of eighteen towns

FOUNDLING HOSPITALS . 49

and villages in the department of Changchaw, the number killed is

more than one-fourth, and less than three-tenths. From inquiries

made of the inhabitants of Fuchou-foo, the existence of the crime

is admitted, but its prevalence is not so extensive . An examina

tion which was held at Amoy, in 1843, to confer literary honours,

brought many hundred candidates from various districts, who were

asked as to the extent of the crime ; they all deplored it, and ex-

pressed themselves freely on the subject. But, as suicide is no

crime in China, and self- destruction is even regarded as a favour

by the government to an alleged criminal, so the taking of the life

of an infant, especially that of a female, is not generally regarded

as murder.

To check this brutal custom, efforts are made in large cities, by

the erection of foundling hospitals by benevolent individuals, but

they are too limited in number and resources. There does not

appear to be any disgrace connected with infanticide, except an

exposure of their poverty ; what excuse the rich make it is diffi-

cult to know, but avarice must be the mainspring in their cal

culations .

Foundling hospitals are met with in the large cities of China.

One in Ningpo accommodates from sixty to seventy children of

both sexes : outside the building is placed a wooden cradle, and

over it an inscription : Kian-ching-pau- ch-ih, " Nurture to maturity,

and protect the babes." Each nurse has the charge of two children.

Male children remain until they are fourteen years of age ; girls

until they are sixteen . This institution is upwards of 100 years

established . The six districts connected with Ningpo are taxed in

kind for its support ; it has a yearly income from land and money

funded. It is presided over by a superintendent and a government

inspector.

Extreme poverty is often the cause of infanticide ; but as a

nation or people, the Chinese have more food than the Hindoos.

The labouring classes have two meals in the day, at ten o'clock, A.M.,

and five, P.M. The table furniture is uniform among the several

ranks of society : a large bowl for rice, several small dishes for fish,

and a small bowl for each person, with a pair of chop-sticks, com

plete the requirements of the poor. In eating, each person holds

the small bowl up to his chin, and shovels the rice, or whatever it

is, into his mouth. What most surprises a foreigner is the number

of dishes at a rich banquet. But one kind is brought to table at

once, and probably there will be thirty courses. Fruit is often

served first ; fish, or soup, last ; there does not appear to be any

fixed rule. The Chinese custom, when giving a large party, is to

provide each guest with a separate table. Games of chance are

often introduced between the courses . An ordinary feast will

occupy five or six hours at least. In feasting out, the Chinese are

proverbial for eating voraciously. If an invited guest is prevented

from attending, his share is carefully sent to his house. The

E

50 ANIMAL AND VEGETABLE FOOD ,

female portion of a family is always excluded ; among the higher

ranks, males and females sit at separate tables .

The domesticated animals used by the Chinese as food, comprise

most of those known in Europe, but inferior in size. Cattle for

agricultural purposes are plentiful ; the pasture ground is usually

on the hills among the graves. The broad-tailed sheep is known

all over China, the mutton is tender and well -flavoured ; goats are

abundant, but of all quadrupeds the swine is most common and

esteemed for the fat ; horse-flesh is found in the markets of the

north, and brings a good price : dogs, cats, rats, mice, snakes,

toads, and other reptiles, are eaten by those who can afford to buy

little ; indeed every thing that is found, even to the elephant, is

eaten by the poor.

The beverages of the Chinese are few in variety, and every thing

is drunk warm , but tea is used by every one even at dinner, and

without sugar or milk . On all complimentary visits tea is pre

sented instead of wine .

The castor oil plant and camellia oleifera, or oil- bearing tea

plant, are in great demand . The Chinese use the castor oil in

cooking, as its purgative qualities are not great when fresh . The

oil is obtained from the seeds by parboiling them and then press

ing them in a cylinder. The young shoots of the bamboo, as a

vegetable, are in more extensive use than most other vegetables .

Tobacco is almost universally smoked by men and women ; and not

unfrequently mixed with opium. The rivers, lakes, and canals,

teem with fish, and the millions of people who live on the water and

near the shore, wholly live on fish, the right of fishing being

open to all. They have a species of bird like a cormorant which

is trained to dive for fish ; all the other modes, such as hooks,

nets, and snares, are in use. All the water- products known are to

be found in China ; and fish is more or less an ingredient in every

dish among rich and poor.

The grains which are cultivated include all those used for food,

rice, wheat, rye, &c. Rice is the chief article of diet, and is raised

in almost every part of the empire. The southern parts are best

adapted ; but it has been found growing in the extreme northern

part of China. Wheat and millet appear to be the most general

crop in the region north of the Yangtzekang. Millet is the

great staple on the banks of the Pei-ho ; there are several species

of plants under the name of millet, the seeds of which differ

much in size and taste ; the Barbadoes millet is most common :

panicum, which is planted much later, is also called millet . Rice

and millet are generally boiled together. Wheaten flour is pre

ferred for pastry, cakes , &c. Bread is prepared from wheaten flour,

but without leaven : bread is rarely seen in shops or houses, so

that it is not a common article of food, among the Chinese , Maize

grows to great perfection in the nothern regions, and is most gene

COOKING AND EATING HOUSES . 51

rally eaten green. Oats and barley are known, but not esteemed

for food. Garden vegetables of some sort, always form a part of

the Chinese meals. Leguminous and cruciferous plants are culti

vated in every portion of China that has been visited by Europeans.

The kidney-bean and horse-bean are well known ; the whole plant

is frequently boiled . From the dolichos soja, or soy-bean, is

manufacture d the condiment called soy . The white bean, when

ground with water, appears like the curd of milk, and in that state

is hawked about the streets . Peas are in season in February .

Among cruciferous plants, cabbage and turnips are the most ex-

tensively cultivated. One description of white cabbage grows

upwards of three feet high, and will weigh twelve or eighteen

pounds . Onions and garlics are pickled , boiled , and fried ; carrots,

asparagus, melons, and cucumbers are esteemed . Edible tubers are

cultivated in lakes, rivers, and wherever they will grow. The Irish

potatoe is chiefly confined to the vicinity of Macao. The nelum

bium roots are frequently seen five feet long, and nearly three inches

thick ; in taste they resemble a turnip . They are eaten raw and

cooked, generally boiled . The cooking and mode of eating among

the Chinese are peculiar : cooking is uniform from the governor to

the cooley, as far as regards the preparation of the staples : as to

the mode of eating with two smooth sticks, it is thoroughly na

tional, and unlike any other people in the world. Oil is universally

used in cooking, also garlic or onions ; the most common mode is

stewing and frying. There is no limit to the number of ingre

dients in a single dish, which will often amount to ten or twelve

different substances . The entire body of an animal is sometimes

baked whole ; the outer side is first made clean, and the body

pierced with holes into which salt is rubbed ; this is the common

mode of dressing hogs and dogs . Roasting is hardly known in

Chinese cookery. Puddings, custards, pies, or such like, so much

esteemed in Europe, are nearly or altogether unknown in China .

All attempts to introduce European wines among the Chinese

have hitherto failed . They make a wine from rice, by putting yeast

in it, but it soon turns sour, and is then converted into vinegar.

An ardent spirit (samshoo) is distilled from millet and rice, and

has a smoky flavour somewhat like Scotch whisky. Rum is distilled

from molasses, and is an abominable drink. Cherry brandy (im

ported) is a favourite drink with the rich . If inebriety be prac

tised among the Chinese, it is done in private, for to see a drunkard

in the streets is very unusual. Complimentary healths are drank

at dinner, and the cup is generally drained .

Eating-houses and taverns are numerous in large towns and

cities ; board and lodging are reasonable. The number of taverns

in Canton is very great ; but the greater number of eating-places

are in the principal thoroughfare in the streets, where the provisions

are cooked and vended . The average price for a meal is from two

E2

52 SPIRITS .- PUBLIC GRANARIES .

mace to three candereens. Every thing is hawked about the

streets ; the markets are merely open spaces near the temples.

Fuel is expensive, and only used for cooking and manufactures ; in

cold weather the cheerful fire is dispensed with, and an additional

number of garments, sometimes five or six in number, are worn

over each other ; in warm weather almost every garment is dis

pensed with : body linen is by no means in general use.

Spirits are used extensively, but drunkenness is very rare . The

spirit termed " samshoo " is drank hot at the principal meal.

The following extracts from a native work called " Tung-shen

luh," or " Essays to Good," show how sobriety is inculcated :

(c

Spirits are maddening medicine. They destroy virtue, and

throw man's nature into confusion. Unless men possess sage-like

virtue, they can never control themselves when under the influence

of spirits. The officer who indulges freely in their use, blindly and

sluggishly conducts the duties of his office. The learned and un

learned when steeped in spirits, turn all things upside down . The

licentious and lewd it leads on, acting as their go-between . They

excite anger, and induce quarrelling- they darken and mislead the

intelligent, and make the careful and discreet careless and disor

derly. There are miseries without and diseases within. Spirits

ulcerate the stomach, destroy the intestines, and eventually cause

death."

The dissimilarity in the style of living, between the extremes

of wealth and poverty, is remarkable : the rich Chinese collect

on their tables everything that is curious and expensive ; and

the cost of a dish enhances it in their estimation. On the other

hand, it would be difficult to know what it is the poor of China

do not eat and it is not in times of famine only, but at all

times, they consume food that no other people would eat from

taste or fancy, but from sheer necessity. The principles of the

Chinese law are to admit of no distinctions among the subjects,

except those of learning and office ; and the most rigid laws have

been imposed to check vanity and splendour which wealth is

apt to assume ; but with regard to diet, the difference between

rich and poor is more marked than in any other country.

Public granaries are established in every province. Those of

the government are presided over by an officer who has the

charge of them, and complaints are made of the misappropria

tion of the provision only intended for the poor in times of fa

mine. There are other granaries, which belong to individuals

who have raised a fund for that object. When once filled, the

surplus incomes go to the expenses of the district. In years of

abundance they loan or sell the rice, and at the harvest cause it

to be returned with interest. The Emperor in times of famine

sends a subscription . There is a description of almshouses or hos

pitals, chiefly supported by government, but they only admit the

aged and infirm. The abuses of these desirable institutions are

WAGES .- BUILDING ARRANGEMENTS . 53

very great ; it is said not one-half the incomes are expended on

the poor.

Under the head of manufactures, the rates of wages and prices

of provisions are given . Many of the most skilful men do not

earn a guinea a month ; the most industrious manufacturers get

only three dollars monthly, on an average, and with this they

are content .

Rice, salt, and a few vegetables, with some fish, are their daily

food. They work from daylight to sunset, and have no holiday

except at the new year. There are very few large manufacturing

establishments ; the artizans work on their own account, and sell

their work when it is finished .

Notwithstanding the rudeness of their looms, yet in several

articles of silk and cotton manufactures, the Chinese compete with

European skill and capital, as regards cheapness of production :

and certainly their products are superior in durability, in soft

ness, and frequently in brightness of colour.

The wages of mechanics and skilful workmen are very low,

and seldom exceed one-fourth of a dollar per day ; those engaged

by the month still less . The number of itinerant tradesmen ,

that hawk their labour and tools through every part of China,

is incalculable : they very much resemble the gypsies. A common

labourer's wages average about thirty cash (fourpence) ; ordinary

servants about three and a half dollars per month. When very

poor and not able to work, many turn Buddhist priests.

The laws and custom require all cities and towns to be built on

a plan laid down by government . The first is, they must be

square, as far as the ground will admit ; this is in order that the

gates on each side may face the cardinal points. They are, when

built, divided into four nearly equal divisions, and then subdivided

into smaller divisions, each not to have more than ten houses ; over

each subdivision an officer presides, whose duty is to take notice

of the most trifling circumstance that occurs, such as contention,

or the visit of strangers : all is reported to the Mandarins . This

inquisitorial system commences in the capital of each province, and

descends, step by step, down to the father of every family, who is

held answerable for the ill- conduct of either his slaves, servants, or

children .

Dwelling-houses must be built according to a law which regu

lates the height only. If built in any respect to cope with the

temples, the owner exposes himself to punishment, and the house

is liable to be pulled down. In some of the provinces where wood

is abundant, the houses are chiefly composed of wooden posts,

covered with a coarse kind of mat-work, plastered and whitened .

In Canton the houses are chiefly built of brick, and are only one

story high ; in large cities they are generally two stories high.

The windows are chiefly carved latticed-work, and covered with silk

paper, or split oyster-shells. When viewed from the exterior, the

54 - DWELLINGS AND TEMPLES .- FAIRS .

Chinese dwellings have a neat appearance ; but they will not bear

examination as compared to the internal arrangement of similar

houses in Europe .

The temples in China have generally a handsome front, with a

stage for theatrical performances. The corners of the roof are

more pointed than those of private houses, and no limit is placed to

their height. The interior of these temples are very extensive, as

they serve for a dwelling-place for the priests. Figures in wood

and stone, are very numerous throughout the principal edifice.

Before these are placed dishes and large vases, bearing lights and

incense, which are burnt in honour of the gods. An iron bell and a

large drum are requisite to complete the furnishing of a Chinese

temple. On festival days, after the good things are first offered to

the idols, they are then partaken of by the worshippers ; and sen

suality of the grossest nature often closes the " religious " duties

of the day.

Fairs and markets are held at stated times . In small towns

there are nine fairs every month ; in second-rate towns, fifteen ;

and in large cities there is a fair or market every day- besides

fairs which are held specially for the sale of cattle. At the Chinese

fairs, every thing in use amongst them is sold. Any considerable

quantity of goods is usually bought on credit, and security given

for the payment at a stated time . There is a class of men, who

are called mediators, whose duty is chiefly to reconcile two parties

who cannot agree as to the real value of a commodity. These

" go-betweens " are very numerous, and generally make both

parties pay them for their services.

Inns of a miserable description are to be found in all great

thoroughfares . The beds are very uncomfortable ; the Chinese

generally carry a blanket with them when they travel any distance

from home. Inns on the road- side seldom or ever have sleeping 1{

accommodation for travellers, so that nothing is to be had in

them but boiled rice or vegetables, except tea, which is the usual

beverage.

The military roads are made at the government expense ; and

are rarely laid out in a straight line for any considerable distance,

their direction depending entirely upon the owner or occupier of

the land through which they are made . The provinces that have

no rivers or canals , are intersected with roads, the average breadth

of five or six feet . It is said, that in the provinces of Honan,

Shense, and Chih-li, there are waggons and public conveyances.

In districts that produce salt and coal, and that have no rivers, the

narrow roads are covered for miles with porters , who divide their

burdens into two equal parts, which they attach to each end of a

bamboo pole . Asses and mules are generally made use of in

mountain districts .

The dikes in the low sea-board districts of China, require con

stant repair and attention ; as also the banks of the great rivers .

POOR-LAWS .- BEGGARS .- ROBBERS . 55

Applications are very numerous to government, which are answered

by calling on those who have received imperial favours for subscrip

tions those who seek promotion in office, generally give liberally :

when this amount fails to finish the works, a grant of money is

given, to be restored by means of a sinking fund, within a number

of years. But a free grant for this most necessary purpose is a

rare occurrence. Great damage is done from time to time to large

districts of country by the overflowing of the rivers ; which one of

our ordinary engineers, if in the service of the Chinese govern

ment, would effectually prevent .

Many of the enactments of China read well on paper, but are

never acted upon, and are practically inoperative : thus, for instance,

by the laws of China it is enacted, that all widowers and widows,

the fatherless and childless, the helpless and infirm, shall receive

sufficient maintenance and protection from the magistrates of their

native city or district, whenever they have neither relations nor

connexions upon whom they can depend for their subsistence ; any

magistrate refusing such protection shall be punished with sixty

blows . But as no funds are provided for the maintenance of the

indigent, no mandarins thinks it requisite to attend to the enforce

ment of the law : the poor are, however, permitted to beg from

door to door, and to beat a small gong, or drum, in or at every

house or shop, until they receive some alms, however small. À

beggar may be seen keeping up a hideous din in a shop in Canton

for half-an-hour, without receiving the slightest attention from the

shop-keeper, until some customer comes in, when the noise of the

beggar is quelled by a " cash," the (seventh part of a farthing,) and

he goes off to another door .

The Chinese are probably the most expert robbers, pirates and

burglars, in the world. Thieves are divided into two classes :

pickpockets and housebreakers . The first are migratory, and

visit every fair ; when they arrive, they call on the chief officer,

and request permission to trade (plunder) , which is readily granted,

with the caution not to make a noise. Should they be caught in

the act, they get a few blows . This fraternity have strict laws,

which are rigidly obeyed . Should two bands meet at one fair,

they must fight for the day, or surrender. They have regular

places for depositing their plunder. These bands are very numer

ous, and are subject to the direction of chiefs , some of whom have

600 men under them. The farmers all keep dogs to protect their

property.

The maritime population are much addicted to piracy ; the Foo

keen men and those of Canton ,. are famed for their lawless daring .

In various places along the coast, and on the islands, villages are

plundered by piratical junks, who carry off not only goods, but

young girls. The people are surprised that we do not plunder them

also, and that we pay for whatever we require .

The first foreign ships that visited China, anchored near Macao,

56 PIRATES, THEIR STRENGTH, ETC.

and were attacked by pirates ; from that time to the present, no

boat's crew or junk is safe going any distance along the shore or

from port to port. The East India Company's ships were all fully

armed, a circumstance well known to the pirates, as they never

ventured an attack, The numerous edicts issued by the Emperor

against the pirates, read well on paper but have no effect. The pre

sent mode of hunting them is to start at an appointed time, first

letting off fireworks, and making a great sound of music, to give

them timely warning to hide. But if the government were really

disposed to destroy the pirates, it could soon be accomplished,

by the authorities quietly embarking on board a merchant vessel, as

their haunts are well known. From Turner's account, who was

compelled to live with them in 1810, their junks amounted to up

wards of 500, the average size of them from 100 to 300 tons, the

largest carried from 150 to 200 men with guns, (some of British

manufacture) and long pikes, swords, &c. It is to be regretted

that the mandarins are too ready to compromise the matter. With

all the boasted severity of the laws, these miscreants continue along

the coast and put the Imperial forces at defiance. The ancient

mode was to appoint the leaders of the band of robbers to some

important office ; that was not found to answer well, as Ching, the

notorious pirate, who was made admiral of the sea, afterwards

aimed at the throne of China unsuccessfully, but obtained for his

son one of the princesses of the blood in marriage. His position

was of great importance to the contending parties in China at that

time.

The daring acts of piracy committed on the Chinese coast, are a

source of much uneasiness, particularly to merchants who find it

necessary to ship treasure from one port to another. It appears to

be essential that all vessels coasting should be well prepared with

fire arms. The first mode of attack with the pirates is to throw fire

balls on deck, which causes confusion . Captain Kelly, of the Isa

bella Robertson, and four of his men, were overpowered, and plun

dered of three boxes of money, of the value of 7,440 dollars, at ele

ven o'clock in the forenoon .

The province of Fookeen is allowed by all writers to be more

independent than the others, and the coast is the stronghold of

the pirates : the people are bold, fearless of their own autho

rities, of a shrewd character, with but little knowledge of trade as

connected with European foreigners . The quarrels in the interior

are very frequent, and savage encounters take place between whole

villages and towns ; clanship being most prevalent ; several fierce

attacks were made on towns close to Amoy during the residence

of Captain Gribble, and many lives were lost. The sea-board is

infested by pirates, and may be considered under no control

whatever. Our Consul was informed of the capture and destruc

tion of a war-junk within six miles of Amoy, and partly from

curiosity visited the place ; he succeeded in driving off about 400

RELIGION . - CONFUCIANS . - CREATION . 57

pirates, and delivered her over to the nearest mandarin ; in twelve

hours the pirates re-appeared, and the war-junk was destroyed.

No notice was taken of this capture by the authorities, although

detection was easy . Our Consul, Captain Gribble, had only five

armed-men in the boat when he drove off the pirates.

RELIGION OF THE CHINESE .-It is difficult to convey a distinct

idea of the religion of the Chinese. The higher classes are Deists ;

and I heard their learned men express an utter disbelief of a future

state . In order that we may be the better enabled to see the pros

pects which pure Christianity would have in China, the following

explanation of the Confucian and other systems is given ; for

which I am indebted to Drs. Medhurst, Gutzlaff, Bridgeman, and

others. While in China, I was favoured by Dr. Gutzlaff trans

lating my " Analysis of the Bible " into Chinese, which I caused

to be printed ; it is now extensively circulating throughout China,

and said to be producing a good effect.

The Confucian system of religion, if religion it can be called, for

it has little or nothing to do with theology, is merely a scheme of

ethics and politics, from which things spiritual and divine are gene

rally speaking excluded . In the works of Confucius, there are

some allusions to Heaven as the presiding power of nature ; and to

Fate as the determiner of all things ; but he does not appear to

attribute originality to the one, or rationality to the other. " Life

and death are decreed by Fate ; riches and poverty rest with Hea

ven."

The Book of Odes, speaks of the Imperial Supreme, as r ma

jestic in his descending and surveying the inhabitants of the world,

and promoting their tranquillity ;" who is to be worshiped and

served with abstinence and purification ; while he views the affairs

of men, and rewards or punishes them according to their deeds.

" The principle of order, which regulates the universe," is called

the soul of the world . The heavens and earth, together with all

animate and inanimate things, are, according to them, but one

principle ; which is as universally diffused through nature, as wa

ter through the ocean.

Their description of the creation of the world is as follows :

" Before heaven and earth were divided, there existed one universal

chaos ; when the two energies of nature were gradually distin

guished, and the yin and yang, i. e. the male and female princi

ples, established. Then the purer influence established, and became

the expansive heavens ; while the grosser particles descended, and

constituted the subjacent earth . From the combination of these

two, all things were produced ; and thus heaven is the father, and

earth the mother of nature ."

Hwaenantze, an ancient author of China, whose works are in

great esteem,. writes thus :-" Heaven was formless, a chaos ; and

the whole mass nothing but confusion . Order was produced in the

pure ether ; out of the pure ether the universe came forth ; the

58 COSMOGONY . - TRINITY .-MAN .

universe produced the air. When the pure male principle yang,

had been diluted, it formed the heavens. The heavy parts coagu

lated and formed the earth . The refined particles united very

soon, but the thick and heavy went on slowly ; therefore the

heavens came into existence first, and the earth afterwards. From

the subtile escence of heaven and earth, the dual principles, yang

and yin, were formed ; the joint operation of yang and yin pro

duced the four seasons, putting forth their generative power,

gave birth to all the products of the earth . The warm air of

yang produced fire, and the finest parts of fire formed the sun.

The cold air of the yin, being condensed, produced water ; and

the finest parts of the watery substance formed the moon.

Their system of cosmogony is connected with a scheme of dia

grams, which consists of a square, according to the following

form :

4 9 2

35 7

8 1 6

Of these every odd number represents heaven, or the superior

principle ; and every even number earth, or the inferior principle :

the odd numbers combined make 25 , and the even ones , with the

decade, 30 ; and by these 55 numbers, they imagine that all trans

formations are perfected, and the spirits act .

Another portion of their faith is in a material trinity, called

heaven, earth, and man ; meaning by the latter sages only. Hea

ven and earth produced human beings; but without communicating

instruction, their work was incomplete. Thus the sages aided na

ture in teaching the principles and correct forms for the govern

ment of the world ; and thus a triad is established of equal powers

and importance .

An extract from one of the Four Books, will better illustrate their

belief.

*

" It is only the thoroughly sincere, who can perfect his own na

ture ; he who can perfect his own nature, can perfect the nature of

other men he who can perfect the nature of men, can perfect the

nature of things ; he who can perfect the nature of things, can

assist heaven and earth, in renovating and nourishing the world . "

Of Confucius, it is said by his followers, that his fame overflowed

China like a deluge ; wherever there is blood and breath he has

been honoured, and therefore he is equal to Heaven . There are

1550 temples dedicated to him ; 62,600 animals annually sacri

ficed to his manes ; and 27,000 pieces of silk offered ; all of which

are paid for by government.

BIOGRAPHY OF CONFUCIUS . 59

Confucius was born in the year 550 ь.c.; his father was a magis

trate in the then petty kingdom of Lu, now the province of Shan

tung. At the early age of seventeen, he was appointed as a clerk

in the grain department ; which was then, as it is now, a govern

ment tax. When he was twenty-four years of age, he lost his

mother, and resigned his appointment in order to mourn for her

three years, according to ancient custom . This sacrifice on the

part of a young man, in imitating and reviving the ancient custom,

made a great impression on his neighbours, and they all succes

sively followed his example. From this province the practice

spread throughout the empire, and it is at present strictly adhered

to, even by the emperor.

During the three years he paid great attention to the customs

of the ancient kings, Yau and Sheen, in order to ascertain how

perfection in morals was attained. In order to carry out his

principles, he composed a series of works which set forth his

doctrine. His next plan was to establish schools, for which pur

pose he traversed the whole empire, and became a favourite at

court, so that free admission to the archives of the kingdom was

given to him.

Confucius had great aptitude for illustrating his doctrine from

the works of nature ; one of his dissertations will give the reader an

idea of his style. On one occasion, when walking with some dis

ciples, he perceived a fowler catching birds with a net . Confucius

asked him how it was he had caught no old birds . " The old

66

birds," said he, are too wary to be caught, and the young ones

that follow them attentively, likewise escape ; but the young ones

that separate from the flock are what I generally catch. Occa

sionally I catch an old bird, but only when he follows the young

ones . >> " Now," said Confucius, " attend to my instruction : the

young birds escape the snare only when they keep with the old

ones ; the old ones are taken when they follow the young ; thus it

is with mankind . Presumption, hardihood, want of forethought,

and inattention, are the principal reasons why young people are led

astray. They rashly undertake acts without consulting the aged

and experienced, and thus, following their own notions, are misled,

and fall into the first snare that is laid for them.”

Confucius, after many years' travelling, settled in his native

state, Lu, where he established a kind of college, which taught and

disseminated his doctrine, by the aid of 3,000 students, who colS

lected his sayings, and called them Lun-yu, now one of the Four

Books.

Every district in the empire has a temple dedicated to Confu

cius ; and every school-room has a tablet with his name on it, be

fore which incense is burnt by the scholars twice a day.

The writings of Confucius are held in great veneration, and

consist of nine books, five of which are called the canonical works .

The Four Books must be committed to memory by all who attain

60 PHILOSOPHY OF CONFUCIUS .

to distinction in literary rank. The first of the Four Books is the

Ta-heo, which endeavours to show that in the knowledge and

government of one's self the economy and government of a family

must originate ; and from thence to a province ; and that the same

rules and maxims should be practised in governing the empire.

The whole work has a political tendency ; one extract will readily

show this : " Let those who produce revenue be many, and those

who consume it few ; let the producers have every facility, and let

the consumers practise economy ; and thus there will be at all

times a sufficiency of revenue." 1 The leading features of his

morality are subordination to superiors ; kind and upright dealing

with our fellow-men ; children to obey parents, who, in their turn,

are to obey the king, who is himself to obey Heaven- whose son

the king is.

It is recorded of Confucius, that the Prince of Lu dying, his son

called on Confucius to take the entire management of the state.

The wisdom of the philosopher was very soon apparent in the good

government of the state, and the happiness of the people was

greatly augmented.

There was one of the nobles of this state who had hitherto com

mitted great crimes with impunity. Confucius had him tried and

executed ; this courageous act made him still more popular.

His austere and truly moral principles, and the propriety and

decorum that were observed at court, procured him many enemies ;

and his prince once more relapsing into a licentious state of life,

Confucius left the helm of affairs, and took again to travelling, and

writing his books, which, when completed, (at the age of sixty

eight,) he dedicated with great solemnity to Heaven. He died in

479 B.C. in the seventy-third year of his age. His posthumous

honours are numerous, and his descendants continue to dwell in

Shantung province to this day ; and the heads of the family are

the only hereditary nobility in the empire. The chief is called the

holy duke. The Emperor Kanghe had a correct list made out of

the descendants of the sage, and they numbered 11,000 males : the

present is the seventy-fourth generation .

A few of the select sayings of Confucius illustrate his doctrines .

The Seaou King, a treatise on filial duty, was written by Confu

cius ; a work in more general circulation than any other in the

Chinese empire .

Section the first is on the origin and nature of filial duty.

Question. " How did the ancient kings render the kingdom so

obedient that the people lived in peace and harmony, and that no

ill-will existed between superiors and inferiors ? —A.- Filial duty

is the root of virtue, and the stem from which instruction in moral

principles springs forth. Filial duty requires of us to carefully pre

serve from injury the bodies which we have received from our

parents ; and to acquire for ourselves a station in the world , thus

regulating our conduct by correct principles, so as to transmit our

FILIAL DUTY IN ALL CLASSES . 61

names to future generations, and reflect glory on our parents :

this is the ultimate aim of filial duty.

Think always of your ancestors ;

Talk of, and imitate their virtues."

Section 2nd. - Filial duty as practised by the Son of Heaven.

" If he loves his parents, he cannot hate other people ; if he

respects his parents, he cannot treat others with neglect. When

his love and respect towards his parents are perfect, those virtues

will be extended to the people, all will imitate his example.

When the one man is virtuous,

The millions will rely upon him."

Section 3rd . - Filial duty exhibited on the part of nobles.

" When those who are above all others are free from pride, they

are not in danger from exaltation. To be elevated, and yet secure

from danger, is the way in which continually to maintain nobility;

and of abundance to have nothing wasted. Thus preserving their

nobility and riches, they will be able to protect their ancestral

possessions, and keep their subjects and people in peace and quiet

ness .

Be watchful, be very watchful,

As though approaching a deep abyss,

Or as when treading upon thin ice."

Section 4th .- On the practice of filial duty by ministers of state.

" No robes but those which were allowed by the laws of the

ancient kings should be worn : language opposed to their usage

should not be employed. If ministers of state speak only accord

ing to the rules, and act only in harmony with the principles of

those ancient kings, their words will be unexceptionable, and their

conduct irreproachable .

Morning and evening be watchful :

‫در‬

And diligently serve the one man .'

Section 5th. On the attention of scholars to filial duty.

" With the same love that they serve their fathers, they should

serve their mothers likewise ; and with the same respect that they

serve their fathers, they should serve their prince ; unmixed love,

then, will be the offering they make to their mothers : unfeigned

respect the tribute they bring to their prince ; and towards their

fathers both these will be combined .

From the hour of early dawn, till late retirement at night,

Always be careful not to dishonour those who gave you birth."

Section 6th . - On the practice of filial duty by the people.

" To observe the revolving seasons, to distinguish the diversities

of soil, to be careful of their persons, and practice economy . There

fore, from the Son of Heaven down to the common people, whoever

does not always conform to the requirement of filial duty, will be

overtaken by calamity : there can be no exception ."

Section 7th .- Filial duty is the grand law of heaven, the great

bond of earth, and the capital duty of man.

62 THREE THOUSAND CRIMES .

How glorious was the good master Yin,

All the people anxiously looked up to him. "

Section 8th. - The influence of filial duty on government.

" In ancient times, the illustrious kings governed the empire on

the principles of filial duty. They would not treat with disregard

even the ministers of small countries, how much less dukes, counts ,

and barons of every grade ; hence all the state gladly served the

ancient kings . The masters of ancient families would not neglect

even their servants and concubines, much less their wives and

children .

They exhibited a pattern of virtuous conduct,

And the nations on all sides submitted to them."

Section 9th . “ Of all things that derive their notions from hea

ven and earth, man is the most noble ; and of all duties which are

incumbent on him, there is none greater than filial obedience. The

feelings which ought to characterize the intercourse between father

aud son are of a heavenly nature, resembling the bonds which

exist between a prince and his ministers .

The great and good man,

Is never guilty of an error."

Section 10th.P Of crimes and punishments .

" There are three thousand crimes to which one or the other of

the five kinds of punishment is attached as a penalty ; and of these

no one is greater than disobedience to parents . When ministers

exercise control over the monarch, then there is no supremacy.

When the maxims of the sages are set aside, then the law is abro

gated; so are those who disregard filial duty, as though they had

no parents ."

Section 11th . - The best moral principles explained .

" In teaching the people to love one another, there is nothing so

beneficial as a proper understanding of filial duty. In teaching

them the rules of politeness and obedience, there is nothing so

good as a thorough knowledge of the duties which brothers owe to

each other ; for improving their manners, instruction in music is

the most efficient means that can be employed . Nothing is equal

to properly inculcating the principles of propriety. Now, propriety

of conduct has its foundation in respect. When princes respect

their parents, children take pleasure in imitating them. When

respect is shewn to elder brothers, the younger will rejoice to follow

the example. When the sovereign is respected, his ministers will

be delighted . Thus when one is respected , thousands and tens of

thousands receive pleasure ; and the few by paying respect, render

the many happy. "

Section 12th. -On remonstrance .

66 Formerly, if the emperor had only seven ministers who would

remonstrate with him, though he were destitute of virtue, yet he

lost not his empire. The nobles, though they might be devoid of

principle, yet if they had five servants who would remonstrate with

STATE RELIGION OF CHINA . 63

them, lost not their countries . And if a scholar had faithful friends

to remonstrate with him, he would not lose his good name."

Section 13th .- On the retributive results of filial duty.

" The ancient kings served their parents with respect ; hence

they could serve heaven intelligently. With them concord and

obedience were maintained between seniors and juniors ; hence

superiors and inferiors moved in their respective spheres. Even the

Son of Heaven (emperor) must have some one above him, namely his

father ; some one senior to himself, to be regarded as his eldest bro

ther. But it is in the ancestral temple that he displays the most per

fect degree of reverence for his parents, adorning himself with virtue,

lest he dishonour his progenitors ; it is while worshiping with rever

ence, that the spirits of his ancestors manifest themselves to him.”

Section 14th . - On the death of parents.

" The sages taught the people, not to destroy the living on ac

count of the dead , nor to injure themselves with grief. The time

of mourning is limited to three years, to show the people it must

have an end . When a parent dies, a coffin and case is made ready,

and the corpse wrapped in a shroud is laid therein . The male and

female members of the family, moving by the side of the coffin ,

weep as they advance . A felicitous burial-place is selected, and

the body laid down to rest. And in spring and autumn, sacrificial

rites are performed, to keep the dead in perpetual remembrance.

This is the fulfilment of all filial duty.”

There is a state religion practised by the court, at Peking, and by

all provincial governments. The objects of worship are things and

persons ; the sacrifices are thus divided . 1st, great sacrifices ; 2nd,

medium sacrifices ; 3rd, small sacrifices for the multitude. In the

following list, the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, and 4th, are the objects to which the

great sacrifices are offered . From the 5th to the 13th are those to

which the medium sacrifices are offered ; from the 14th to the 30th

they are only entitled to small sacrifices . 1st . The heavens or sky,

called also the imperial concave expanse. 2nd. The imperial earth.

3rd . The great temple of ancestors . 4th. The gods of the land

and grain. 5th. The sun, called the ' great light .' 6th . The moon ,

' night light.' 7th . The names of the emperors of former ages.

8th. The ancient master, Confucius. 9th . The first patron of agri•

culture. 10th . The ancient patron of silk manufacture . 11th .

The gods of heaven. 12th. The gods of the earth . 13th . The

god of the passing year. 14th. The ancient patron of the healing

art ; and the ghosts of faithful statesmen, scholars, &c. 15th . The

stars . 16th . The clouds . 12th. The rain . 18th . The wind .

19th . Thunder. 20th. The five great mountains of China . 21st .

The four great seas . 22nd . The four rivers . 23rd. The famous

hills. 24th Great streams of water. 25th. Military flags and

banners . 26th . The god of a road where, any army must pass .

27th. The god of cannon. 28th. The gods of the gate. 29th .

The queen goddess of the ground . 30th. The north pole, & c. &c.

!

64 EMPEROR THE HIGH PRIEST .

The priests of this state religion, are the emperor, (who is high

priest,) kings, nobles, statesmen, and an indefinite number of civil

and military officers . When the "high priest " worships heaven, he

wears robes of azure colour ; for the earth his robes are yellow ; for

the sun his dress is scarlet ; for the moon , a pale milky white . The

nobles wear their court-dresses . The altar on which the sacrifice to

heaven is laid, is round ; the altar dedicated to the earth is square.

It is only when the sacrifice to the patron of silk manufacturers

takes place, that the empress, princesses, and imperial concubines

are permitted to take part. All who take part in the first order of

sacrifices, are required to fast three days. They must abstain from

listening to music ; from cohabitation with wives or concubines ;

from mourning for the dead ; from eating onions or garlic, or drink

ing wine. The victims offered are bullocks, cows, sheep, and pigs.

There is no particular rule for killing them, but they are all cooked

and made ready for eating when blessed. The sacrifice to Heaven

is offered on the day of the winter solstice ; to earth on the day

of the summer solstice ; and the remainder at fixed periods .

The ceremonies consist in kneeling, bowing, and knocking the

head against the ground. When the Emperor officiates, this cere

mony is partly dispensed with ; the nine knockings of the head

are turned into bows.

Any informality in attending to the state religion is punished by

a fine ; but as none but high officers of state are permitted to take

part, this is of small moment. The punishment awarded to com

mon people for holding communion with the gods, or announcing

their wants in the same manner as the emperor, is, for the first

offence, 70 blows ; and for a repetition, strangulation . According to

the 161st section of the criminal code, if the priests of Budha and

Yaou imitate the state religion , it shall be deemed a profanation of

the sacred rites, for which they shall be expelled .

On occasions of drought, pestilence, famine, war, or any other ca

lamity,the Emperor alone prays to heaven for the people. The fol

lowing prayer for rain was made by the Emperor, in 1802 .

" Kneeling, a memorial is hereby presented, to cause affairs to

be heard.

" Oh, alas ! Imperial Heaven, were not the world afflicted by ex-

traordinary changes, I would not dare to present extraordinary

services. But this year the drought is most unusual. Summer is

past, and no rain has fallen . Not only do agriculture and human

beings feel the dire calamity, but also beasts and insects, herbs and

trees almost cease to live.

"I, the minister of Heaven, am placed over mankind, and am res

ponsible for keeping the world in order, and tranquillizing the people.

Although it is now impossible for me to sleep or eat with compo

sure ; although I am scorched with grief and tremble with anxiety ;

still, after all, no genial or copious showers have been obtained.

Some days ago, I fasted, and offered rich sacrifices on the altars of

}

EMPEROR'S PRAYER FOR RAIN . 65

the gods of the land and the grain ; and had to be thankful for

gathering clouds, and slight showers ; but not enough to cause

gladness.

" Looking up, I consider that Heaven's heart is benevolence and

love. The sole cause is the daily deeper atrocity of my sins ; with

but little sincerity and little devotion. Hence, I have been unable

to move Heaven's heart, and bring down abundant blessings .

"Having respectfully searched the records, I find that in the

24th year of Keen-lung, my imperial grandfather, the high, honor .

able, and pure emperor, reverently performed a ' great snow ser

vice.' I feel impelled, by ten thousand considerations, to look up

and imitate the usage, and with trembling anxiety, rashly to assail

heaven, and examine myself, whether in sacrificial services I have

been disrespectful ? Whether or not pride and prodigality have had

a place in my heart, springing up there unobserved ? Whether from

the length of time, I have become remiss in attending to the affairs

of government ; and having been unable to attend to them with

serious diligence, and strenuous effort, I deserve reprehension ?

Whether perfect equity has been attained in conferring rewards or

inflicting punishments ? Whether in raising mausoleums and lay

ing out gardens, I have distressed the people and wasted property?

Whether in the appointment of officers, I have failed to obtain fit

and proper persons, and thereby the acts of government have been

} petty and vexatious to the people ? Whether punishments have

been unjustly inflicted or not ? Whether the oppressed have found

no means of appeal ? Whether in persecuting heterodox sects,

the innocent have not been involved ? Whether or not the magis

trates have insulted the people, and refused to listen to their

affairs ? Whether in the military operations on the western fron

tiers, there may have been the horrors of human slaughter, for the

} sake of imperial rewards ? Whether the largesses bestowed on the

afflicted southern provinces were properly applied, or the people

left to die in the ditches ? Whether the efforts to exterminate the

rebellious mountaineers , or to pacify them, were properly conducted ;

or whether they led to the inhabitants being trampled on as mire

and ashes ? To all these topics, to which my anxieties have been

directed, I ought to lay the plumb-line, and strenuously endeavour

to correct what is wrong ; still recollecting that there may be faults

which have not occurred to me in my meditations .

" Prostrate, I beg Imperial Heaven, (Hwang Teen) to pardon my

ignorance and stupidity, and to grant me self-renovation ; for

myriads of innocent people are involved by me, a single man. My

sins are so numerous, it is difficult to escape from them. Summer

is past and autumn arrived ; to wait longer will be impossible .

Knocking head I pray, Imperial Heaven , to hasten and confer

gracious deliverance, a speedy and divinely beneficial rain , to save

the people's lives ; and in some degree redeem my iniquities. Oh,

F

66 PRAYER BEFORE WAR .

alas ! Imperial Heaven observe these things, be gracious. I am

frightened . Reverently this memorial is presented . ”

The following is a copy of the prayer of the Emperor Kang-he

before going to war :

" Sovereign Lord of Heaven- the supreme Ruler-receive my

homage, and grant protection to the humblest of thy subjects .

With respectful confidence, I invoke thy aid in the war, which I

am compelled to wage . Thou hast heaped on me thy favours, and

hast distinguished me by thy special protection. A people without

number acknowledges thy power . I adore in silent devotion thy

manifold kindness, but know not how to manifest the gratitude

which I feel.

" The desire of my heart is to give to my people, and likewise let

strangers enjoy, the blessings of peace ; but the enemy has put a

stop to this, my most cherished hope. Prostrate before thee I imA

plore thy succour, and in making this humble prayer, I am animated

with the hope of obtaining thy signal favour. My only wish is to

procure a lasting peace throughout the immense regions over which

‫ر‬

thou hast set me. ‫د‬

One of the sects of religionists into which the inhabitants are

divided is called Taou, signifying a way or path, a principle, and

the principle from which heaven, earth, . man and nature emanate.

Laou-tan or Laou-tsze, the founder of this sect, was a contempo

rary with Confucius ; but the Taou, or Reason itself, they assert is

uncreated and underived . His fabulous incarnation is as follows :

" The venerable prince existed before the creation, but was incar

nate in the time of Yang-kea, of the Shang dynasty, в.c. 1407 ;

when from the regions of great purity and eternal reason, a subtle

fluid descended from the superior principle of nature, and was

transformed into a yellow substance, about the size of a pill ; which

rolling into the mouth of a pearly damsel while she was asleep,

caused her to conceive : the child was not born till eighty-one

years afterwards, and on his appearance was grey-headed, and was

called Laou-tsze, ' the venerable one.' The second appearance of

this wonderful individual was in the person of Laou-tan, who was

visited by Confucius B.C. 500. The third appearance was in a.D.

633, when a man reported he had seen an old man, who said . Go

‫رور‬

and tell the Emperor that I am Laou-keuen his ancestor.'

The votaries of Taou preach virtue, and profess to promote it by

abstraction from the world, and the repression of desire ; the latter

object they think is effected by eating their spirits, i . e . stopping their

breathing for a considerable time. All depends on the subjection

of the heart ; so they mortify every feeling, in order to attain unto

perfect virtue. To prevent intercourse with the world, many of

them retire to the hills and mountains . The theory of this faith

teaches the votaries to despise wealth and worldly objects. Alchemy

is a great study with them ; but the frequent impositions practised

THE TAOU RELIGION . 67

by them having been discovered, they have been driven from the

court. The head of this sect, professes to have intercourse and per

fect control over the demons of the invisible world, and conse

quently removes the deities from one temple to another, as the

Emperor does his officers .

As a matter of course, superstition reigns triumphant among the

votaries of Taou, so that ghosts and accidents are guarded against

by having possession of a charm, which this prince of ghosts

disposes of; to be efficacious they must be renewed every year. The

services of the priest, are particularly required after death has taken

place in a house, to cleanse it from evil spirits . The estimation in

which this sect is held by the government, cannot be better illus

trated than by giving an extract from a commentary on the Sacred

Edict. The Sacred Edict was written by the Emperor Kang-he, A.D.

1723, and the commentary by his son and successor Yungching.

The 7th article inculcates the policy to degrade strange religions,

in order to exalt the orthodox doctrine.

"All these nonsensical tales about keeping fasts, collecting

assemblies, building temples, and fashioning images, are feigned by

those sauntering priests of Budha and Taou to deceive you. Still

you believe them, and suffer your wives and daughters to worship

at their temples ; with their hair oiled , their faces painted , and

dressed in scarlet, trimmed with green . I see nowhere the good .

they do ; on the contrary, they do many shameful things, which give

people occasion for laughter and ridicule . All their object is

nourishing well the animal spirits, and lengthening out life for a

few years : that is all. ”

The fundamental doctrine of Buddah is that all things originated

in nothing, and will return to nothing : annihilation is the summit

of bliss ; and nonentity the future anticipation of all . The priests

are held in great respect by their adherents, but the literati

hold them in the greatest contempt. Their indolent lives and

1

celibacy, so opposite to the Confucian doctrine, may account

for their degradation . Taken from the dregs of society they

are what they preach, poor - from necessity not from choice.

There are several grades amongst them, and when better opportuni

ties offer, they throw off the garb, and take some other occupation .

When strolling play-actors arrive in a city or village, they take the

chief management of the performance. The caps they wear are

made after the shape of some of the Roman Catholic sects of

Europe. The similarity of their forms of worship to the Roman

Catholic is very observable ; namely celibacy, holy water, prayers for

the dead, fasting, rosaries, (beads which they reckon while repeating

their prayers) , the worship of relics, together with nunneries which

are attached to their temples. From the vast number of the Bud

dhist priests in China, they are wretchedly poor, and subsist by

begging chiefly, and are not allowed while priests to attend the

public examinations . This degraded state of the priesthood and

F2

68 BUDDHISTICAL DOCTRINES .

the dilapidated state of their temples, intimate that the system is

on the wane.

The Buddhists, to reconcile the Chinese to their doctrine, have

adopted a precept of Confucius, viz . : that the children are bound

to sacrifice to their deceased ancestors . Thus, those who leave

children and grandchildren endeavour to provide for them ; but those

who have nothing to leave behind them, must wander about cold

and hungry in the invisible regions. To provide the hungry ghosts

who left no posterity to supply their wants, this sect have taken

advantage of this general feeling, and have a ceremony every year

during the seventh moon ; and as every district, village, and street

is supposed to have hungry ghosts, there is one held in each ; this

is all under the cloak of charity and benevolence, for which large

collections are made. The quantity of provisions collected for

those occasions is immense, so that one day in the year these im

postors are sure to fare well . Money is remitted to these poor

ghosts, also clothes, furniture and houses, made of paper ; for the

money a small bit of gold leaf or tin foil is attached to a bit of

paper about three inches long ; clothes are drawn on or cut out

of paper, houses of card, cooking utensils of wood , all of which

are consumed by fire . The baskets, when seen on the altar, are

crammed full- to all appearance piled up : but on examination

both baskets and rice bowls have false bottoms or are filled

with shavings. The consumption of sacrificial paper forms a

large item of trade .

Buddhism was imported into China about the year 60 of the

Christian era, by Ming-ti one of the Han dynasty. At the present

time the priests of this sect actually swarm in every province of

China. Their commandments or interdicts, are five. 1st, From

the meanest insect up to man, thou shalt kill no animal whatever ;

2nd. Do not steal ; 3rd, Do not marry, or violate the wife or concu

bine of another ; 4, Speak not falsely ; 5, Drink no wine or intoxi

cating liquor.

The ten sins- 1 , killing animals ; 2 , theft ; 3, adultery ; 4, false

hood ; 5 , discord ; 6, offensive language ; 7, idle-talk ; 8, coveting ;

9, envy-malice ; 10, following the doctrines of false gods . Their

vows are to renounce all family connexions, shave their head and

reside in temples . The gods they worship, are the three precious

Buddahs- the past, present, and future ; the goddess of mercy, the

goddess of small-pox, the patroness of barren women, the god of

wealth . The three Buddahs are generally represented half naked,

with woolly hair, in a sitting position.

Their temples are adorned with images to their various gods and

goddesses ; an altar on which are placed candles and incense, and

in the centre a very large iron cauldron, for burning gilt paper in ;

on one side of the hall is placed a large bell and a drum, which is

only put in motion when a person of some importance comes to

adore the god ; he is not to be aroused for every plebeian . They

NUNNERIES .-MAHOMEDANS . 69

have no sabbaths, but observe the new and full moon with great

solemnity ; they have service every day, besides one hundred and

sixty fast days in every year.

The service consists in offering up forms of prayer in the Sanscrit

language, which few of the priests understand, and in repeating the

name of Buddah (" O -me-to - Fuh") two or three hundred thousand

times ; the devotee is then at no great distance from a personal

vision of the god. The advantages promised, are that all the gods.

will protect the true devotee ; all the demi -gods will attend him ;

all the Buddahs will think of him ; no devil can harm him ; all his

former crimes shall melt away, and he shall be delivered from the

crime of murder ; and when he dies he shall see O-me-to - Fuh !

What a field of promise China offers to the missionaries of the one

and true God !

Nunneries in China are numerous . They are dedicated to the

"Goddess of Mercy," and are connected with Buddhism. Vacancies

are filled up by purchase and self-dedication ; and parents very

often sell their female children . The inducement held out is the cer

tainty of being, after death, completely absorbed into the unknown

Budha . Their dress is so much like that of the Buddhist Priests,

that in the streets it is difficult to distinguish between them. The

distinction between the novice and the nun in orders is, one has

the head completely shaven and the novice only a small portion of

the crown ; the other requirements are to eat and drink sparingly,

and wholly to live on vegetable diet, with a perpetual vow of

virginity ; the sick and poor are to be visited . Their services are

performed morning and evening, and consist of reciting out of

their sacred books ; and when specially employed to perform a ser

vice they are remunerated by sums varying from 50 to 100 cash.

Their means of support arise from donations and subscriptions, and

letting out their nunneries into lodgings, not unfrequently for

the basest purposes . In the district of Ningpo there are upwards

of thirty of these bagnios .

The number of Mahommedans in China is said to be consider

able. There is a large mosque inside the city of Canton . Many

learned Mahommedans, from Balk and Samarkand, accompanied

the Western Tartars when they invaded China, A.D. 1278. These

men were of infinite service to the state, particularly in imparting

to them a knowledge of astronomy, and correcting their calendar.

But still they were quite astray in their calculations until the

arrival of the Jesuits in the sixteenth century ; in fact, the Chi

nese had not proper instruments until then. Astrology appears

more sought after than astronomy, even to the present day.

The increase in the number of the Mohammedans was so great

in a few years, as to attract the attention of government ; it was

discovered that their increase was owing to their purchasing chil

dren whom their parents were unable to rear, and would other

wise have destroyed . Many of this persuasion have held important

70 JEWS IN CHINA .

offices under government. They are still numerous about the

borders of the province of Shen-se, and generally congregate in

districts .

We have no account of the number of Jews in China ; but that

there are many in the inland provinces, is very probable . There

is an early record, of Jews in China, given by two Arabian

travellers, who traded with China, A.D. 877, (see Foreign Inter

course) . Peristal, an Italian Jew, who wrote two centuries ago,

states that the Jews were at one time powerful in India and China.

"Their chief residence was Chabor, to approach which you must

double the Cape of Good Hope, enter the Indian Ocean, make the

continent of Asia, and you will find Chabor."

A Rabbi, named Benjamin of Tudela, in the 12th century,

visited many countries of the East to discover the scattered tribes .

He found them in Persia, Samarckand, Tibet, and China. He

states that part of the Ten Tribes crossed the Great Wall which

divides China from Tartary, and settled in the former. Father

Ricci, the learned Jesuit, while residing in Peking in A.D. 1610,

met with a Jew who informed him that there were ten families of

Jews residing in Keafung-foo , which is the capital of the province

of Honan ; and that they had preserved a copy of the Pentateuch

600 years. Father Ricci showed him a Hebrew Bible. The

young Jew (although a Chinese student) identified the characters.

The onerous duties of Ricci, and the distance from Peking (200

leagues) , prevented him personally inspecting this Synagogue.

But three years after he sent a Chinese Jesuit with a letter to the

chief, who seemed so well aware of the fame of Ricci, that he in

vited him to take possession of the Synagogue, as he was very old,

provided he would abstain from meats that were forbidden. On

this occasion the Pentateuch was minutely examined, and found

in every respect conformable to the Hebrew Bible.

The subsequent year, Father Aleni, a Jesuit and distinguished

Hebrew scholar, visited this Synagogue ; but the chief was dead,

and nothing could induce them to show their books. They stated

that their ancestors came from a kingdom of the West ; and that

their alphabet had twenty-seven letters, but that they seldom made

use of more than twenty-two ; when they read the Bible they cover

their face with a transparent veil . They read a section every Sab

bath-day, and thus read the law in the course of the year. They

call themselves Tiau-kin Kiau* " the sect which plucks out the

sinew." They date their entry into China B.C. 258. Several Jews

have been governors and ministers of state in China.

LANGUAGE. According to the Rev. Mr. Medhurst, who is in

ferior to none of our Chinese scholars, and whose benevolent cha

racter leads him among all classes of the people, the elements,

or radicals of the Chinese language, refer generally to well known

* The children of Israel eat not of the sinew which shrank.- Genesis xxxii. 32.

CHINESE LANGUAGE . CHARACTERS . 71

things, such as the human species, man and woman ; the parts of

the body, head, mouth, ear, eye, face, heart, hand, foot, flesh, bones,

and hair ; human actions, speaking, walking, and eating ; things

necessary to man, such as silks, clothes, door, and city ; the celes

tial objects, sun , moon, and rain ; the elements, wood, water, fire,

metal, and earth ; the vegetable, animal, and mineral kingdoms .

The words referable to their substances or subjects, are classed so

as to be discernible without much difficulty ; and by a nice calcu

lation of the additional number of strokes, the position of the cha

racter as given in the dictionary, is as well ascertained as by an

alphabet. Every character occupies an exact square, of whatever

number of strokes it be composed ; uniformity is the point of ex

cellence in which the Chinese delight, so that the page shall ap

pear as divided into an equal number of sections . The Chinese

read from top to bottom, and commence at the right hand, going

down each column. They write and print only on one side, so

double each page . The edges are not cut in front ; but on the

top, bottom, and back of the book. Each volume contains about

eighty pages, and the book is not more than half an inch thick.

Where exactness is necessary, communication by oral medium is

difficult. The sound E, for instance, has upwards of 1800

significations. When any business of importance is to be dis

cussed, it can only be properly understood by each party writing

down his ideas . In the courts of justice, accusations and defences

are obliged to be written ; even the instruction is not imparted

verbally, in the Chinese schools, and to this may be attributed the

slow march of civilization, as anything not seen is ill understood .

Nothing can more strongly prove either their want of capacity or

unwillingness, than that few, if any, of their most distinguished

scholars know anything of foreign languages, not even to pro

nounce a double consonant .

Dr. Gutzlaff, who well comprehends the language, referring

to the roots , says a horizontal, a perpendicular, two oblique lines

drawn in opposite directions, with an acute angle and dot,

constitute the rudiments of which all Chinese characters con

sist. Like stenography, many characters are alike in form, but

a slight stroke or dot makes the difference . It is said that the

number of words ranges from ten to sixty thousand. Morrison's

dictionary contains upwards of twenty thousand ; but it is not to

be supposed that anything like this number are required either to

speak or write the language. S. G. Stanton contrived to translate

the Chinese penal Code with less than two thousand words, not

including repetitions. Morrison's Bible, consisting of twenty-one

volumes, has not more than 2,500 characters . The number of

elementary roots or characters, under which, as heads of classes ,

all others are arranged , is 214. The original plan of the

framers of this system, was evidently to form a separate symbol

72 DIVERSITY OF SPOKEN LANGUAGES .

for each idea. The multitude of authors which China produced,

and the premium that was at all times held out to scholars, are

sufficient to account for the different meanings attached to one

character.

Thus there is scarcely a single character which is confined to one

meaning ; but a great number which signify fifteen or twenty

ideas, either alike in some points or diametrically opposite . This

confusion and difficulty is remedied by a note, which assists

the student, in translating the numerous ambiguous characters

with which the language abounds ; figures bear a resemblance

to the forms of material objects, such as the sun, moon, hill, eye,

horse, child : combinations of ideas consist of two or three symbols,

united to represent one idea. For instance, the sun and moon

express brightness ; a tree or piece of wood in a door-way denotes

obstruction ; two trees stand for a forest ; the junction of eye and

man points out the idea of seeing. In this system of symbols, the

Chinese government have been enabled to preserve the union of so

many millions of families , otherwise the kingdom would have been

divided into many independent portions, in every way different

from the parent stock ; again, their exclusive policy never could

have been maintained , if it were not for this almost unsurmountable

barrier. The Chinese are proud of possessing this advantage, and

besides, of having a universal language that speaks more distinctly

to the eye than to the ear.

The learned and amiable Dr. Bridgman says, diversities in the

modes of speech, and deviations from the most approved usages,

exist in every tongue. That most prevalent in Peking among

the people about the court, differs considerably from that once

dominant, and still extensively used, known as the Nanking dia

lect, or the language of the southern court . In their present posi

tion, foreigners are unable to ascertain even the number of dialects

spoken within the empire. The difference between the colloquial

style and that used in books, seems to be greater in the Chinese

than in most other languages . Standard works, which form

the great body of national literature, are read and understood

with nearly equal ease by people in every part of the empire, how

ever their local dialects may differ from the style of those works .

The system of intonation, with few exceptions, appears to be one

and the same in all the dialects . Again, the characters preserve

an unvarying form in all parts of the empire : a partial exception

to this, however, is occasioned by the use of well-known characters,

slightly changed to express local phrases ; and then regard is had

only to the sound of the characters .

The antiquity and originality of the Chinese language give it a

claim to consideration , independent of its being the standard lan

guage throughout the empire, and also cultivated in the neighbour

ing kingdoms and colonies ; so that it may be computed as the

LITERATURE AND PRINTING . 73

spoken and written medium of communication between four

hundred millions of people , spread over a surface in extent larger

than all Europe.

The various dialects in which it is spoken, notwithstanding that

the body of the language has never been changed, is thus accounted

for: first, there is no alphabet ; and, secondly, China, like other coun

tries, has been rent into separate states, and the conqueror and

conquered prevented from all communication ; and in this way the

diversity of expression and phrases must have originated .

How it has been maintained with so few changes for a score of

centuries, is still more easily accounted for ; as all who are dis

posed to improve their position must be intimately acquainted with

the writings of Confucius, and what is termed the court dialect, or

mandarin pronunciation .

CHINESE LITERATURE . - The Chinese are a reading people, and

the number of their published works is very considerable. In

the departments of morals, history, biography, the drama, poetry,

and romance, there are no lack of writings, such as they are. The

Chinese Materia Medica comprises forty octavo volumes : of statis

tical works, the number is very large. Their novels are said to be

excellent pictures of the national manners. China is full of books ;

new authors are continually springing up ; the press is active, and

the traffic in books is a lucrative and most honourable branch of

trade. When examinations take place in the capital or the palace,

the most clever students are chosen to fill the office of bookmakers .

There are, however, few really new works, and all that appear are

compilations and quotations ; the author never venturing an

idea of his own : and in this consists true learning according to

Chinese notions. There is one work in the Royal Library, on the

topography of China, which is said to consist of 5000 volumes ;

some of the best translators that have had access to some extracts

from this giant, were sadly disappointed, as it appears to be a mass

of confusion, without any attempt at order or proper arrangement.

There are numerous small treatises, similar to our tracts, gratuit

ously distributed by private individuals, inculcating morality and

virtue. Printing is evidently cheaper in China than in Europe,

when ten volumes, each containing 100 pages, can be purchased

for less than a dollar. Every peasant and the poorest fisherman

can read and write . Private and public schools are numerous in

every province, and entirely independent of government. Occa

sionally an examiner visits all schools to ascertain the qualifications

of the teachers .

The third report of the " Society for diffusing useful knowledge

in China," held at Canton, 20th November, 1837, contains a re

view of the existing literature of the Chinese, and an enumeration

of the " catalogue of works contained in the imperial library at

Peking." It concludes with these remarks :

66

' From this cursory review which we have taken of Chinesc

74 GENERAL DEFICIENCY IN KNOWLEDGE .

literature, we are enabled to perceive what is the range of existing

knowledge in this country. A philosophy, which, leaving alone all

speculations concerning the origin and future state of man, con

fines itself wholly to the relations between man and man in this

life, occupies one fourth portion . A history and a geography,

almost exclusively national, occupies another fourth portion ; while

the existence of other nations, and the practical lessons to be

learned from the rest of mankind, are almost wholly forgotten.

With the exception of agriculture and weaving, the useful arts of

life find hardly any place in Chinese literature. Mechanical and

chemical sciences are scarcely thought of. Medicine we know to

consist, for the most part, of mere quackery. Astronomical and

mathematical sciences are chiefly derived from Europeans, and the

knowledge of them is confined to a very few persons ; while the

vagaries of astrology and divination, find a place not only in their

literature, but also in the arrangements of government. Natural

history is regarded only as an adjunct to * medical science, if the

practice of medicine among the Chinese can be dignified with the

name of science. Seeing that so many are the defects of Chinese

literature, it becomes our imperative duty to exert our utmost

‫ލ‬

energies to supply their lack of knowledge ."

As regards their philosophy, the committee observe :—

" Several of the classical works, which form the foundation of

this first department of Chinese literature, have already, by means

of translations, been placed within the reach of the European

public. From these we are enabled to perceive to how low an

elevation in philosophy the most esteemed sages of China have

attained ."

In the geography of even their own country they are almost as

deficient as they are of that of foreign countries. A map of the

province of Fokien, which I saw at the viceroy's residence at Foo

choo, would have disgraced the New Zealanders, or any other bar

barous nation . It had no bearings - no divisional lines- no pro

portions ; and that part which we know, the Min river, was entirely

incorrect. Yet this map was kept a secret ; and our Consul at

Foochoo could only procure a copy, by paying a Chinese largely

for copying it by stealth . In astronomy, music, surgery, medicine,

chemistry, military and naval science, fine arts, &c., they are

utterly deficient.

The imperial historiographers of China, are employed to re

late every thing said and done by the reigning Emperor, and

to record, likewise, a true account of every public event during

his reign .

These documents, when prepared, are all sealed up, and de

posited in a large iron chest, which is placed in the prime minis

ter's tribunal ; and is not opened until after the emperor's death,

when, should there be any thing unfavourable in his biography, it

is again locked up for several generations ; this is to prevent the

LITERARY EXAMINATIONS . 75

compilers being influenced by either fear or flattery of the prince

or his descendants .

Dr. Bridgman states, in his Chinese Christomathy, that there is

published in China, by order of the government, the most com

plete topographical and statistical history of all the provinces and

departments of China, which taking the whole as a body of works

on statistics, is unequalled in any country. It is much to be re

gretted that this work has never been translated, as it would be of

great benefit to the trading community, and a hope is entertained

that our consuls will endeavour to procure so desirable a work.

It is on the literary institutions of China, the government chiefly

relies for stability and support. The military forces are not adequate

to the task ; and hence the great attention and uniformity of their

system of education throughout the whole of the " Celestial"

dominions . Wealth and station have their influence here as well

as elsewhere, but learning is indispensible to attain to an office of

trust, and this is the policy of the state by opening a way to the am-

bitious, that they may attain to the highest office in the government,

and thus prevent the overthrow of the ruling powers. The governors

and all the officers under the crown have distinguished themselves

by their intellectual powers ; but they must yield implicit obedi

ence to a most absolute monarch ; strict examinations are held

triennially to discover the talent of the community, and are open

to all, except priests, play-actors, and menial servants. Two

examiners are selected by the Emperor, and on those who come to

Canton 600 taels are bestowed for expenses ; these are assisted by

ten others, who are selected from the local officers. The average

number of students in Canton on those occasions, exceeds eight

thousand, who assemble at a large hall ( Kungyuen) or college

designed for the purpose . These students must have been at for

mer examinations called Sewtsae, - and are divided in classes ,

but none are admitted unless previously enrolled by the literary

chancellor, of their native province, who certifies that their family

have resided there three generations ; their age, features, and lineage

are recorded . The examinations continue several days, and the

students enter the hall the day previous, and are detained there two

nights and a day without food . On thelast day of examination five ques

tions are given, relating to the history and political economy of China.

The themes must be sententious ; the poetry grave and important,

and all must concern things of real importance ; but any reference

to state policy must be avoided . Each thesis must be inspected by

the proper officer ; the number of themes and the characters are

limited ; and at the close of every theme it must be stated how

many alterations were made in the characters ; and if the number

exceed one hundred the student is excluded . It appears that up

wards of one hundred are subject to that punishment at each

examination . All intercourse with friends must cease, and if it is

discovered that any one wrote any portion of the theme of another,

76 LITERARY DEGREES .

both of them shall be severely punished . On entering the hall the

student is searched, and if any book or writing be discovered on his

person, he shall be punished, and compelled to wear the wooden

collar round his neck ; his tutor and father are also severely pu

nished. A watch is kept at the examination hall by military officers

day and night . Out of so many candidates only seventy- one can

obtain the degree (Keu-jin) ; the names of these are published by

proclamation, within twenty-five days after the examination has

closed. Three guns are then fired to commemorate this important

event ; a banquet is prepared on a grand scale, and is attended by

all the civil officers of Canton, together with the governor. Two

lads, dressed like naiads, holding in their hands branches of the

olive tree, contribute to the enjoyment by a song from the ancient

classics, and thus closes a scene worthy of imitation in other coun

tries .

The Chinese system of education entails great misery on those

who do not succeed ; as, in their early years, all their energies are

devoted to the attainment of the degrees which qualify them for

holding civil offices.

Almost every family selects one or more of their sons to devote

their whole attention to Confucian principles . But numbers of

candidates are doomed to disappointment : on some occasions, pro

bably only one hundred will be qualified out of seven thousand ;

and many that obtain the qualification never get employment, par

ticularly if they are without the means of interesting the man

darins in their favour.

The first degree is conferred by an officer who is generally

resident in every considerable town, with the sanction and ap

proval of an officer from Peking, who periodically visits each town.

The second degree (keu-jin) is only conferred at the capital city of

each province, perhaps many miles from a man's own locality. The

third degree (tsin- sze) is only conferred at Peking, which may pro

bably be a thousand miles from his native place. Thus, the dis

appointed spend all their energies, hoping against hope ; occasion

ally they become tutors and schoolmasters. The frequency with

which examinations are held diverts them from persevering in any

useful occupations ; and the consequence is, that in the neighbour

hood of Canton, thousands of them may be seen lounging and

begging in a most miserable state of destitution ; nevertheless, they

maintain the position of " gentlemen- scholars," and refuse to

lower their diguity by turning to any useful employment.

Books of good advice are published, from time to time, by the

emperors ; some of the following are said to have been composed

by the learned Jesuit , Adam Schall . The following sermons, or

instructions, were written by the emperors of the present dynasty,

on the art of governing the people, especially directed to the atten

tion of all the officers in authority .

Hwang-te Shing- Heen .- This elaborate work consists of nearly

BOOKS OF GOOD ADVICE . 77

200 volumes, printed in very large characters, that aged statesmen

may study this vade-mecum with greater facility ; each volume .

contains about twenty leaves .

The first lesson, or sermon, was written by Teen-ming, who was

the first Mantchou chief that aspired to the throne of China ; it

was written before the conquest was completed .

1st. A prince is the son of Heaven ; all the ministers and public

functionaries are his sons ; and the people are again the children

of the former. A prince serves Heaven as a father, and never for

getful, thinks with reverence about rendering his virtues illustri

ous, and looking up, receives the gift (empire) . The ministers

should, therefore, view the emperor as their father, and serve him

as such ; never be rapacious, or play the traitor ; protect the

people ; observe the laws, and, above all things, see that no treason

is spreading amongst the people.

2nd. " Lasting peace." This is only to be attained by having

a wise prince and a faithful minister, who must, with united

strength, co-operate : second to these is the blessing of Heaven.

Let there be the utmost justice, in imitation of the righteous

arrangements made by heaven and earth ; then prosperity and

success will prevail throughout the land. Now, when the one man

(emperor) loses his virtue, calamity spreads to all regions , and the

evil is worse than that wrought by demons. This was instanced

on occasion of the Emperor Wanluh's attacking a friendly empire,

when all the troops brought against the Mantchous were killed.

The third sermon is addressed to all kings, princes, ministers, and

those in authority. Be wise, and just in all things, do not hanker

after wealth, and your rule will be more firmly established . All

evil practices proceed from the heart, keep it therefore in a virtuous

state, and all events will prove fortunate ; you will be praised , and

become popular ; riches will fall to your share, and your glory will

be resplendent . On the other hand, if you harbour vicious

thoughts, the contrary will take place .

The next emperor was Shunche, who had for his adviser and

most intimate friend, Adam Schall, the Jesuit . The first volume

contains a discourse on government, piety, sacred and filial duty,

study of the sages, humility, economy, and continence. The 2nd,

instructions for ministers, on petitions or receiving reproof. 3rd,

On choosing people for officers ; on restraining inferiors. 4th, On

managing wealth ; on giving alms ; on propriety towards the gene

ration past and gone. 5th, On promoting literature ; exhortations

to commanders -in-chief. 6th, On quietly governing the people,

avoiding punishments ; repressing greedy parasites ; avoiding evil,

and forgiving faults .

In his discourse on government , the emperor acknowledges the

great responsibility he is under to Heaven, to whom he is alone

accountable ; and strongly inculcates the doctrine that princes

were created for the people. He duly admits the claims of the

78 THE EMPEROR'S SERMONS .

people to good government . He expatiates on the oppression of his

predecessors (of the Ming dynasty), in imposing taxes that the

people could not pay ; on the usurpation of the nobles in taking

possession of the people's ground, and converting it into hunting

and pleasure grounds . The emperor's respect for the departed

was proved by his having the tombs of the Ming princes repaired

and beautified.

Kanghe, who inherited the throne of his father, Shunche, and

also his taste for writing and preaching, has bequeathed sixty

volumes . That addressed to the authorities is-for plain speaking

and good sense-a novelty in Chinese literature, and in theory

excellent .

His Majesty says : " I am at my post early in the morning ;

assemble in my presence, and do not spend the time in idle foolish

ceremonies, but let business be despatched . The land is full of

robbers ; the people are suffering oppression ; assist to put an end

""

to this state of affairs, then you will be ministers indeed.'

Science is now at a very low ebb in China, whatever may have

been its former state.

Marco Polo states that he found in China upwards of five thou

sand astronomers . But it has been proved that their early astro

nomical observations were absolute forgeries - as the Jesuits found

no one able to calculate an eclipse. The instruments found by the

Jesuits must have been introduced from a distant country, as they

were only adapted to the latitude of 36° north, whereas Nankin is

32°.

The learned M. de Guignes remarks, that they never knew

anything of astronomy, not even in his day : they are astrologers,

and consult the stars for both public government and private

affairs .

EMIGRATION .- The migration of the Chinese, originated in the

Tartar conquest . The Chinese sought peace in a distant country.

Fookeen and the adjacent districts were the last conquered by the

Mantchoos, and from thence are the principal migrations.

The tide of seaward emigration from China, is principally to

Singapore, the islands and stations in the Straits, and to the Dutch

settlements of Java, Borneo, Bauca, &c . Great complaints are made

by those who return, of the Dutch system of farming the revenue

to any one who will bid most; consequently authority is conferred

without any regard to character, and the consequence is oppres

sion and tyranny . The industrious and well-disposed Chinese

emigrants, give a sad account of the treatment they are subject to

by the officers of the Dutch government, and by secret associations

of their own countrymen . As for justice, it is out of the question

to obtain it. According to the laws, the majority of witnesses

decides the magistrate's judgment ; and from the great extent of

the Triad Society throughout the Straits, there is no lack of wit

nesses to swear against any who do not belong to their nefarious

EMIGRATION OF THE CHINESE . 79

system . The well- disposed Chinese emigrants are plundered , and

frequently murdered ; but such is the pressure for food, that emi

gration is yearly increasing to the Eastern Archipelago, &c.

Chinese emigration differs from that of all other countries in this

respect, that it is only sheer necessity that will compel them to leave

their native home, and it is always their intention to return as soon

as circumstances will permit them . But it frequently happens that

they remain and intermarry with the natives, and are at the present

day by far the most numerous colonists in the Eastern Archipelago .

The better class of Chinese settlers may be described, as enter

prising, keen, laborious, and persevering ; those in trade are expert,

speculative, and judicious. Their intelligence and activity have

obtained for them the management of the public revenue, in almost

every part of the Archipelago ; the traffic with the surrounding

foreign states of the Archipelago is principally in their hands. The

majority of these settlers are in Singapore, Java, Penang, and

Borneo.

The number of Chinese settlers inthe I Straits, Eastern Archipe

lago, Siam, Cochin and China, the Phillipine islands, is probably be

tween one and two millions . In Siam alone the number is esti

mated at 500,000 ; in Borneo at 150,000 ; in Java 120,000 ; in

Bauca at the tin mines 50,000 ; in Singapore 30,000, and so on.

At Singapore they are rapidly reclaiming the jungle from the abode .

of the tiger and the serpent, and substituting plantations and

manufactures of sugar, nutmeg, pepper, cathechu, terra japonica,

sago, &c. No nation is so well adapted for reclaiming and civil

izing the beautiful, but still almost useless, regions of the Eastern

seas as the Chinese, and under our rule encouragement would be

given to their migrations. The Dutch, Spanish, and Portuguese

governments are afraid of Chinese colonists .

When at Amoy, in June, 1845, I found a French barque laden with

Chinese emigrants, bound for Bourbon . I obtained an interview with

the French gentleman who was conveying the labourers, and he

favoured me with a copy of the agreement (which I have given to

Her Majesty's government), signed by himself, and a Mr. F. D.

Syme, an intelligent Scotch merchant, then residing at Amoy.

Monsieur Bocque informed me that he could have obtained any

number of able-bodied useful labourers ; that the mandarins ex

pressed themselves gratified at the poor people getting a prospect

of subsistence, and that not the slightest obstruction was offered :

quite the reverse. M. Bocque had to guard against the Chinese

running away, or jumping overboard , after they had received their

money in advance. Last year he took a cargo of emigrants from

Penang and Singapore to Bourbon, but found them rather trouble

some characters, hence his present voyage to Amoy. Australia and

our West Indian colonies might be largely supplied with labourers

from China. A respectable gentleman, named Brown, proposed

to convey a ship full of labourers from Hong- Kong to Jamaica,

80 MEAOU-TSZE, OR ABORIGINES .

but a timid and procrastinating policy ultimately defeated the

project.

We know nothing, either as regards the numbers or the conJ

dition of the dependent possessions ; but among the people sub

ordinate, allied to, or incorporated with China, one in particular

deserves special notice, viz :-the Meaou-tsze ; a word said by Dr.

Morison, to signify " grain growing in a field ; the first budding of

any plants ; numerous descendants," &c.

These unsubdued tribes are supposed to be the aborigines .

They are divided into forty tribes, and occupy the borders of the

provinces, lying in the western part of the empire, Sze-chuen,

Kwei-choo, Kook-wang, Yun-nan, and Kwang- se. The various

tribes all differ in their way of living, as also in their language ;

and although scattered over an immense territory, their national

character as to clanship, is so strong, that some of them who are

in partial subjection to the Chinese government, will forfeit their

allegiance, and openly join the unsubdued portion , in open rebellion

against the Chinese authorities .

The Meaou-tze, have been many years a great source of uneasi

ness to the government. The Emperor Keen-lung, wasted an im

mense army for several years, in unsuccessful contests . The Em

peror Kea-king was compelled to sue for peace from these hardy

mountaineers. In 1832 , a rebellion broke out near Leen-choo, on

the frontiers of Kwang-tung, (Canton) province, which proved most

destructive to the imperial army. One dark night the rebels fast

ened lights on the horns of goats and sheep, and let them loose

about the mountains .

The imperial troops by this diversion were sent to attack the ima

ginary enemy, when the real one came down in a defile, and com

mitted dreadful slaughter. Kin -lung, the rebel chief, about the

same time, met the Viceroy of Canton in open battle, and slew

many of his troops, surprised the garrison one night, and fired the

gupowder magazines, so that many thousand Chinese soldiers were

blown up. After campaigning a considerable time, the rebels qui

etly laid down their arms . The Peking Gazette announced it as a

victory, but the fact was that the Chinese Generals paid a very

large sum of money for this nominal victory, which is the usual

case with the Chinese government .

The Meaou-tsze are of middle-size, excellent horsemen, and have

few traces of the savage in their exterior, although the Chinese

paint them in the worst colors. They manufacture their own

clothes and warlike instruments.

The existence of such a race in the neighbourhood of Canton

province, often spreading terror to Canton city itself, is one of

the numerous proofs of the utter helplessness of the government,

general and local .

A summing up, or general examination , of the Chinese character

and state of society is reserved for the last chapter ; when the in

AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS . 81

ferences to be drawn from the whole of the facts stated will be

more manifest, and when the Christian philanthropist will be ap

pealed to in aid of extending the means of improving the condi

tion, and promoting the moral and spiritual welfare, of one-third of

the human race now existing in the immense empire under review,

and with whom we must inevitably be brought into more intimate

association.

CHAPTER III .

AGRICULTURAL, MANUFACTURING, AND MINERAL

PRODUCTS .

Agriculture and Vegetable Productions. - China owes its internal

wealth and extensive population to thrifty and skilful agriculture.

Shin-ning, a celebrated inventor, is said have been the first who

substituted grain for raw meat, and taught the nation cultivation .

The Chinese sovereigns always encouraged agriculture. Wanti

(179 B.C.) even took the plough into his hand ; which gave rise to

à festival and custom that is practised to the present day ; and by

no former emperors has this branch of industry been encouraged

more than by the present sovereign, Taoukwang. The success of

Chinese agriculture is conveyed in the homely instructions of the

emperor to his children (subjects), viz.: " Keep your lands clean ,

manure them richly, and make a farm resemble a garden ." No

fields are laid down in pasture ; tillage in every practicable spot is

universal : two, three, and four crops are obtained in the year from

the same ground, viz. , rice, potatoes, pulse, cabbage, and turnips.

Manure in a liquid state is in extensive use ; one of the modes

of preparation is to steep it several months in a reservoir, and when

in a liquid state, it is reduced to cakes, and mixed with putrid vege

table matter, or with oil- cakes, human hair, or lime from powdered

oyster-shells, ashes, &c.

The provinces which lie to the north and west of China, such as

Chih-li, Shan- se, and Sz-chuen, produce in great abundance wheat,

barley, several kinds of millet, tobacco, peas that are always green,

also black and yellow peas for feeding horses ; but in the southern

provinces, these sorts of grain are in no esteem .

The same provinces likewise produce rice, in several places where

G

82 TIMBER . - CAMPHOR TREE .

the earth is dry, but then the crop is not so abundant, besides it is

harder, and requires more boiling than the rice of the southern

provinces, especially How- quang and Che-keang, which produce

great quantities, as the lands lie lower and have plenty of water.

China produces a great variety of vegetables, including turnips

and carrots . Potatoes, except the sweet description , are not en

couraged. White cabbage is a most excellent vegetable, particu

larly in the northern provinces, and constitutes the food of poor and

rich ; during the winter it is much improved by the frost .

Cotton is grown in Kiang-uan to a great extent : the sugar- cane

in the southern provinces, and especially in Formosa, where the

best sugar in all Asia is produced . Of grains, rice grows in most

of the provinces, except the cold ones , where wheat and barley

thrive. As the Chinese are great smokers, tobacco is cultivated

with much care . Pulse is in abundance, as food for man and

beast .

The camphor tree, a species of laurel, is peculiar to China and

Japan, for it is not known whether the camphor tree of Borneo

and Sumatra is the same. To obtain the camphor, the branches

are cut off, steeped in water, and then boiled . The camphor forms

a sediment, which is refined, and then brought to market. There

are whole forests of this tree in Formosa ; in China itself, it is

found only in a few districts. Its wood makes excellent furniture,

and is proof against insects. The cassia tree grows in great abun

dance in Yun-nan province . The bark is stripped off and dried ;

that of a brownish-red colour is best. Great quantities of this

bark are exported from Canton, as it serves all the purposes of ex

pensive cinnamon .

There is in general a great want of timber ; the oak is scarce, but

the fir-tree supplies its place ; the sapanwood, a tree peculiar to

China, is inferior to fir. With the exception of the mountainous

districts, there are few forests in the country, for every inch of

available ground is made into arable land . Mantchoo Tartary

abounds in primeval forests, whilst Chih-li does not produce suffi

cient timber to make rafters for houses. In Fokien, the dwellings

are of solid granite, and sometimes not a piece of wood is to be

seen in the whole construction . The iron-wood, which is used for

anchors, and various other purposes, is met with in China ; but

teak is not indigenous . The le-pih la -shoo, wax tree, is an extra

ordinary production . The sweet blossoms attract an insect, simi

lar to our bee, which is an industrious wax manufacturer, as long

as the blossoms remain . The tallow-tree resembles the birch -tree

the bark is white, the branches slender, and the leaves of a dark

green . The fruit grows in bunches, and is inclosed in a brown

capsule, which contains three kernels, every one of which is coated

with tallow ; the kernel contains a great quantity of oil, which is

pressed out and used for the lamp . It grows in Kiang-se, Keang

nan, and Che-keang, and is one of the most useful trees which the

RICE CULTIVATION . 83

country produces . The varnish-tree resembles the ash . When

the tree is full grown, several horizontal incisions are made in the

trunk, and oyster- shells are there placed to receive the oil deposited

during the night. The paper-tree resembles the fig-tree ; the rind

is peeled off and made into paper.

The great article of consumption throughout China is rice, of

which there are three varieties ; the red, the small, and the large

rice, together with the dry, and the glutinous ; the two latter are

grown on dry and usually hilly spots . The great requisites in

raising rice are water and manure . The average size of the fields is

from four to six acres . After ploughing and harrowing, and com

pletely pulverizing the soil, and reducing it to mud, it is fit for

sowing. A few days before the rice is sown , it is first steeped in

liquid manure : the shoots may be seen in three days after setting ;

when the water is gradually drawn off. When about six inches

high the plants are all transplanted to fresh ground , and again

covered with water, until near harvest-time. In some districts the

division of labour is so well carried out, that the husbandmen pur

chase the rice plant from a nurseryman , or rearer of the vegetable,

when it is ready for transplanting ; thus time is saved for the land,

while it has been employed growing other crops, and the nursery

man is responsible for the good quality of the seed-plant. The

usual period from seed-time to harvest is six months for a crop of

rice. When one crop is cut, or even before that period, another is

planted, or rather transplanted , the same day probably. The in

crease is calculated at about thirty-fold . The average wages for

the labourer's work of transplanting (up to their knees in mud

and water) are thirteen cents per day. The straw of the rice, called

"paddy " straw, is converted into brooms and brushes, and also

largely exported . The importation of rice from America is increas

ing ; the average importation is about fifty-five million pounds.

weight.

A separate account of the growth and manufacture of tea will be

given in a subsequent part of this work, when treating of the com

merce of China.

The Chinese may more properly be called gardeners than agri

culturalists, as the space allotted to each family is very small, and

on this they must subsist. A Chinaman, in the country parts, is

seldom seen without a basket and rake, with which he collects any-

thing in the shape of manure ; Chinese have been seen dressed in

silk, following the buffaloes and hogs, to collect whatever is dropped.

They convey sand a long distance to mix with a heavy soil, and

loam to put on that which is too loose. In winter, the soil is fre

quently thrown up in large heaps, after being mixed with manure ;

but it is never allowed to remain fallow long. A small grass bor

der divides one field from another. Their domestic animals are

confined to one particular place at a time by a rope : only those

that are required for agriculture arc kept, as the Chiucse have a

G 2

84 CATTLE . SHEEP . HORSES .

horror of using the milk of any animal. Fowls are raised in great

quantities, and fattened to an amazing size. Domestic cattle are

scarce ; the cow is seldom bred for food, but is used, as is also the

buffalo, extensively in agriculture. Horses are small, compactly

built, and hardy ; they are only employed for carriage.

The Emperor of China has at all times in the country of the

Kalkas twenty thousand camels, and immense herds of horses ; and

camels are furnished as tribute by the Sounites and Kalkas . These

are kept for service in time of war, and are separated into herds .

Each herd consists of three hundred camels , with one chief superin

tendant. Every six years there is an inspection . During peace,

the camels are employed in conveying grain from Ele and Gobdo,

where great quantities are cultivated by the convicts. The average

stock of other animals in the western frontier belonging to the Em

peror is said to be 40,000 oxen and 180,000 sheep ; of horses 230

studs, each containing 300. The good horses at four years old are

sent to Peking ; the remainder are at the disposal of the war de

partment and the post conveyance.

A farmer in China who occupies eight or ten acres of land is

considered a large cultivator ; so that the implements required for

this garden, as it may be called, are not numerous, nor expensive.

The le, or plough, is made of hard wood, except the iron that de

fends the share, and is drawn by a single buffalo ; and in some pro

vinces of China very little used, as the rice fields are too marshy

and wet to require a plough. The harrow (pa) is to divide and

pulverize the rice grounds , so as to reduce them almost to the con

sistence of jelly ; the teeth are about ten inches long. The ox or

horse, either of Europe or China, would never be able to perform

this laborious work, hence the buffalo is always employed. The

hoe (cha) is made of wood, except the guard of iron at the edge of

the blade ; this implement is the most general one in use, and

women may be seen using it in angles and small places where the

harrow will not reach. The spade (reo) , is made of wood and iron

like the hoe, and is chiefly used in repairing the dykes which se

parate the fields . The bamboo rake, for gleaning the fields, or for

collecting manure in the streets, may be said to be the vade-mecum

of the Chinese. The leen, or bill-hook, in spring answers for a

pruning knife, in summer as a scythe, in harvest-time as a sickle ;

the blade is about fourteen inches long and rather thick .

Irrigation is a matter of special attention ; the water is conveyed

by canals and conduits to the field, from the nearest stream . The

rice is ripe in May, is cut with a reaping hook. and thrashed in

the field by striking the sheaf against the side of a large tub ; the

flail is sometimes in use, and it is precisely similar to that in use

in England . It is not an uncommon thing to plant a second crop

of rice in the same ground while the first is growing, and near ma

turity ; hence the field when reaped has a fine green appearance .

FARMING IMPLEMENTS. 85

The soil is laid under heavy contribution, but it is well manured

and irrigated .

The farmers make use of a sowing machine, which has a resem

blance to the common plough in use in Europe ; it has three hollow

teeth, with iron supports . Above the wheels is placed a box, from

the bottom of which the seed falls through the teeth, which are

about nine inches in length, constantly following the motion

of the plough in the furrows. In place of a harrow is a wooden

roller, which covers the seed. The most singular feature about

their agricultural implements, is their lightness ; for instance, the

plough can be conveniently carried on a man's shoulder.

Carts for carrying manure or produce are not absolutely required,

except in the northern provinces, where the canals and boats are

not numerous . Those employed by the farmers, have no spokes to

their wheels. The instruments in use for extracting the oil from

seeds are numerous . One made on the principle of a trip-hammer

falls into a wooden bowl in which the seeds are placed . The same

principle is also extended, and several hammers are elevated by a

long cylinder, which is turned by means of a water-wheel. The

seeds are placed in a trough, and the machine requires very little

attention. Simplicity and cheapness are very conspicuous in all

their arts and manufactures ; to economise time or labour, is quite

foreign to the Chinese.

The bridges over the canals are built of stone, some ofthem have

arches that are high and beautifully constructed . Those over the

grand canal would do credit to any nation. There is one that is

said to have ninety arches. To pass stationary bridges, the masts

of the boats are so constructed as to let down at pleasure. The

banks of the canals, seldom require facing as in Europe, as the

boats are mostly propelled by a scull. Where the tide ascends,

sluicegates are erected in the banks of the adjoining fields , which

allow every tide to cover the grain, just as the farmer wishes, and

the water can be retained or let off at pleasure . Strength and

solidity are quite apparent in all their stone bridges ; wooden bridges

are numerous over the rivers and canals .

The laws which regulate agriculture, and the transfer of lands,

&c., are the same as those laid down by Confucius . The Emperor

is the universal owner, so that all lands are held in occupation from

him . The occupier can be dispossessed at pleasure . The chief se

curity a Chinese farmer has in the possession of his land, is his

means of cultivating it . When this is the case, a spot of land will

descend from father to son, for many generations. Many farmers

lease out a portion of their land, the rent of which is partly paid in

kind . By far more than one half of the cultivated land in China

is held in this manner. There is no law against mortgages , except

land held by soldiers, which cannot be mortgaged . On applying

for unregistered land, the applicant must prove that he possesses the

86 SILK BREEDING THE WORM .

means to cultivate it . There are no fishing privileges, nor game

laws. The land-tax is paid in kind and in money, and remitted in

seasons of distress . Evading the land-tax by a false pretence is

punished by blows and confiscation .

SILK . -The Chinese annals date their knowlege of the silk-worm

to B.C. 2,700 . Marco Polo, who resided in China for a considerable

time in the thirteenth century, states that he saw, at one period,

one thousand carriages and pack horses enter Peking laden with

raw silk . This is not improbable, for at the present day, upwards.

of 300 junks are said to be sent annually to Peking from two pro

vinces, Kiang- si and Che-Keang, alone, laden with wrought silks,

satins, velvets, and costly garments, independent of immense quan

tities of raw silk, conveyed from other provinces as tribute.

The quantity produced must be large, as it is only the super

abundant supply that is sent to Europe, and as it is more or

less in use by every inhabitant who lays any claim to respectability;

every government officer must have by him several silk over

dresses, (official) independent of his private wardrobe . Three or

four silk dresses over each other is usual in winter.

Silk is the production of the phalaena, or mulberry-moth, and

its original locality appears to be China. The substance which

the animal spins to protect itself when in the pupa state, is the

silk, which before it is dyed, is a bright yellow color. The time

that elapses while the worm is undergoing its changes, varies

according to the state of the weather, and the quantity of nourish

ment with which it is supplied . The Chinese are most particular

on this head, as on this depends the quantity of silk which the

worm will produce. The Chinese calculate that the same number

of insects, which would, if they had attained their full size, in twenty

five days, produce twenty-five ounces of silk, would only yield twenty

ounces , if their growth occupied thirty days, and only ten ounces if

forty days. During the first twenty-four hours of its existence, the

Chinese feed it every half hour, or forty-eight times ; the second

day, thirty times ; and so on, reducing the meals as the worm grows,

The place selected for their habitation, must be quite free from

noise or disagreeable smell, the bark of a dog or the crow of a

cock disturbs them ; females attend to the worms in China ; pre

vious to entering their chamber the woman is required to have

washed herself thoroughly, and all her clothing ; and not to have

eaten anything that would cause her breath to have a disagreeable

smell, as the insects must be carefully humoured before the first

time of casting their slough.

When in the caterpillar state, the silk -worm changes its

coat four times, and previous to each moult eats nothing. When

its nest is finished, and it has changed into the pupa state, the

Cocoons are removed from the place where the animal had formed

them ; and after those which it is intended to keep, that they may

perfect their changes, and lay eggs for the ensuing year, arc

+

ENCOURAGEMENT OF SILK PRODUCTION . 87

removed, the remainder are put in large earthern vessels, and

covered with a warm blanket ; they are then exposed to a heat

that is sufficient to destroy the life of the pupa.

The earliest account on record, of the introduction of the silk

worm into Europe was in 550 A.D. when two Nestorians returned

from China with some ofthe eggs of the insect, concealed in the head

of a walking- stick. And having got a knowledge of the process of

rearing the worm, and manufacturing the silk ; they disposed of

their secret to the Emperor Justinian, so that the cultivation of the

worm became general all over Greece. The quantity to be ob

tained from China may be very largely increased.

The Chinese government are solicitous for the extension of the

production of the raw material : and the following proclamation

thereon is translated from the Chinese :

" Wan-choo-tung, commissioner of revenue of the Kiang-nan

provinces, hereby issues a proclamation for general information .

" It is well known that from ancient times until now, agriculture

and the cultivation of the mulberry have both been regarded as of

the highest importance ; being not only the sources from which

the food and clothing of the people are derived, but the greatest

advantages accrue to the whole empire. When the produce of

agriculture is deficient, then that of the mulberry supplies it : thus

in the instruction of Tsz-yushi (one of the worthies of high anti

quity) we read, ' let the husbandman attend to his grain, and the

women to their cloth, and the super-abundance of the one will

supply the deficiencies of the other .' The Kiang- soo province is

heavily taxed, and the population is rapidly increasing . The

extent of land remains the same ; and with droughts and inunda

tions, the calamities of war have caused the rich to become poor,

while the arrears of taxes are daily accumulating . No plan can be

better adopted than the cultivation of the mulberry.

"Also,this province is contiguous to Kia-king and Ku-chau, which

yearly reap great advantages from silk ; yet the people will not

attend to their own interests. I can point out five great advantages

to be derived from it. The husbandman is heavily taxed, but the

mulberry pays no tax ; and the first great advantage is, to be free

from the annoyance of the tax-gatherer. The tops of the walls,

corners of ground, and along paths, will do for planting the tree ; and

this is the second advantage. The time occupied will be only two

months, and this is a great contrast to the husbandman, whose toil

is incessant, and his crops exposed to droughts, &c.; this is the

third advantage . Feeding the worm and preparing the cocoons is

suited to female labour, and will not interfere with the labour of

the plough ; this is the fourth great advantage . There is free

trade at Shanghai, and the sale of silk has greatly increased ; and

not, as formerly, having to wait for the silk merchants, who sold

it far away in Kwang-tung (Canton) , the fruits of their labour

will be early repaid ; and this is the fifth great advantage.

88 HATCHING FISH - SPAWN.

" These benefits are obvious to the dullest and most ignorant ; but

people delight to gaze and look on, and are involved in doubt, in

contemplating an enterprize ; but we, more alive to the hardships

of the times, do not disdain or dislike, again and again to com

mand and exhort you . We command all our officers to assemble

the village gentry and elders, and let them admonish the people,

and lay down the best rules, and have them published with de

scriptive plates . We in haste proclaim our commands to soldiers,

and all people of the province : do not be doubtful and slothful,

the exertion required is small ; let the father instruct his child,

and the husband his wife ; then shall we see the men at the plough,

and the females at the loom ; and no labourer will be unemployed ,

and no resources of the soil lost. The condition of the people will

improve, and the state treasury will be full ; all will enjoy happi

ness that will surpass the felicity of peace . That this will be

realized, I, the commissioner, have the most ardent expectations ;

so let none oppose an earnest and special proclamation .

" Taou- Kwang, 24th year, 10th month, and 30th day.

CC

Shanghai, January, 1845. "

Grossius says, there is in China an insect which resembles the

caterpillar, and is entirely different from the silk-worm. They

propagate with any care, and are very numerous in the province

of Canton. Although partial to the mulbery, they will feed on

other trees . These insects differ from the silk-worm, as they do

not spin their silk circularly ; they produce it in filaments and long

threads, which being carried away by the wind, are caught by the

trees and bushes.

The Chinese collect these threads, and make a stuff called kien

tcheau, which is inferior in lustre to those made of silk ; it is like

drugget ; and is much esteemed for its durability, and washing

like linen . These insects are of two kinds ; one are larger and

blacker than European silk- worms ; the other are smaller . The

silk of the first is of a reddish gray ; that of the second is blacker ;

and the cloth made of them partakes of both these colours.

Hatching eggs by artificial heat is well known, and extensively

practised in China; as is, also, the hatching of fish. The sale of spawn

for this purpose forms an important branch of trade in China.

The fishermen collect, with care, on the margin and surface of

water all the gelatinous matters that contain spawn of fish, which

is then placed in an egg- shell, which has been fresh emptied, through

a small hole, which is then stopped, and the shell is placed under a

setting fowl. In a few days, the Chinese break the shell in warm

water (warmed by the sun) . The young fish are then kept in

water until they are large enough to be placed in a pond. This

plan in some measure counteracts the great destruction of spawn

by troll-nets, which have caused the extinction of many fisheries.

The introduction and use of tobacco in China are evidently of

TOBACCO . LIME . 89

modern date, as it is not found in the Pun-Tsaou, or Chinese

Herbal. It is called yere (smoke), and is cultivated in every pro

vince of China ; it differs from the American materially, as it is

very mild. All classes use it, including boys, girls, and grown

females. Manufactories are numerous in Canton of what is called

paper cigars . The fibre and veins are cut out of the leaf, which is

first moistened, and put in a screw- press . The workman has a

large plane, with an ingeniously contrived moveable box on the top,

to retain the tobacco as the plane cuts the leaves . An expert

workman will make 1000 of these cigars in one day. Their average

price is from two to five cents per hundred .

In the neighbourhood of Canton, lime is obtained, from the ani

mal kingdom, and fossil shells furnish almost the whole of what is

used ; hundreds of boats are employed in dredging for shells in the

shallows of the delta of the Pearl river. It is said they are thus

procured, everywhere between the Bogue and Macao ; they would

be found elsewhere if the people had the means of procuring them

from the deep water.

The mode of calcination adopted, is to mark out a circular piece

of ground , and enclose it with a stone wall , about three feet high.

In the centre, which is lower than the sides, a fire-place is built,

connected with the outside by a draught which is underground ; a

fly-wheel is hung at the outside at the mouth of the pipe, to supply

the place of a bellows, and so contrived with a treddle that a man

can keep up a draught with his feet. The fire-wood is then placed in

a pyramid from over the central fire-place ; the shells are then placed

on the wood, clean and dry ; by keeping up a constant blast the

shells are calcined in about ten hours ; when cool it is sifted and

pounded for sale. Enquiries have been made to know if the

1.

Chinese are aware of the true properties of limestone, and it does

not appear they are; certainly in the neighbourhood of Canton, they

are ignorant of the limestone.

MANUFACTURES AND TRADES OF CHINA .-We are unable to

understand fully the various branches of manufacture in China, by

reason of our limited knowledge of the country ; and all that can be

done at present, is to collect information from every source and lay

the foundation for future observation . With the exception of por

celain, silks, embroidery, and lacquered ware, there are few manufac

tures conducive to luxury ; but in all those branches of art neces

sary to the comfort of life, the Chinese have made considerable pro

gress . There is little or no machinery anywhere perceptible ; all is

done by hand, even the grinding of corn is chiefly by manual

labour ; but a mill for expressing oil from seeds, moved by oxen,

and a chain pump for conveying water from canals or ditches into

fields for irrigation, worked by men or oxen, are everywhere ob

servable .

Porcelain is made of two different kinds of stone, the Pe-tun-tsze,

and Kaou-lin ; the latter of a whitish, the former of a greenish

90 PORCELAIN . PAPER.

cast. They are pulverized in a mortar, and the substance refined

and made into paste . It is then kneaded, rolled, and wrought into

a solid substance, to make the ware close and compact. The potter

cither moulds or forms with a wheel, and afterwards finishes with a

chisel. When dried, the ware are painted with a white mineral oil,

which adds to their transparency and beauty. They are finally

painted with the requisite colours. To heighten or vary the glaz-

ing of the pih-yew, or white oil, it is usually mixed with oil of

lime, fern ashes, and various other mineral varnishes, according to

the design of the potter. Mineral colours alone are sufficiently

durable to stand the progress of burning in the oven . The fur

naces in use are about two fathoms high, and four in width , with

several holes in the top, and are constructed of brick and chinaM

ware. The greatest art consists in baking the porcelain vessels ;

for if the heat of the oven be not well tempered, the whole set is

destroyed, which with all their care frequently occurs. It is an

article of great consumption in China, and yields a good profit to

the manufacturer .

The manufacture of paper consumes large quantities of bamboo .

The stalks are cut close to the ground and sorted ; the younger the

bamboo, the better is the quality of the paper made of it . The

bamboo is first placed in a reservoir of mud and water, and re

mains there for two or three weeks . It is then cut in pieces and

put in a mortar, with a little water, and pounded into pulp with

wooden pestles. This mass , after being cleansed of the coarse parts,

is put into a tub of water, and additions of the bamboo are made,

until the whole becomes a sufficient consistence to form paper.

A workman then takes up a sheet with a mould of the proper di

mensions, the bottom of which is constructed of bamboo, cut in

slips and made smooth round, like wire. The pulp is kept con-

stantly stirred . When the sheets are taken up, they are placed on

tables to dry. According to some who have witnessed the manu

facture of paper, it is said the sheets when taken up are placed on

heated plates of iron, and sized by dipping the sheets in a solution

of fish-glue and alum, either during or after the first process of

making it. The sheets are made from three to four feet long and

about two in breadth . The paper made in the northern provinces.

is whiter, and superior in every respect ; it is said to be made of

cotton and some portion of the mulberry tree ; the price is about

one dollar per ream, medium size ; great quantities are used in their

sacrifices ; it is a large item in the inland commerce.

In the suburbs of Peking is a village, entirely occupied by a class

of people who collect old scraps of paper, no matter how dirty or

stained. The coarse and fine are separated, and well washed on a

stone flag near some running stream. When well washed, they

beat them into a pulp or thin jelly ; and by means of a mould

form them into sheets, and afterwards place them against the

INK . PRINTING . ENGRAVING . 91

whitened walls surrounding their habitations, where the sun dries

them in a short time.

Chinese paper-hats are made from bamboo, which is beaten into

pulp, and then mixed with a portion of some glutinous substance,

supposed to be agar-agar, or sea-weed, the same article with

which lanterns are made. These hats from the lightness are

admirably adapted for the climate, and are preferable to straw hats,

inasmuch as the hat is less pervious to the rays ofthe sun . They are

covered with silk in the usual way, and sold for something less

than a dollar.

The ink universally used in China, and known in this country as

Indian ink , is made by placing a number of wicks lighted in a ves

sel filled with oil . A cover, something like a bee- hive, is hung over

the flame, on which is collected the smoke, or lamp black : when

brushed off, it is then mixed with gum and made into paste and

formed into different shapes . There are modes of making an in

ferior description from the smoke of the fir timber; but it is not so

intensely black nor so free from grittiness ; as the Chinese write

with a brush, this ink answers all purposes . A small portion of

musk is blended with it, which preserves it and also gives an

agreeable smell .

According to the best authorities the art of printing was known

in China upwards of 900 years ago . In the time of Confucius B.C.

500, books were formed of slips of bamboo ; and about 150 years

after Christ, paper was first made : A.D. 745, books were bound

into leaves : A.D. 900, printing was in general use. The process of

printing is simple. The materials consist of a graver, blocks of

wood, and a brush, which the printers carry with K them from place

to place. Without wheel, or wedge, or screw, a printer will throw

off more than 2,500 impressions in one day. The paper (thin)

can be bought for one fourth the price in China that it can in any

other country. The works of Confucius, six volumes, four hundred

leaves, octavo, can be bought for ninepence. For an historical

novel, twenty volumes, one thousand five hundred leaves, half- a

crown is the price amongst the Chinese.

In wood and ivory engraving, the Chinese are not behind Eu

ropeans ; and what would cost two or three pounds sterling in Lon

don, could be done in China for three or four shillings. The beauty

and finish of their tortoiseshell, ebony, and mother of pearl, is too

well known to require description . The rapidity with which the

Chinese cut their characters for printing is truly surprising ; when

a book is to be printed, the characters are written on a sheet of

paper, and transferred to a block of wood which is quite smooth,

to which it adheres ; when the paper is removed, the writing is

found to adhere to the glutinous paste with which the block has

been covered. The engraver then cuts all the strokes which run

level ; then the oblique, and afterwards the perpendicular ones.

92 LACQUER WARE . GLASS BLOWING .

throughout the whole line ; he then cuts the centre parts, and thus

completes a block with probably one hundred characters on it, for

which he is paid sixpence ; this is an ordinary day's work.

Lacquer ware perhaps is the most extensive article of Chinese

fancy wares. After the wood is joined, the seams and sometimes

the whole surface is covered with thin paper, (not canvass as in

Europe) , which is made to adhere by the use of hogs-lard . When

dry this is smeared over with a paste made of clay, which when dry

is as hard as a stone : it is next smoothed with a pummice or whit

stone ; the varnish is then laid on, an operation that must be re

peated several times. The etchings for figures are done by throw

ing a fine powder upon a piece of paper, which is drilled with

minute holes to form the outlines of the picture ; and by these

dots, the shape of the several objects is traced . The gold is then

applied in a powdered state with a dossil of cotton.

A

Glass- blowing. The crucible is a cylindrical hole in the side of

a mass of masonry, heated by a fire below. It slants downwards

and backwards, for the sake of holding the melted glass. The

blow-pipe is about three feet long, and an inch in diameter. It

has a bulb in the lower extremity, which forms the point of attach

ment for the glass . The workman inserts this into the melted

glass, and turns it round on it own axis several times, to collect a

certain quantity upon the end. He then takes it out, and smooths

and rounds the ball with a spatula . This process is several times

repeated before sufficient has been taken up ; he then blows with

his mouth, and subsequently takes the blow-pipe to a pair ofbellows

placed upon two beams, and applies its extremity to the tube that

point downwards, while a third person moves the piston .

In this way, gravity is made to accelerate the expansion of the

glass . A pit in the floor allows room for the dilation of the beau

tiful spheroid that is soon formed by the action of the bellows .

Sometimes the spheroid of six or ten feet in length is formed by

one man with the blow-pipe, who keeps up a continued action on

the globe of solid glass until it has obtained this great size . In

an establishment which I visited at Canton , the glass-blower had

the blood vessels of his face and neck so enlarged, that instant

death will probably one day occur in the midst of his occupation .

Two persons are employed ; one plies a fan to cool the man at the

furnace, the other blows the bellows to expand the glass . As char

coal is used, it is not deemed necessary to use the bellows or blow

pipe . The spheroid of thin glass is, by means of a paper model,

450

marked with ink into panes, which are flattened in an oven after

wards ; each pane of glass, when heated, being placed on a flat

stone, and smoothed with a metal rod . These panes of glass or

plates are intended for looking glasses, of which immense quan

tities are in use. The glass is very thin, but perfectly transparent.

There are many glass establishments to be seen in and about CanSAĞ

ton, but none of them are on an extensive scale.

SPANGLES . METALLIC WARE . 93

Large quantities of flints are now imported into Canton, and

have thus almost superseded the sale of broken glass -once a con

siderable article of export to China . The Chinese will probably

establish manufactories on a great scale. They cut and grind

glass with great dexterity, and in beautiful shapes.

Spangles as an article of ornament, are in great demand

among the Chinese, and manufactured on a very simple plan.

Copper wire is cut into lengths, and, with the aid of a pair of nip

pers, bent into rings, which are then beaten out as our gold-beaters

do their gold leaf. Shoes must necessarily be an article of extensive

manufacture among so large a population who all cover their feet.

The shoe-shops have a very attractive appearance, from the paint

ing and embroidery with which they are finished ; and as tall ladies

are much admired in China, the shoe-maker can hide any defect in

this respect by making the soles one or two inches thick, which

is about the average size . Felted paper and the buffalo leather are

principally used . The leather is bad, porous, and ill- suited to any

but an eastern climate. A good deal of inferior-tanned leather is

imported from Manilla.

In the manufacture of pewter vessels, the pewter is first prepared

in sheets, and in this state hammered into pots, vases, tea-pots, and

every article of domestic utensil . A block of about two feet high,

and one and a half in diameter, is sunk in the floor. Upon this

the double pewter is moulded to the desired shape . Shops for the

disposal and manufacture of this article are very numerous ; and

are laid out to the best advantage for display. Copper ware, such

as jars, bottles, drinking cups, and every necessary domestic article,

is made of thin copper. They are painted various colours, and

have a very tasteful appearanee, somewhat resembling porcelain .

Many articles for domestic use are made of a metal termed " white

copper," which has the appearance of silver.

Bricks and tiles are manufactured in every part of China ; and

the former are invariably of a peculiar blue colour.

Fire-proof houses are used in China . The tiles are laid on the

rafters in rows, alternately concave and convex, forming ridges and

furrows, luted by a cement of stiff clay. These tiles over-lap each

other, but not so as to form two complete layers. The Chinese

consider these roofs perfectly fire-proof.

Stone-cutting is a very large branch of trade, particularly in the

southern provinces . The artizans split and shape stone with great

dexterity ; some blocks of granite for pillars which I measured ,

were thirty feet long, and split thus from the quarry as even as if

they had been sawn timber. The grain or vein of the stone is as

certained, and with iron wedges along aline thus traced, the hardest

granite is split like slate .

The grinding mill is very simple, for it is without wheel or

pinion . One stone is placed upon the ground, while the upper

turns upon an axis, which passes through the centre of both . The

94 GRINDING MILL. CHAIN PUMP.

stones are about four feet in diameter. A staff is fastened to the

edge of the stone ; from which the traces lead to the neck of the

ox that turns it. This staff is attached by its middle, and is

capable of revolving horizontally, to allow the ox some freedom in

his movements . Owing to the slow movements of the stones, the

flour is coarse. The hopper used for distributing the grain between

the stones, is in the shape of a funnel, with a stick placed across

the centre. This, by means of a string that confines it to the wall,

slopes and forms a hollow cone as the hopper turns round. Down

the sides of this funnel the wheat trickles, and finds its way

through the centre of the upper stone to the space between it and

the nether mill- stone . By a centrifugal force, the ground- corn is

thrown towards the circumference. and drops from between the

edges of the stone upon a ledge that runs round the nether mill

stone . As many as five of their mills may be seen at work in one

house or yard : it is said that the operation of grinding corn by

water power is in use in the interior of the country.

A chain pump is in general use for raising water to irrigate the

fields ; it consists of a hollow trough or trunk, of a square make.

Flat and square pieces of wood, corresponding to the dimensions of

the cavity of the trunk, are fixed to a chain, which turns over a

roller or small wheel, placed at each extremity of the trunk. The

square pieces of wood fixed to the chain move with it round the

rollers, and lift up a quantity of water, equal to the dimensions of

the hollow trunk. The power used in working the machine is

applicable in three different ways if the machine be intended to

lift a great quantity of water, several sets of wooden arms are made

to project from various parts of the lengthened axis of the roller,

over which the chain and lifter turn . These arms are shaped

like the letter T, and made round and smooth for the foot to

rest on. Buffaloes and men work the pumps.

Lanterns are in universal use in China, and the manufacture of

them employs many thousands of men, women, and children . The

frame is made of bamboo splinters, and woven on frames of diffeJ

rent sizes, chiefly by females . The workman then arranges all the

interstices which are generally large, and stiffens them with glue,

and covers the lantern with coarse paper, which becomes trans

parent by an application of a coat of varnish, the material of which

is found on the rocky shores of Hainan. The above are those in

common use, and are sold at the low price of six cents .

The lanterns used by distinguished officers, are made of similar

materials, but finished in the most costly style, and emblazoned

with their titles . Those carried by private persons have their

names written on them . Shop -keepers use them on a large scale,

so that at night some streets have the appearance of an illumina

tion . There is no article probably in which the Chinese display

so much ingenuity ; and at the annual " Feast of Lanterns" the

display is very striking. They are made in the shape of various

animals, fish, or birds.

CANDLES . STUCCO . STOVES . 95

The Chinese candles are not unlike the segment of a cone, and

are lighted at the broad end : the wick is a small stick or hollow

reed, round which cotton thread, or the pith of a rush, is wrapped .

One end of the reed or stick, serves for fixing on the candlestick ,

which is made with the point to enter into the hollow. The light

produced is very bright and clear ; and as the wick is solid , and

changes while burning into a hard carbon, it is not easily snuffed ;

scissors made for the purpose are used .

A substitute for stone or brick pavements is made by mixing

sifted sand with quicklime in the proportion of 14 to 1 , and tho

roughly working them as if making mortar ; it is then spread out

and well beaten with a broad wooden mallet, and occasionally

sprinkled with water ; when dry it is a close and solid pavement .

The materials for building walls is the same, only that the gravel is

much coarser . In building a house the foundation is marked out

in the usual manner, and sunk some eighteen or twenty inches ;

posts are then sunk on both inner and outer sides according to the

required thickness ; into this casement, is poured the mortar, and

pressed in the most solid manner, one coat over the other, until a

sufficient height. Where bricks are scarce and dear, this mode of

building is generally adopted .

The Chinese stove called kang, consists of a furnace, a pipe for

the heat, a brick stove, and two funnels for the smoke. The fur

nace is proportioned to the size of the stove it is intended to heat .

The lowest part is the ash-hole ; next the cellar ; then the furnace,

having a slit or mouth, that conveys the flame and heat into the

stove by a pipe or conductor for the heat, beginning at the mouth

of the furnace, and forming a channel which falls in a right angle

on a second, that goes quite through under the middle of the floor ;

and this last pipe has vent holes here and there.

The stove is a pavement made of bricks, which being supported

at the four corners by solid piles, a hollow space is formed between

them and the under pavement, where the heat remains pent-up ,

and warms the floor. The smoke funnels are at both ends of the

stove, with a little opening on the stove, and another outward, which

carries off the smoke.

The heat of the furnace, impelled by the outward air, and atw w

tracted by the rarefied air of the stove, rushes through the stove by

the vent holes, heats the bricks, and from them the whole room.

The smoke which has a free passage, is carried off by the funnels .

The furnace may be placed either within or without the house ;

the middle classes have it in an adjoining room ; the rich have it

outside the house . The furnace is in the form of a cone some

what arched, that the activity of the heat and flame may be all im

pelled into the stove, and not fly off when the aperture at the top is

left open. The opening in the furnace is narrow, and the lower

end of the conductor must go quick into the stove .

The ground or flooring of the stove is generally composed of

bricks placed edgewise. The Chinese cement them with a compo

96 PAWNBROKERS ESTABLISHMENTS .

sition, consisting of varnish and vegetable oil . The chief advan

tage of these stoves is, that any kind of fuel will heat them ; seacoal

is pounded fine and mixed with yellow clay, into the form of bricks,

by which plan there is a saving of coals ; and the seacoal thus

tempered is less offensive . The stove is similar to those used by

the ancient Romans .

Pawnbrokers in China. - The establishments of Pawnbrokers are

distinct from many shops , and very numerous in China. The

licensed shops are divided into three classes. Those who pos

sess large capital, and are licensed to grant loans to any amount,

are placed under strict regulations. They allow three years.

to redeem pledges, with a grace of three months ; and have to pay

largely for their license, besides being subject to an annual tax.

They must give three years notice of retiring from business . Infe

rior pawnbrokers are licensed to allow only two years to redeem ,

and others again of a still lower description may sell off their

pledges after one year. Persons carrying on business without a

license are liable to severe punishment . The length of time al

lowed by law for the redemption of pledges, proves very injurious

to them, as the articles must often lose their value within such pro

tracted periods, -the only reason assigned for this anomaly is

that such is the law. If a pawnbroker suffer from fire originating

in his own premises, he is not exonerated from the responsibility of

refunding to his customers the value of any article pledged and

destroyed by fire . But when fire is communicated to the pawn

broker's shop from a neighbour's, he is only to make good half the

amount of loss .

The Pawnbroker, according to law can demand from the first to

the ninth month inclusive two per cent per month on sums of

ten taels and upwards ; and three per cent per month on smaller

!

sums ; but during the tenth, eleventh, and twelfth months only one

and a half per cent per month, for sums of ten taels and upwards,

and two per cent on smaller sums .

The establishments are frequently on a very large scale ; one that

I minutely examined at Shanghai, required an hour to go through

the different departments ; the goods were classified, and so well

arranged, that any pawned goods could be immediately found by a

wooden label hanging from the end of the compact bundle, with

the name of the person, the date of the pawn, and the amount

for which the goods were pawned . Many of the poorer classes

pawn their winter clothes when summer has arrived, and their

summer ones at the beginning of winter ; their clothes are thus care

fully preserved, and they get the use of the money thus obtained.

Whale Fishing in China.- During the months of January and

February, whales and their young resort to the coast of China,

especially to the leeward of Hailing Shain, in great numbers ; and

during those months they are pursued by the Chinese belonging to

Hainen and the neighbouring islands with considerable success .

WAGES OF LABOUR . 97

The fish is covered with barnacles, and their object in resorting to

that coast is probably to obtain food, and to roll on the numerous

sand banks on the coast, and clean their skin of the barnacles .

Besides the coast abounds with squid, cuttle, and blubber fish.

Sixty of the whaling or fishing boats may be seen scattered over

the bays at once. The boats are well adapted for following up

the fish, as they may be turned rouud quickly, and make very little

noise. They are of different sizes, the smallest about three tons , the

largest twenty five, which carry two small boats on deck, and a

crew of twelve men. On the bow is a crooked piece of timber,

which serves as a rest for the harpoon, and enables the harponeer

to stretch well over the bow.

The harpoon has only one barb ; the line is made of native hemp,

and is about sixty fathoms long, and about five inches in circum

ference. Great length of line is not required by them, for there is

shoal water along the coast for many miles to seaward . A number

of boats start at daylight, and spread themselves in different

directions ; the first boat that sees a whale blowing, lowers the

sails and unships the rudder, which is the signal for the other

boats to come to their aid. They strike the fish a little behind

the blowhole, on the top of the back . With eight or ten harpoons

in it, the whale does not live more than two hours, and is then

floated to the shore ; the whales average about fifty barrels of oil .

English whalers and Americans now fish as far north in the China

seas as Japan, and it is said that this gigantic creature is taking

refuge from his pursuers in the Southern Ocean by migrating

to the Northern Pacific. I saw English whaling vessels recently

on the coast of Siam and Cochin China, pursuing their adventurous

calling with great success.

In order to ascertain the wages of labour, and cost of food, the

following answers were returned to my queries by Dr. Gutzlaff :

Wages of labour of the lowest description in Canton and in other

provinces ? —60 cash per day and food , even 40 in the north, during

bad times. Canton much better in similar cases, 80-90, as far as

400 cash, which is considered very high, and given to men that

are well versed in their profession. Not 20, however, in the

north ; where I never heard of above 300 cash, even to printers,

per day.

Wages or earnings of weavers of cotton or silk in Canton and in

the northern provinces ? -On an average 2-3 dollars per month,

one person .

Wages of artizans, such as carpenters, blacksmiths, &c ., in

Canton and other provinces ? —Five dollars per month on an ave

rage. I have found instances of 4 and also of 7 dollars, but not

commonly.

Cost of maintaining a labourer, his wife, and three children, in ac

cordance with his wages or earnings ? -Lowest 3 dollars . Single

elderly persons I have myself maintained at the rate of 1 dollar per

H

98 COST OF MAINTENANCE .

month. Make for each child an allowance of 600 cash, as the

lowest ; hardy boys will consume food to the amount of 11 dollar

per month.

Cost for maintaining an artizan ? -Smiths, and stone cutters, and

carpenters, at 3-4 dollars per month, in those parts per person.

Cost for maintaining a weaver ?-Two dollars per person. In the

north they pay him about 80 cash, per day, and give him food ;

so also to masons.

Average cost of rice in Canton and other districts ? -One and a

half dollar per month, 2 beginning to be high ; in the north this

price is considered moderate.

Average cost of millet, wheat, or other grain in Canton, and in

other districts ? —When cheap at one dollar per picul, often ad

vances 300 cash, Millet of the best description, one tael per

picul, generally in the north that price, here perhaps 20 per cent.

dearer ; barley 800 cash per picul, seldom one dollar.

Average cost of pulse in Canton and other districts ? —The great

pulse market is Mantchouria, where a picul in ordinary times fetches

about one dollar, never less, often one dollar and a half. In Can

ton the lowest price is one tael, averaging, however, dollar higher,

without being called dear.

Average cost of salt in Canton and other districts ? -Varying from

16-20 cash : on the seacoast, where it pays no gabel, not half its

price . In the inland districts, however, where the price is enhanced

by transportation and extortion, it is often ten times the above

price. În Peking it ordinarily fetches 150-200 cash per catty.

Cost of oil in Canton and other districts ? —Tea oil averaging

for 1 tael 300-500 cash per 23 catties ; earth-nut about 10-14

per cent less ; mustard oil at about 2 taels ; one catty hogslard, 100

cash here . į

What is the oil made from that is generally used as fuel or for

food ? -From the fruits of the Camelia, tea oil ; for burning, from

earth-nut : oil, very common, and most generally used in cooking.

In the north, mustard oil much used ; hogslard and other substances

exclusively for food .

Average cost of salt or fresh fish in Canton and other districts ? ---

1 Fresh. Cheapest, 20 cash ; dearest, 200 ; average, 60 ; Salt .

40-50 cash, cheapest ; 100-120, dearest ; which varies accord

ing to the quantities caught, as well as to the peculiar situation of

a place . The above, however, is a fair average per catty.

Average cost of tea drank by the poorer classes in China ?-Three

cash per day furnishes to a small family a tolerable supply. The

experiment has been made by myself.

Prime cost of a large trading junk ready for sea, say of 300 tons

burthen ?-Not under 10,000 dollars , when built in Siam ; add in

China, 50 per cent .; at Fuhchoo, where timber abounds , only fifteen

per cent.; more on an average at other ports .

BOAT MAKING AND SAILING , 99

Expenses per month of navigating ajunk of 300 tons ?-The cost

varies along the coast, and fluctuates at different periods of the

year.

BOAT MAKING AND SAILING .-A large smuggling -boat con

structed at Hong- kong, employed forty carpenters for one month,

and cost with rigging 1600 dollars . These boats do not last more

than three or four years without repairing ; their dimensions are

about :

Length • 70 cubits .

Breadth amidship • 13 ""

Depth of hold 5 ""

Height of the main mast . 50 "

Do. mizen do . 35 ""

drawing water • 13/1/00 ""

This boat would be only a second class ; the first class would be

seventy-eight cubits long ; a cubit is fifteen inches English. When

fully manned, the crew are as follows : first and second captains,

sixty rowers, and ten sailors to steer and shift sails . The crews are

residents or natives of Whampoa ; and if married, their wives are

not allowed with them, lest their presence would damp their

courage in time of danger. One of these fast boats will carry 350

chests of opium, or 400 of Congo tea. The profits of each voyage are

arranged thus. Provisions, six dollars per day, or 180 dollars a

month ; the proprietor then takes half, and the remainder is divided

among the crew; the first captain takes 100 per cent. , and the second

captain fifty per cent above all the others on board. With a calm

sea and a fair tide the boat can go six miles an hour without using

sails, with a good breeze ten or twelve miles at the same time . At

night the "watch" consists of six men relieved every hour. Time is

calculated by burning a joss stick (if they have no watch), with four

marks at equal distances . A " watch" extends from one mark to ano

ther, and is lighted at eight o'clock, so they burn two during the

night. The last " watch" ends at four o'clock a.m. The armament

is as follows : one cannon, twelve pounder ; one do ., six pounder ;

twelve gingalls or small rampart pieces, on pivots ; one English

musket ; twenty pairs of double swords ; thirty rattan shields ; 200

pikes ; sixty oars ; fifteen mats to cover the vessel ; two cables, one

of them bamboo, and the other coir, fifty fathoms long ; one pump

of bamboo tubes ; one European telescope : one compass, which is

rarely used, their voyages being near shore . The crew seldom go

on shore. The captain has no power to strike any of the crew nor

put a man in irons, but by common consent the disturbers are put on

shore ; no articles of agreement are entered into ; the captain selects

his men, and generally advances them one or two dollars . There

is no medicine on board ; no one is permitted to smoke opium,

unless the boat is anchored in a safe place. All breakage and

damage are defrayed by the owner ; but damage by negligence is

H 2

100 SALT MANUFACTURE.

defrayed by the crew. The powder is kept in a wooden box in

charge of the captain, and the average quantity is a picul of 133lbs . ;

the cartridges are made of Chinese bamboo paper, and resemble

silk paper ; they combine strength and fineness .

Under a judicious policy, our small square-rigged coasting

vessels, or schooners, would become extensive carriers along the

whole coast of China, and be a great benefit to the Chinese by

cheapening the transit of commodities along so extensive a sea

border.

SALT MANUFACTURE . -There are more people employed in the

manufacture and conveyance of salt than in any other branch of

trade in China. The salt in use among the Chinese is manufac

tured as follows : Over their salt-pans is spread a sandy earth,

upon which they pour in an abundance of sea-water ; and when it

is entirely saturated therewith, and the water has been evaporated

by the rays of the sun, this dried earth is chipped off to about one

inch in depth . This is then trodden into vats, built of clay, about

seven feet long and four feet broad, having a sieve-like bottom

formed of canes ; sea-water is then poured on the top, and allowed

to filter through this earth and cane-work into a reservoir beneath,

from which a small gutter, formed of half a bamboo, leads it into

large round pans. It is afterwards placed in earthen vessels, and

put in charcoal fires, to skim and purify the salt .

The amount of tonnage employed in the freight of salt must be

immense, when we consider the enormous population among which

it is one of the necessaries of life . The habitual use of salted fish and

rice, renders it probable that more salt is used in China in reference

to the population, than is consumed by the inhabitants of all Eu

rope. There are salt springs in the western provinces of Sze- chuen ,

and salt is manufactured there for the supply of the contiguous

country. From time immemorial in China, salt has been a govern

mental monopoly ; the mandarins employed in the collection of

salt duties take the highest rank among the imperial revenue offi

cers ; and salt merchants are, it is well known, among the most

opulent individuals in China . The duty levied it is said amounts

to nine dollars a ton, which with a population of 320 millions would

produce a revenue of £ 18,000,000 . In passing up the river Peiho,

travellers have been surprised with the immense stacks of salt

which lined its banks .

Dr. Gutzlaff in his journal, says, "the large and numerous

stacks of salt along the shore, especially at Teen-tsin, cannot fail to

arrest the attention of strangers ; the quantity seemed sufficient to

supply the whole empire ; it has been increasing there during

the reigns of five emperors and is still accumulating. Assum

ing that only two-thirds of the population of China consume sea

salt, the tonnage employed would equal the whole amount of foreign

shipping which entered all the ports of the United Kingdom, du

ring the year 1839, and more than eight times the tonnage of all

EXPORT OF SALT FROM ENGLAND . 101

vessels built there during the same period . The principal manu

facture of salt is on the island Hainan, and on the coasts of the

Canton and Fokien provinces . Mr. Lindsay in his narrative, says,

C6

numerous salt- pans are to be seen in the vicinity of all towns

along the coast, laid out in plots of fifty feet square, and paved with

small red stones, which give them a neat appearance .

Salt is extensively smuggled, and vended without paying the go

vernment duty, and many salt boats make Hong-kong their ren

dezvous. The Chinese code awards in the case of smuggled salt,

the whole of it to the informer, and of all other goods only three

tenths. The brown salt is sold in China for about twenty-seven

shillings per ton to the wholesale dealer ; the white salt is retailed

at three and a half dollars per picul. The prime cost of this arti

cle in China, where fuel is so dear, can scarcely be under one dollar

a picul ; double this would be nearer the mark, but at the former

rate of one dollar, the dollar and eighteen piculs to the ton, which

is 2,600 pounds weight, such sale price (of a better article than the

Chinese) , would be about £4 a ton. The Cheshire salt manufac

turers may deem it worth while to consider whether they could

export salt to China at a profit, after paying the tax to the Chinese

government.

In a memorial from the governor of Canton to the Emperor of

China, loud complaint is made of the diminution in the revenue.

The governor states that, " The condition of things is fast retro

grading, that salt is abundant, and no one to buy it. This (he says)

must arise from private parties manufacturing salt, which calls

loudly for increased vigilance ; as the number of people employed

under the Crown in the sale, manufacture, and transport of salt is

not much under one million . Canton is supplied from the districts

of Tachow, Pomow, Teenmow, and Kanpih, and provides an exten

sive market and wide channel for consumption ; the price is always

the same, but it is quite evident that the soldiers, and all those in

authority, neglect your Majesty's interest. It appears that the

able-bodied country people band together, and convey it into the

interior."

The Coal-fields of China are extensive. It is probable that coal

was discovered, and in general use in China, long before it was

known in Europe ; it is mentioned by travellers of the 13th and

14th century, as abounding throughout the province of Cathay,

ofwhich Pekin is the capital ; " black stones" are said to have been

.66

dug out of the mountains, which stones burn when kindled, and

are used by many persons in preference to wood, of which there is

abundance."

The missionaries of subsequent dates give minute descriptions of

the various coals supplied to Pekin, and with the aid of stoves and

furnaces, experimented on their qualities, with reference not only

to domestic, but for laboratory purposes .

There are three kinds in use :

102 VARIETIES OF COAL IN CHINA .

1st . The coal used by blacksmiths , which yields a great flame,

and is fierce, but liable to decrepitate, which accounts probably

for blacksmiths using it in a pounded or powdered state .

2nd. A hard, stony coal, used for culinary purposes, which yields

more flame than the other sorts so employed ; is less quickly con

sumed, and leaves a residuum of grey ashes : there are several kinds

of this coal ; the best are hard to break, of a fine grain, and of a

deep black colour, soiling the hands less than the others, and sili

cious so as to give fire with steel. Others have a coarse grain ,

and make a bright fire with a reddish ash . Another species, when

placed on the fire, falls down in scales, closes the passage of the

air, and stifles the fire .

3rd. A soft coal, gives out less heat than the second class ; con

sumes quickly, breaks with great ease, and is a jet black ; this de

scription is in most general use for mixing with coal-dust and clay,

moulded in the shape of bricks, and extensively sold in the shops

of Pekin : it is thought economical .

Nearly the whole of the properties and applications of coal now

in use in Europe, have long been familiar to the Chinese. The

modern method of warming our dwellings, which we view as the

result of superior and scientific investigation, was in use with little

deviation many centuries ago by the Chinese : there are many

patented fuel- compounds of modern date in Europe, which have

been in practical use in China at least a thousand years ago.

An anthracite coal, abounding thirty leagues from Pekin, was

not formerly in such general use as the other kinds : it is called

by the Chinese che- tan. Che means a stone ; tan is the name they

give to wood. Charcoal, according to their language, signifies a

substance having the properties of stone and wood . The Chinese

coal forms an exception to the unfavourable impression prevailing

against all other with which we are acquainted in the East : a

recent high authority ranks it very favourably. In specific gravity

it is equal to the Welsh fuel, without its spungy texture .

So late as 1841 , a Russian traveller describes the coal mines,

particularly the western mountain range of China, in such abund

ance, as to be almost incredible : not a league can be gone over

without meeting a stratum of coal. Mining is in a rude state in

China, and yet coal is a moderate price in the capital. Anthracite

may be had in the western range of mountains, twenty miles from

Pekin.

Where thick beds of coal occur, the formation is largely deve

loped ; some of this coal is completely decomposed, and its parti

cles have so little cohesion, that they are almost reduced to a state of

powder. Beneath these coals are beds of sandstone ; and below

those, a much richer seam of coal than the upper formation. In

this range are seen horizontal and vertical beds of mixed coal ; it

much resembles anthracite ; it is close and shining, rather difficult

VARIETIES OF COAL IN CHINA . 103

to ignite, has no flame, and yields no smoke : it is homogeneous.

This leads to a well-grounded belief that there has been great heat

at, or subsequent to, the period of its formation . The horizontal beds

are only about four feet thick, of great extent, and, owing to their

imperfect mining operations, are the most important and valuable.

Artificers and copper-smiths prefer this coal, owing to the intense

heat it yields .

In parts of China, where wood is dear, coal is worked on a large

scale for market. Mining is not understood, but in the prepara

tion of charcoal, the Chinese excel.

As a substitute for coal or charcoal, coal-dust and clay,to the

extent of nearly one-third, was selling at Canton last year at

£1 12s . per ton. An indifferent quality gives no heat, and con

sumes quickly ; it is principally used by the poorer classes, but is

still prepared as described by ancient travellers .

There is no country in the world in which this combustible is

so common. The missionaries and Russian travellers state that

it abounds in every province of this vast empire, and along the

banks of the Yantzekang. At Nankin may be seen amazing quan

tities of native coal, from which our steamers were supplied during

the war . At the Gulf of Pe-tche-le pure anthracite coal was seen,

which was brought down from Pekin . Coal of a brownish colour

exists extensively around Canton . All the coals seen south of

Nankin closely resemble cannel coal : this description may be

found for general sale in Shanghai. Brown coal seems confined to

the country around Canton. Lord Amherst's Embassy was offered

coal for sale in all the cities it passed . Nearly all the brown coal

beds were horizontal, and not deep. A sulphureous coal, mixed with

slate, generally found on sand- stone strata, prevails largely around

Canton. There is abundant evidence, that extending over large

areas in China, are beds of every description of coal, consisting of

brown coal, cannel coal, and varieties of bituminous coal, all of

which have been in use for ages, and used for all domestic

purposes known to civilized nations, including gas-lighting ; smeltCFL

ing iron, copper, and other metals .

It is rightly noted as surprising, that in China, where most of the

practical arts have been more or less in use from time immemorial,

and with the characteristic perseverance of that most industrious

people, the operations of mining are conducted without any regard

to science. At Pekin, as well as at Canton, their process is bad

in the extreme. Machinery to lighten labour is unknown : not

even the idea of pumps to draw off the water. The shovel, pick,

and hammer, are the only instruments in use amongst the Chinese

in their mining operations. The water is emptied by filling sacks,

which are brought to the surface by manual labour.

The prices of coals at Pekin averaged , in 1844, at the pit's

mouth, four dollars sixty- three cents per ton : land carriage over

104 GAS- LIGHTING IN CHINA .

mountains on camels' backs, &c. , enhances the price in cities to

£2 10s. for 2,240 lbs. ; the best fuel is, therefore, expensive in

many places.

Le Compte says, no country can be better supplied with coal

than China ; especially mountains in the provinces of Shen- si ,

Shan-si, and Chih-le ; without this convenience there would be no

living in so cold a country, where wood is scarce. Peking, he adds,

has been supplied with coal, from a mountain two leagues distant

from the city, at least two thousand years past. This coal is a jet

black, and found between the rocks in very deep veins ; it is diffi

cult to light, but casts a powerful heat, and is very lasting. This

coal yields a bad smell sometimes, which is counteracted by the

Chinese keeping a large bowl of water in the apartment, which

draws the smoke in such a short time that the water must be fre

quently changed.

Coal of a good quality has recently been found in abundance on

the island of Formosa, in the direct tract for steamers up the coast

of China .

GAS- LIGHTING IN CHINA. - To what extent the Chinese pro

duce illuminating gas is not known ; but it appears certain, that

for centuries spontaneous jets of gas have been burning, and turned

to various useful purposes. Salt water is obtained by boring coal

beds, and the gas is forced up thirty and forty feet high : from

these fountains the vapour is conducted through pipes to the salt

works, and used for evaporation : along- side these are gas tubes to

convey the gas to cities ; and it is in general use in kitchens,

bazaars, &c. : the excess is conveyed away to burn bricks and lime.

This application of gas to various purposes, is worthy of trial in

Newcastle, Durham, and other coal districts .

Mineral productions. - The mountainous districts of Kwei-choo

and Yun-nan are rich in mineral treasures ; but mining is not en

couraged, because it withdraws the people from agriculture, and

the greatest riches are still hidden in the earth. There are gold

mines, but no European can point out the place where they are to

be found. The quantity of gold current, in bars about the value of

£44 sterling, is considerable ; it is issued from the capital and from

Shan -tung province. Tibet possesses the precious metals . The

first-rate Chinese sycee, which is the native silver of the country,

contains some parts of gold, and surpasses in fineness and purity

that of every other country in the world .

Gold-dust is found in the River Yang-tsze-keang, and in several

rivers of Yun-nan ; it is also imported into China from the Laos

country, Birmah, and Borneo. Iron is found in every part of

China, but great quantities are imported . Lead, though obtained

in many places, is not sufficient for the consumption : the same may

be said of tin . Copper is imported largely from Japan. Tuten

ague is an alloy of copper, iron, and zinc, of great whiteness ; and

is a composition of Chinese invention . Mercury is common ; the

MINERALS .- GOLD, IRON, MERCURY . 105

*

oxydation of vermilion is so great, principally for export, as to re

quire large importation from abroad. Yun-nan furnishes the

chrystal, ruby, amethyst, sapphire, and topaz. Alum is found in

slates in great quantities ; as are also rock- salt , marble, porphyry,

and jasper ; several districts are impregnated with saltpetre.

On another authority it is stated ,. that the western districts

or provinces of Kwang-se, Yun-nan, and Kwei-chow, are

richer in mineral productions than any other part of China.

They possess tin, gold, silver, iron, and copper mines ; also cor

nelians, jasper, rubies, and beautiful marbles, in Yun-nan : gold

and silver exist, likewise, to some extent, in Szechuen, Canton, and

Keang-se ; and to a smaller amount, in Hoopih and Fooh-keen .

Iron and lead are found, more or less, in all the southern pro

vinces. Mercury is obtained chiefly in Sze- chuen and Kwei- chow :

and there are a few coal mines in Kwang-tung (Canton) , even inside

the city itself. The yuh stone, or jade, is found in Shan-se and

Hoo-nan ; the cornelian, in Chih-li ; there are also extensive coal

mines in the southern portions of Chih-li and Shan- se ; and also,

to a limited extent, in Shan-tung and Hoo-nan.

Dr. Gutzlaff furnished me, in China, with the following list of

mines :

Gold mines.- Those of Oroumtsi, and in the neighbourhood of

the ceded western part of Turkestan, the districts of Teih -hwa and

Suglae.

The Chinese government does not interfere in the working of

the mines, but appoints the most experienced as head-man, who

pays for this privilege, monthly, three cordaneers' weight of gold .

All the gold obtained must be regularly stamped by responsible

shroffs , and no bars without their particular mark are allowed to

be circulated . Government sends annually considerable quantities

of the produce falling to its share to the imperial establishment at

Peking. The mines are very extensive, but as the advantages are

solely accruing to the sovereign, no public account of the returns

is ever published .

In the mines of Teen-kwang, the stated amount of workmen is

2,000 ; and allowing three times this number as being the actual

miners, this would constitute no trifling adventure. The head

men pay him during the summer as well as in winter the same

sum , for the monarch's private purse . These miners are under

the special supervision of government, mandarins being especially

appointed to watch over them ; and an extra tax, for defraying this

expenditure, is also put on the ore.

The largest quantity of gold is obtained from places in the

neighbourhood of Kokonor, and in that country ; the principal

places to the south of the chain of mountains which abut on

the Himmalah, are Tseénfut, Tung-sha, Tsaon-tun, Keép-kan,

Keép-sik, Gokpok-pachen, Poolakik-chang, and Chang-tsze ; to the

north arc Polotae, Tsing-tun, Keep-too, Yaon-tsze, Kokoshashik,

106 GOLD AND SILVER MINES .

2

Yintun-heén, and Tsenen-tsze. The gold is here found, both in

the bowels of the earth as well as in the sand of rivers. These

mines are only worked during the summer months, but no statement

of the average production exists .

In Shen-se are the Hoppootat and the Haehopla Mountains,

containing rich ore ; and every gang of fifty men pays two mace

five candareens in weight per day, besides a premium of three cor

doneers on each tael, to the officers of government.

In the province of Yun-nan, there are many places, and,

perhaps, the largest establishments in the world, for washing

the sand of the Yang-tsze, which here assumes the name of Gold

dust River. For every bed (a space confined between boards where

the washing is carried on,) the owner pays, monthly, one mace

weight in gold ; and, annually, seven taels, two mace, six canda

reens besides . At other places the tax is much heavier, a clear

proof of the sand being more productive ; the principal places are

Yungpik, Hok-king, Pik-ya-pootsaon, Kaehwa, and Makoo.

The richest mines, however, are in Kwei-choo Province, Sze-nan

foo, and Teén-king, where the miners pay on each tael pure gold,

four candareens and three mace to government.

Gold-dust abounds in Assam,. which adjoins Yunnan.

Silver mines.- Sze-chuen province has at Yenynen, Kea- tsze,

Kwapeavatze, Kowkeén-chang, Chinshakow, Ningfonying, and at

Sekoopeét, copper mines which yield a good deal of silver, paying

a duty of two mace, four candareens, and five cash for each tael.

In Canton Province, there are lead-mines producing considerable

quantities of silver, at Tsangchelin, and Taewan ; in Chinping dis

trict, at Sinshaw ; in Tung-shun district, at Tungkeo-pèen and

Leshoowan ; in Taepoo district, at Taetsing and Taho-ping. The

mines being very productive, the labourers pay five mace and one

cordoneer on each tael of silver.

The following are the pure silver-mines : in Kwang- se, at Nang

tang ; in Hoche country, at Kwa-hung ; and in Funho district, at

Tseavurnuh-shan : the duty varies here from one- and-a-half mace

to two mace upon each tael of refined silver . The officers superin

tending the work are made responsible for the payment of a fixed

sum, not mentioned in the statistics ; and failing to collect it, must

themselves make up the deficiency.

In Yun-nan there are the following pure silver-mines : at Sha

heén, in Tang-chuen country, where the contractor has to pay

1,302 taels per annum, and may extract as much as he can ; at

Pootsaoutang, in Hok-king district, the contractor pays 421 taels

per annum ; in Kaehwafoo, at Matsoote, 706 taels ; at Kooheo, on

the frontiers of Birmah and Cochin China, annually paid in duties,

568 taels ; in Gan-nan country, at Tookikla, 60 taels ; at Tsoo

heung, in the Yung-ching mines, 3,375 taels ; at Malung, 698

taels . The Kookew mines in Mungsze district, and the extensive

silver-mines of Weseatuntsze and Pokeihtsze, on the Cochin China

THE GOVERNMENT OF CHINA . 107

frontiers (amount of duties paying to government not mentioned) ;

at Muhhih, in Keénshway district, and the Kinsha and Loma

mines, in Chaontung-foo, and those at Santaoukow, are under the

immediate superintendence of the Chinese government, and pay

one mace eight cordoneers duty per tael ; under the same juris

diction are the Shih-yang, the Chowcha, and Tseénlién, the Mang

leén, and the Muhyew mines ; the former pay 1-2 cordoneers

per tael, the last, 300 taels per annum. At the Kinsha copper

mines there is also silver ore found . In the neighbourhood are

the Teéntsae, Kaetae, Yufung, and Yuenlung mines . At Lelung

foo are the Hwuy-lung mines, which pay one mace three cordo

neers per tael. In Shunning-foo, there are several mines paying

annually 800 taels to government ; others are not enumerated in

this list because they are met with very frequently, and being

under far less restraint than those in other provinces, are worked

by myriads of human beings.

The richest mines, however, are in Kwei-choo province, at Wei

ning country, in Chatsze, and Chookwangtang, which pay four

mace per tael duty.

At the two Lokma and Hwuylung mines, a deputy pays, an

nually, from 8,000 to 25,000 taels ; this sum, however, is sent to

the Board of Revenue. Officers who distinguish themselves in

collecting sums from mines are rewarded by being raised in rank.

When we take into consideration, that at least ten times the

number of mines are worked clandestinely, or under the conni

vance of the government officers, and, moreover, by the aborigines

who are in possession of the mountains, it will be apparent at a

single glance, that the precious metals gained from the bowels of

the earth, far exceed in quantity the amount of the exported

bullion.

CHAPTER IV .

THE GOVERNMENT OF CHINA,-GENERAL,-PROVIN

CIAL, AND LOCAL.

Our knowledge of the mode in which one third of mankind

is governed in China has hitherto been very limited ; it has, there

fore, seemed advisable to collect in one view all the information

which may tend to illustrate this singular problem. So far as I have

been enabled to trace, it appears that while complete despotism

is exercised generally, there is considerable local freedom, the

remnant of the ancient Chinese institutions, which the Tartars.

108 GOVERNMENT. - IMPERIAL FAMILY.

have not been enabled entirely to crush, although they have suc

ceeded in debasing the people.

According to the doctrine artfully inculcated throughout China,

the monarch is responsible to no one on earth ; by the ruling pow

ers of earth and heaven he is emperor of China, representative of

all living beings, and of mankind especially .

He is supposed to transact all business between man and the su<

perior beings.

As the high-priest he worships the presiding powers, and prays

for all men . He has been called a political heathen pontiff,

vested with temporal and spiritual power ; his Majesty even rules

over Hades, canonizes, and can condemn and degrade, as well as

exalt and confer honors on an idiot.

He stands as an inferior compared to his ancestors ; if dead he

follows their example ; and provides them with paper money burnt

over their tombs, in order that they may purchase necessaries ; if

alive he venerates them with the same respect as if they were su

perior beings ; as a proof, the empress mother made Taoukwang

renew the late war with the English, after the conclusion of peace

between Commissioner Keshen and Captain Elliott ; she put a stop to

festivities, and ordered mourning throughout the empire, which

actually took place.

The emperor nominates his successor. The present emperor was

not the eldest son of his father.

IMPERIAL FAMILY,-The Emperor of China signs his name

Taoukwang, " Reason's Glory," and is the second son of the late

emperor Keaking ; he was born in 1781 ; and succeeded to the

throne in 1821. His eldest son died in 1832 ; but he has three

other sons living . Since his accession to the throne, there has been

very little internal peace ; not one year has passed, but one part or

the other of the empire has been disturbed by insurgents, and

the wide-spread influence of the numerous secret soceities that

exist throughout the empire, are a continual source of uneasiness.

The first on the list of the imperial officers is Tsungjunfu, whose

duties consist in regulating and providing for the imperial clan

who are very numerous, and divided into two classes ; first, the

imperial house, (tsungshi) ; second, the golden tribe, (Ghioro),

the latter being the surname of the reigning family. The descen

dants in a direct line of the first sovereign , who took the name of

emperor, are styled of the imperial house ; the remainder of the

family are merely called after their surname, Ghioro . Members

of these two classes are frequently expelled for impropriety of con

duct, but are nevertheless distinguished by wearing coloured

girdles, one red and the other pink . There are many nominal dis

tinctions of titles among the imperial family, but their names

rarely appear in any elevated station of official employment. The

members who manage the affairs of this office, have adopted a

different line of policy, from that which was hitherto in practice,

GENERAL GOVERNMENT OF CHINA. 109

and the consequence is that domestic strife is unknown . There

are many of the imperial kindred whose allowance from the emperor

does not exceed one pound sterling, per month ; the consequence

is that they have no influence whatever over the public, with

whom many of them are compelled to associate in the capacity of

shopmen and servants.

THE GENERAL GOVERNMENT may be said to consist of two

councils, six supreme boards, a censorate, a colonial office, and an

imperial college.

The inner council (Nui Ko) is the emperor's office of business,

from which all his commands are issued. There are four chief

ministers, (ta hiasz) , and two assistant ministers, (hiessan ta hiasz) ,

also ten ministers. (hiasz) . Their united duties are to deliberate

on the affairs of the state ; to declare the imperial will, and to aid

the sovereign in governing the people. From the latter ten

ministers, (hiasz) are selected the governors of provinces, political

agents in the colonies, &c.; six of them are Mantchoo Tartars,

and four Chinese . The ordinary business of the Council, Nui Ko,

is the reception of imperial edicts, and the presentation of memo

rials, and the replies which are to be given. These documents are

all transmitted from the General Council Chamber, (Keun-kee

Choo) for the perusal and examination of the members, previous

to their submitting the same to his Majesty ; to all these documents

are attached a slip of paper, with the opinion of the council as to

the answer that should be returned written on it, to economize

time. The day following the reception of each memorial, the

council all attend on his Majesty at daylight in the morning.

A Mantchoo minister reads each document, and then hands it over

to a Chinese minister, who inscribes on it the imperial answer.

The other duties of this council, are the care and preservation of

the imperial seals, twenty five in number ; they also arrange what

posthumous titles are to be conferred on deceased emperors and

their consorts , also on meritorious ministers and nobles .

The General Council, (Keun-ke- Choo, ' is chiefly composed of

members chosen from among the ta heasze of the inner council,

the presidents, and vice presidents of the six boards, and the prin

cipal officers of all the other courts in the city. All important

business that requires immediate attention is transacted by this

council, who sit daily from two until four o'clock. They attend

his Majesty when he holds a council of state ; on which occasion

they are permitted to sit on low cushions, which are placed on the

ground. The commands and decisions of the Emperor are written

down and transmitted to the Nui- Ko to be made public ; if the

decisions are of a secret nature, and relate to the provincial

affairs, they are sent to the board of war, who have them dis

patched at the rate of 400 or 500 le a day. In all matters con

cerning the government, and the decision of trials of importance,

the members of this council are engaged alone, or deliberate with

110 SIX SUPREME BOARDS .

the board or court to which the affair more properly belongs .

The Emperor, in time of war or rebellion, looks to this council for

local information, and the state of the country through which the

soldiers have to pass . This council is bound to furnish his

Majesty with a list of all the meritorious officers, entitled to pro

motion. They keep the map of the dependencies, and countries

inhabited by barbarians ; have the appointment and removal of the

Mantchow and Chinese residents in Tibet, Turkestan, & c.; select

the presents to be given to tribute-bearers ; regulate the examina

tions at the court, and translate documents into and from foreign

languages. Thirty clerks, called changking, are attached to this

department.

The six supreme boards, (luh-hoo), are the boards of : 1 , civil

office ; 2, of revenue and territorial resources ; 3 , of ritual obser

vances ; 4, of war ; 5 , of punishments ; and 6, public works . At

the head of each board are two presidents (shangshoo), and four

vice-presidents (shelong), who are either Mantchoo Tartars, Mon

gols, or Chinese . The chief ministers of the Nui- ko, are often ap

pointed superintendents over the presidents of one or other of the

boards. The boards over which such superintendents are most

generally appointed are those of war, of revenue, and of punish

ments ; sometimes a president of one board is placed as superin

tendent of another . Each board has a subordinate department,

for attending to particular portions of the peculiar business of the

board.

The board of civil office assists his majesty in his judgments, re

garding the promotion and degradation of officers ; confers ranks of

nobility, and manages a great part of the machinery of the govern

ment. This board has in its gift, subject to his majesty's appro

val, all the civil appointments, from the governor of a province to a !

police runner, the total of which amounts to many thousands .

There are four subordinate departments attached to the civil office ;

the duties of which are to take cognizance of the conduct of all the

civil officers in the empire, to keep a strict account of all their good

and bad actions, to regulate their temporary retirement from duty,

their promotion or their degradation .

The board ofrevenue, (Hoo -poo) , levies duties and taxes, arranges

the distribution of salaries and allowances, the receipt and expen

diture of grain and treasure. It regulates the territory of the em

pire, in its divisions into provinces, compiles correct censuses of all

the people in their various distinctions of classes, obtains admea

surements of all the lands in the empire, ascertains the positions of

places by their latitude and longitude, proportions the taxes and

conscriptions, and regulates the expenditure of the empire . At

tached to it are fourteen subordinate departments, who are charged

with the supervision of the revenue of the several provinces . A

board or court of appeal is connected with the Hoo-poo, which re

gulates disputes respecting property and successions ; also a mint

OFFICIAL DUTIES OF THE BOARDS . 111

under the direction of two of the she-lang, or vice-presidents of

the board, and of two other superintendents, subordinate to them ;

an officer of " the great ministers of the three treasuries," viz : the

treasuries of metals, of silks, and of the material of coloring, toge

ther with stationary, &c.; an officer for superintending the sup

plies of grain in and about the capital, under the direction of two

officers (shelang) , and thirty- two superintendents .

The board ofrites (Le-poo) , superintends the classes of ritual ob

servances : 1st, those of a propitious nature, viz : festivals, sacrifices

to the gods, and state ceremonies ; 2nd, those of a felicitious or

joyful nature, &c.; 3rd, those of a military character, preparations

for war, reviews of troops, &c .; and 4th, those of hospitality, and

everything relating to the intercourse of foreign states, and the pre

sentation of tribute from abroad and the provinces.

There are four subordinate departments, besides several officers

for conducting the general business of the board of rites, the chief

duties of which are to regulate the etiquette and ceremony to be

observed between the various ranks, and the degree of attention

which is to be paid to each other, when meeting in official capaci

ties ; to attend to the governmental schools and academies ; and

the public literary examinations. This department has the whole

charge of foreign embassies-attached to it is an interpreter's office.

The board grants permission to foreign astronomers, mathematici

ans, and artists to reside in Peking. The fourth department of the

board has the superintendence of the imperial feasts, and the al

lowances given to princes and other lords in waiting on the royal

family.

The board of music, ( Yo -poo) , is an office connected with the

Le-poo, and is under the superintendence of the Mantchoo presi

dent of that board, and an indefinite number of high officers who

possess musical talents.

The board of war, (Ping-poo) , has for its general duties the presen

tations of military officers to the Emperor, and the distribution of

military commands throughout the empire. The minor duties of

the board are managed by four subordinate departments.

The board of punishments, (Hing-poo) , hears causes and ap

cases

peals, confirms or reverses sentences, and regulates fines . In

of capital crimes, with a few exceptions, the officers of this board

meet with two other criminal courts and deliberate together ; and

at the time of the autumnal assizes, they meet the officers of eight

other courts, to reconsider the sentences passed by the various pro

vincial judges. This board marks all changes made in the written

laws, and the supplementary enactments, and prepares all new edi

tions of the penal code for publication, regulates prisons, and has

attached to it a treasury, which is supplied by fines on jailors and

others .

The board of works, (Kung-poo) , regulates the erection and repairs

of all buildings for the use of the public, and the manufacture of all

112 FOREIGN AND COLONIAL OFFICES .

kinds of vessels, instruments, dresses, and imperial mausoleums ;

also the regulation of weights and measures.

The subordinate departments are four : the first has charge of all

city walls, palaces, temples and altars, and estimates the value of

all buildings confiscated to government ; four superintendents of

timber and two of glass-ware and pottery are appointed . The

second attends to the manufacture of military weapons, guns, shot,

&c., and has charge of the imperial pearl-fisheries . The third depart

ment has charge of all water-ways, dikes, &c. The 4th has the

furnishing of all the palaces and temples, and the erection of tombs .

The mint is under the direction of two vice-presidents ( shelang)

of the board of works, with two superintendents, subordinate to

them .

The manufacture of gunpowder is under the charge of " two

great ministers," with one subordinate superintendent.

Lefan-yuen is intrusted with the management of the Mongols,

and the government of Turkestan and Tibet, and is composed en

tirely of Mantchoos and Mongols. The board is also entrusted

with the government of the tributary tribes in Szechuen, Formosa ,

and other places ; these are called fan, foreigners, to distinguish

them from the " barbarians" (all western people) . These " bar

barians" are divided into two classes, external and internal ; the

latter includes all the unsubdued mountaineers, called Meaou-tze ,

who dwell on the borders of Kwang-tung, Kwang-se, Kweichoo,

and other provinces ; this office regulates the government of the

Nomads. The multifarious duties of the colonial office are pretty

equally divided among six subordinate departments.

The 1st has charge of the territorial limitations, and regulates the

rank and succession ofthe princes and nobles of the inner Mongo

lian tribes ; it arranges the marriage of the princes. and their sons.

and daughters, these being generally inter-married with the impe

rial family ; has charge of arranging the tribes into corps, and

administering to them the oath of fealty. The 2nd regulates the

salaries of the inner Mongolian princes, and their visits to the court,

which take place in regular succession . The 3rd department

exercises the same control over the outer Mongolian princes and

nobles ; and over the lamas of Tibet, exercises the same restraint, as

the first department does over the inner Mongolians ; fixes the

limits of the territories of each tribe, supervises their government,

issues a license to their merchants without which they cannot

trade. At Kourun , the principal city of the Kalkas, are resident

two ministers, Keepers of the Russian frontier ; they have an office

at Kiachta, where the intercourse between Russia and China is re

gulated . The chief resident of the lamas is in Tibet ; here two po

litical agents reside, connected with this department, who sit in

council with the dalai lama and the bantchinerdeni. " The tribute

of Tibet and the Gorkas," is under the direction of this department.

The 4th fixes the emoluments, tribute, & c. , of the outer MonP

EXAMINING COURT, OR CENSORATE . 113

golians and the lamas. The 5th arranges the government of the

Mohammedan princes and Begs, also those tributary unsubdued

tribes of Pourouths, Kassaks, and Turkomans, of Khokand, Bad

akshan, Belaur, Tashkend, and Aakhan, in independent Tartary.

The 6th regulates the penal discipline of all the tributary tribes ;

has attached to it a translator's office, a treasury, and an office of

supervision .

The Examining Court, or Censorate, investigates into the character

and conduct of all the public officers in the empire. When any

important affairs of government are submitted to the consideration

of the six boards, the censorate is one ; and in all important cri

minal cases this board is consulted . The members of this court are,

two chief censors, and four deputy censors ; these are called censors

of the left ; the governors of provinces are ex-officio censors of the

right ; and the lieutenant-governors, with the governors of the

rivers, are ex- officio deputy censors, also, of the right. The mem

bers of this court, when in the presence of his majesty, give expres

sion to their sentiments very freely. They are required to point

out to the emperor his faults, and the law makes them responsible

for every bad action he commits without a remonstrance on their

part.

The present emperor differs from his predecessors, inasmuch as

he has frequently commended them for their homely truths ; but

under former reigns, particularly during that of Keenlung, many

censors were ordered for execution for only performing their duty.

This anomaly in government was very objectionable to the Tartars,

who had no idea of any restraint on their despotic sway.

In July, 1843, one of the imperial censors addressed a strong

rebuke to the emperor, which shows the bold free language now

used, and at the same time the hatred of the English. He says :

" That which the people love is good, that which they hate is bad.

Do they not love truth and virtue-and do they not hate iniquity

and falsehood ? If, then, you (the emperor) reward not the right

eous and punish not the evil-doer, verily it will become a sore sick

ness to the land.

" When the disobedient barbarians (the English) , like foul birds

and unclean beasts, wrought strife in the land, did not civil and

military authorities and their men flee away. Many reasons were

given for this disgraceful conduct ; but although their ships were

strong and their cannon great, yet are not the laws of the emperor

stronger and his wrath greater. How much better to risk life in

1 battle than death in flight. Although the barbarians returned to

their own country, yet the emperor was so justly incensed at his

officers, for having violated the law, by fleeing from the barbarians,

that he commanded their conduct to be investigated . The said

officers were disgraced, degraded, and condemned to death ; among

them was Yu-poo -yuen, who was executed ; none were to be found

who did not clap their hands and rejoice at his punishment . Great

I

114 COURT OF REPRESENTATION .

as was his crime, how much greater were the crimes of Ke-shen,

Ki-king, Woo-wee, and others, who have not received like punish

ment.

(C

Surely the hearts of people are sorry, and men cry out, that is

by reason of their being Tartars, and not Chinese like Yu-poo -yuen.

" The censor implores the emperor to listen to the peoples'

prayers, and to degrade Ke-shen to the lowest rank, never again to

be employed in a service he has betrayed,-then will the people's

hearts be glad ; and true it is that they hate Ke- shen, and would

tear him in pieces for selling them to the barbarians .

" The secret of rightly governing, is to know when and how to

reward, when and how to punish . "

The subordinate departments of the censorate are, the luh-ko, six

classes, the censors of the fifteen taou or provinces, and the censors

of the five divisions of Pekin . The six classes are named after the

six boards, each having to attend to the supervision of the board

after which it is named . The censors of the fifteen taou attend to

the supervision of all the courts of the capital, the archives, & c. , and

to all criminal cases in the provinces.

The Court of Representation (Tung- ching), consists of two chief

officers, two deputies, and two counsellors ; their duties are to receive

all memorials and appeals from the provinces, addressed to the em

peror. This is the eighth court for aiding his majesty. Some of

the deputies of this court attend at the palace gates, where a drum

is placed ; those who have appeals to present, beat this drum and

are immediately waited on.

The Criminal Court and Court of Appeal (called Tale-sze) is the

ninth court which consults on all matters relating to government,

and one of the three courts (supreme) of judicature. These three

courts must be unanimous in their decision on all capital crimes

brought under their consideration ; if otherwise, the case is then

submitted to the emperor, who decides . This board is frequently

divided into two subordinate courts, the heads of which preside in

assemblies of the subordinate departments of the board of punishG

ments, each of the two courts being joined with half the whole

number of the departments of the board. The officers for con

ducting the business are nearly the same as those of the six

boards .

The Imperial Academy (Hanlin-yuen) .— The chief officers are

two presidents, who attend upon the emperor. Twice in each year

they give in lists of officers, from which the emperor selects

(( speakers," whose duty is to translate essays which have been

written by his majesty, and read them aloud in his presence.

Twenty-two members of this academy are selected to attend his

majesty on public occasions, to record his words and speeches ;

four take this duty in turn. Attached to the academy, is the

historiographer's school, for preparing memoirs and national his

tories . The imperial family is also instructed by this board.

The Emperor of China consults his ministers on various sub

IMPERIAL RULE AND CRUELTY . 115

jects. The present sovereign recently promulgated the following

queries :

" 1st. What is the practice of economy according to the maxims

of the ancient kings ?

" 2nd. What signifies the grandeur of the universe ?

" 3rd. Is it requisite first to rectify peoples' hearts, and then to

improve their manners ?

" 4th. Do rites (religious ceremonies) put a stop to lawsuits and

to altercation ?

" 5th. Is it not necessary to place the war establishment upon a

proper footing, with a view to maintaining civil order ? And must

not some leading characters be chosen to carry this object into

effect ? "

Although there appear to be checks on imperial rule or cruelty,

the emperor is absolute in cases of life or death ; and the present

sovereign did not hesitate to violate the promise of protection

granted by his officers. Jehangir, the leader of the Mohammedan

rebellion, surrendered himself to Chang-ling, the general of the

Chinese forces, and, relying on his promises, returned to Peking.

An extract from the Peking Gazette of this period shews the

reliance to be placed on the promises of generals under a Chinese

emperor, in thus recording the sentiments of Taoukwang. " This

day I have descended to the gate, and received the prisoner ; I am

filled with consolation and profound awe." The following day,

the great ministers of state and the military council assembled to

try the prisoner, the emperor presiding on the occasion . He was

found guilty, and sentenced to a slow death, and his head to be ex

posed to public gaze. The proclamation said : " Let the sons of

the officers who fought against him, and the assistant ministers of

state, the president of the boards, and the imperial attendants, go

and witness the execution . Our hair stands on end to think of

his killing our great officers. Let the rebel's heart be torn out,

and given to the sons of those officers, to sacrifice at the tombs of

their fathers to console their faithful spirits." A subsequent

gazette announced the execution to have taken place.

The Empress of China.- The imperial harem is supplied chiefly

with the daughters of noblemen and grandees. They are entrusted

to the care of elderly matrons and eunuchs, who carefully train

them in the duties according to the prescribed order. When a

selection is to be made for a consort, the birth and connexions of

the individual is taken into consideration : but no Chinese lady can

ascend the throne, nor can her children be considered legitimate.

The lady made empress is entrusted with the entire government of

the harem , and the same homage that is paid to the emperor must

likewise be bestowed upon her by the women .

The empress is supposed to represent the earth, and, conse

quently, possesses the power of exerting a transforming influence.

She is charged with the homage due to the god of the silk- worm,

12

116 THE EMPRESS OF CHINA.

and has for the encouragement of her sex to rear this insect. Her

ladies of the bedchamber are employed in weaving silks, which are

annually brought as offerings to the gods.

The Chinese constitution prohibits an empress from interfering

in affairs of state ; so that when a regency has managed affairs,

and a female has been concerned in it, great dissatisfaction has

been manifested by the grandees .

The interior palace resembles a garrisoned city ; no one is per

mitted to enter without the permission of the emperor. There

are very few male servants permitted ; female domestics and eunuchs

perform the duties of the palace .

The Local Government of Peking is intrusted to a minister of one

of the six boards, and subordinate to him is a fooyuin, or mayor.

They have charge of the four divisions ofthe metropolis ; and have

under them two (heen) magistrates ; each heen district comprises

about one half of the city. They are only subordinate to the em

peror, to whom they carry all difficult cases. They have control

over the military police of the city. The board of punishments,

delivers over to them all subjects sentenced to transportation .

The Taepuh is under the direction of two presidents (king) , and

two deputies ; their duty is to superintend the rearing of horses,

and training them for military purposes. Two large tracts of land,

lying beyond the Great Wall, are appropriated for this purpose.

The national college, gives instruction in general language,

classics of Confucius, and mathematics ; in each department there

are separate teachers . The heads of this college are chosen from

among the ministers of the councils, two principals, and three pro

fessors, a Mantchoo, a Chinese, and a Mongol. The Russians and

Lewchewens are instructed in Chinese, Mantchoo, and Mongol

literature .

The Imperial Astronomical College is under the direction of several

ministers, and two principals, and four assistants, a Mantchoo, a

Chinese, and (formerly) two Europeans. Their chief labors consist

in preparing an annual almanac, and the selection of lucky days

and hours, for public acts, sacrifices, and interments. Geometry

and trigonometry, are partially attended to . The geographical

positions of places are determined by members of this college.

The Grand Medical Hall, is regulated by a president and two de

puties ; their duties consist in directing the cure of the nine

diseases . 1st, those affecting the pulse violently ; 2nd, those affect

ing it a little ; 3rd, diseases arising from cold ; 4th, female diseases ;

5th, cutaneous diseases ; 6th, those requiring bleeding ; 7th,

diseases of the eyes ; 8th, diseases of the mouth ; 9th, diseases of

the bones. In rotation the members attend on the Emperor and

household . No theoretical instruction is imparted, all knowledge

is acquired by practice. The members are divided into four grades.

The Nuy- woo-foo, is under an indefinite number of great minis

ters. All affairs, whether civil, financial, military, ritual, or penal ,

LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF PEKING. 117

connected with the imperial household, are conducted by this board.

One member must be in attendance on any of the ladies of the

harem, when going from, or returning to the palace. The house

holds of all the married sons or daughters of the emperor, are

placed under the charge of this board. One of the subordinate

departments has a treasury and five depositories ; viz., of tea, gin

sing, skins, silks, and dresses ; these depositories supply the pre

sents given by the Emperor, and employ all artizans required for

the use of the palace ; the revenue from the imperial farms is

paid into this office . There is a weaving and dying establishment,

under one minister and eight deputies. The fourth subordinate

department selects the ladies for the harem, collects the revenues

arising from the 900 imperial farms occupied by Mantchoos of the

three banners .

The She-wei-choo, or Court of the body-guards. Six great minis

ters have the government of the body-guards and personal troops

of the three banners, all Mantchoos or Mongols, who are divided

into classes . Connected with this office are several classes of great

ministers, with great officers at their head . These are called the

inner great ministers ; the mixed assembly of great ministers have

no particular duties assigned them .

The tootungs of the eight banners, at the conquest of China, in

1644, (the invading force,) were composed of natives of Mongolia,

Mantchouria, and China, These were divided into eight corps,

each with separate coloured banners, and from that time have

formed the defence of the Mantchoo dominion. Three of those

banners are called superior, and five inferior. A small portion is

occasionally sent to the provinces, but the majority are always in

garrison, either in Peking or in Moukden . The Mantchoo and

Mongol race in these corps is rigorously maintained, but the Chinese

portions are permitted to retire and attend to other callings .

All the small military bodies in the capital are attached to the

eight banners ; 1st, the vanguard, picked from the Mantchoo and

Mongol troops, under eight commanders ; a body of infantry, or

armed police, under a commander and two lieutenant-generals ; a

body of artillery, under Mantchoo and Mongol commanders ; a

body of scalers, under the same command ; a troop of pioneers ;

do. of lancers ; do. of falconers ; wrestlers, and archers, complete

the local government of Peking.

A military power in China would destroy the civil authority ; a

lawless force would soon subdue a weak and corrupt government ;

hence the literary are placed above the military, although a stand

ing army has existed in China for centuries.

The land force of China, according to Timkowsky, consists of

four divisions, corresponding with the number of nations which

compose the Empire . The division consisting of Mantchoos holds

the first rank, and comprises 678 companies of 100 each € 67,800

men. The second is composed of Mongols, and is formed into

118 MILITARY FORCE OF CHINA .

211 companies, = 21,000 men. The third consists of 270 com

panies, 27,000 men. Thus the Mantchoo army forms a total

of 116,000 men : the greater part cavalry. The fourth division is

composed of Native Chinese annually recruited . It is called the

green flag, and numbers half a million of men ; besides 125,000

irregular troops or militia- total 625,000 men . The number of

men under the command of the Mantchoos amounts to 740,000

men. The Chinese troops are chiefly cantoned - 1st . In the

capital and its environs ; 2nd . Eastwards, near the Amour ; 3rd .

Westwards, on the banks of the Ele, the penal colony . It should,

however, be remarked that large numbers of the Chinese army

exist only on paper ; the names and descriptions of each soldier

are on the muster-roll, but when review-days arrive, neighbouring

peasants are collected for a few hours . The commander-in-chief,

however, draws monthly pay for the whole number on the muster

roll . The soldiers are all married ; their male children are en

tered on the muster-roll of the army ; there is no distinction of

dress except a jacket . The pay is four taels of silver per month .

The 4th division have land assigned them which they cultivate, as

they could not support themselves on the pay.

To read their books on military art and tactics, it might be sup

posed that their army was in some real state of efficiency, which

is not the case. The Kiau Ping Siu Chi, is a manual on the duties

of Chinese soldiers . The first section authorises the commissary

to provide trust- worthy (colones) camp-followers, who are to be

instructed in their duties, and to have a license granted them . All

carts, horses, or waggons, are to be considered public property. It

is the duty of the commanding officers to march in front, while the

commissaries are to keep in the rear, and bring up and chastise the

laggers . The soldiers are not to be exhausted with long marches,

but gentle treatment will beget respect and obedience .

When on march, the horse soldiers to go first, the foot soldiers

to follow, and the baggage in the rear. A map, and a statement

of the cities and camps, should be drawn up for the information

of all.

In the second section, instruction is given about the construc

tion of a bridge :-reeds, bundles of straw, and planks of wood are

generally to be met with, and from these a temporary raft may be

constructed . When necessity compels an army to encamp on hills

or in forests, great precaution is required that the enemy be not

posted in the recesses . For this purpose the light companies

should advance before and examine every hiding place . Great

caution is necessary in taking any information from the villagers,

as they may have been paid for leading the army in a wrong direc

tion. Every thing told should be sifted to the bottom, as much

may be won or lost by correct or incorrect intelligence.

The third section directs, that each company consisting of 100

men, is to march by its own encampment, and at night to dig a

MILITARY ART AND INSTRUCTIONS . 119

trench, and throw up a rampart . On the outside of the trench

stag-horns are to be planted. Each company is to collect a great

number of stones, and pile them up in heaps at some distance

from each other ; also to have blow- pipes, and fire-balls ready. All

the weapons should be within the immediate reach of each soldier,

who must not be allowed to take off his clothes at night. The men

should sleep upon their bow-cases . If the enemy approach, the

sentinel should twang his bow-string as a signal-loud talking

should be avoided . When a camp communicates with the habita

tions of the people, great caution will be necessary to guard against

excesses or injury to the property of others. A portion of soldiers

from the green flag, and also the black flag, are to act as consta

bles : these are expected to discover if any plots are being formed ,

so that the " bud may be cut off."

The fourth section refers to flags and drums, which are called the

(6 eyes and ears of the soldier, as each company musters under a

flag of a peculiar colour. Four strong men are selected to take

care of the standard, and to carry it in turn . When the drum

sounds aloud, the soldiers are to advance with all speed,. " though

fire and water should be before them."

The fifth section enjoins that the soldier shall carry his arms when

on march, and not trust them to camp-followers ; and that strict

attention be paid to the gun-powder. It is recommended that the

string which is used instead of a flint, should be well boiled to ex

tract the sap, as it is made of thin bark. The balls should be tried

before using, as it is necessary to have them fit properly.

The sixth section relates to the great care that should be given

to horses, to have them in good condition .

The seventh section requires that camp-followers should be

steady men.

In the eighth section, summits of hills are recommended as pro

per places for an encampment, so that a good view may be had of

the enemy. A spot well supplied with water and grass will avoid

the evils of hunger .

The ninth section states, that the distance between each encamp

ment should never exceed two miles .

The tenth advises, that groups of men, varying in number, should

be sent in different routes, towards the enemies' quarters . These

spies are to visit the enemy under the appearance of merchants, or

to offer their services, in order to pry out their secrets .

The eleventh section supposes that the enemy is in sight. Each

man is to stand at the distance of fourteen inches from his com

panion, and keep his rank. The cavalry is to be divided into two

brigades. When the enemy advances close, a vigorous fire should

be kept up. If the enemy's scouts are seen, it is evident that the

main-body is very near at hand . In this case bowmen, musketeers,

and horse, are to advance ; and after one discharge, to retreat slowly

-not at once, but at several periods . This movement is to be fol

120 MILITARY COLONIES ON FRONTIERS .

lowed by a discharge from the artillery. During the smoke the

spearmen are to be sent forth, and presently the bowmen . Should

this fail in vanquishing the enemy, recourse must be had to the

great guns.

The twelfth notices the different situations in which an enemy

may be posted . If it be on a hill, bold men should be chosen to

climb it ; if it be in a low situation, stones should be tumbled on

the heads of the enemy .

The thirteenth condemns the practice of selecting the bravest

men for the body- guard of an officer, as it is derogatory to the

dignity and bravery of the army.

The remaining five sections impress on all soldiers the duty

they owe their country ; and enjoin patience under the many

privations they may be subject to ; the rewards that will attend

victory ; and the eternal disgrace that is always attached to a de

feat. If a soldier has any moral crookedness in his nature, it is his

duty to make it straight ; this the commanding officer should im

press on the minds of his men, line upon line, precept upon

precept.

Military colonies exist in China, formed somewhat after the

manner of those of the Romans. The policy of the present go

vernment has been to keep a large number of military round its

frontiers, in order to free the public from the expenditure which

their maintenance rendered necessary ; the lands of the borderers,

or of conquered enemies, were, therefore, assigned to the soldiers

15 in perpetuity ; and thus an armed peasantry was created . From

a report from the commanding officer, it appears that the number

of Mantchoos thus placed towards the Mongolian frontier is very

much on the increase ; but that the quantity of land assigned is

not sufficient to rear produce for their own families. The cha

racteristics of the conquerers of China are laziness and improvi

dence. Too idle to work themselves, they buy Chinese as slaves,

or let out the land to Chinese, who, by hard labour, have obtained

possession of nearly the whole of the lands, which were allotted , in

the first instance, to the soldiers . To obviate this evil, and keep

the defenders of the Tartar government from hunger, the emperor

granted the request of the petitioners, and bestowed a larger tract

of land, and a more liberal allowance in money and cattle, upon

each of the families. Throughout all Mantchooria, and along the

extensive borders of Mongolia, and on every fertile spot, to the

confines of Bucharia, the Chinese have established themselves, in

defiance of severe laws and regulations to the contrary, and are in

possession of all the necessaries of life, whilst the natives of those

regions are steeped in poverty and wretchedness.

Government of Yarkand and its Dependencies . -The Chinese go

vernment has a military force at Yarkand of 7,000 men, composed

of Chinese and Mantchoos (to keep each other in check) ; go

verned by an officer, who is called Umbaun. This officer is the chief

ACTIVITY OF WAR DEPARTMENT. 121

political as well as military authority. The governor of Yarkand,

Abdul Rehman Beg Wang, is the nominal Usbeck ruler of the

country, but subordinate in every thing to the Chinese Umbaun.

No Tungani soldiers are enlisted, being Mussulmen, and the same

religion as the Usbecks. There is a capitation tax of one rupee

from each man per month, and a tenth of the produce of the land .

Custom duties were abolished a few years ago . There is a bad

feeling between the natives and the Chinese government, in con

sequence of the latter, of late years, walling in the towns by the

forced labour of the natives. The Chinese troops, in the different

towns on the frontiers, amount to from 20,000 to 30,000.

Since the recent contest with England, the War Department

has shewn symptoms of great activity. In the year 1842-43,

exertions were being made to erect forts, and repair others that

were dismantled during the war. Military stores, cannon,

muskets, &c. are largely purchased from the Americans and

others. According to the agreement entered into between the

English and Chinese, none of the fortified places within the river

should be re-armed , nor any additional preparations made. At the

time this engagement was entered into, Yishan, " the great barba

rian quelling general," in a memorial to his majesty, states, " as soon

as the ships of war depart, immediate steps shall be taken, begin

ning with the river in front of the city, all the way down to the

Bocca Tigris ; every important pass shall be blocked up, forts

erected, and guns mounted ; and thus commerce, which to

these foreigners is the very artery of life, can be immediately

stopped." Old forts above Whampoa have been re-armed, and

many new ones built, and guns placed in them ; the promise to

the emperor has been literally fulfilled. It is to be regretted

that the forts at Canton have been rebuilt ; once opened, the river

to Canton and Macao Passage, should have remained so . Now the

fortifications of the Bocca Tigris are as strong as those of the

Dardanelles ; and manned by European troops and artillery, with

the heights in the rear of each fort, well defended by towers, the

passage of the Canton river would be impracticable. Throughout

China preparations are making for another war, and some of the

mandarins boast they are now better prepared for hostilities .

THE PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT of China is different from the

government of Pekin : to illustrate this vast piece of machinery,

the following details of the structure are necessary :-The first

ranks are tsungtuh, (governor or governor- general) , and fooyuen,

(lieutenant-governor.) The first has the control of two or

more provinces, or of two or more high offices in the same

province. There is one tsungtuh over three provinces, or over

two provinces, who is at the same time fooyuen of one of the two,

and two over single provinces who exercise the functions both of

tsungtuh and fooyuen . The fooyuen has at all times the direction

of a whole province, either independently of, or in subordination

122 PROVINCIAL GOVERNMENT. - MILITARY GOVERNMENT.

to a tsungtuh. There are twelve officers who are, and three

who are not, thus subordinate ; while in three provinces the duties

of the offices of fooyuen are performed by the tsungtuh. The

duties of the tsungtuh consist in the general control of all

affairs civil and military. The fooyuen has a similar control (except

where there is no tsungtuh, in an inferior degree) , and direction

of the administrative department of the civil government.

The Civil Government of the provinces is divided into five

departments, viz. commercial, literary, gabel, commissariat, and

administrative : the latter is subdivided into territorial, financial,

and judicial branches.

These subdivisions are governed by a pooching- sze, (regulating

1 government) and a nagancha-sze, (chief judge) , and a heoching,

(director of learning) . The commercial department officers

(keéntuh) are appointed by the board of revenue, and generally

sent from Peking to all seaport towns and large thoroughfares to

collect the revenue, they are subjeet to the governor or (fooyuen) ,

where there is no tsungtuh, but only in cases of doubt or

difficulty.

The Military Government has also the command of the naval

forces . There are sixteen commanders-in- chief ; (teetuh) twelve of

whom are confined to the military branch, but have the control of

the inland navigation ; two are military, with command over the

naval force ; and two are exclusively naval. In the province of

Kansech, there are two military commanders ; and in five other

provinces, the command of the military is held by the fooyuen .

In all considerable cities, there is a garrison of " Tartar troops,"

who are only subject to the control of the Emperor ; their duties

are confined to the city in times of peace ; they are commanded

by a general (tseang-keun) . The circumstance of being indepen

dent of the city authorities is proof that their special duty is to

prevent any outbreak arising from treasonable conspiracies that

might be formed by the provincial authorities . The governor of a

province being independent, does not prevent him occasionally

holding a council of all the chief officers to aid his judgment. The

order of precedence is tsungtuh, fooyuen, heoching, tseangkeum,

fetuh, keentuh, pooching-sze, nagancha-sze. The pooching - sze,

and the nagancha-sze although at the head of distinct portions

of the administrative department, are frequently united when any

matter of importance, such as financial, territorial, or criminal

cases, are to be decided . The next in authority are called taou

or taoutae, and are subordinate to the governor only ; their duty

is to take part in the protection and circuit supervision of por

tions of the province . This class has charge of the gabel and

commissariat departments, besides military powers. Their territo

rial authority extends to two or four departments, into which each

province is divided. (See Statistical Table.) Subordinate to these

officers, are the chefoo and chechaw, magistrates of district

departments, whose only duty is to know and record every circum

SUBORDINATE DEPARTMENTS . 123

stance that occurs within their department. Similar officers are

appointed over ting, chaw, and heen districts .

When territorial duties are onerous, assistants of various deno

minations are appointed, called tungche and tungpwan, their

duties are chiefly confined to the care of taxes, in both grain and

money, tea and salt revenue, attention to the military inspector,

the police, care of post stations, water ways, dykes, and to keep

the barbarians on the frontiers in subjection. The ting, chaw, and

heen districts have also their assistant magistrates .

When the Emperor issues a proclamation, it is first sent to the

governor, who has copies furnished to the next officer in rank ; and

so on, down to the assistant heen magistrate. In lodging appeals,

the same course is followed, only they are first entered with the

assistant magistrate, and march upwards .

The Literary Department of each proviuce is under the direc

tion of an officer, who is selected from the Hanlin College, in

Peking, by the emperor, and is called, (heaching) director of learn

ing. This director appoints teachers, and denominates them as fol

lows : The chief teacher of a department, is called , giver of instruc

tions ; of a chaw-district , corrector of learning ; of a heen district,

teacher of the commands. Subordinate to them are numerous

teachers called guides and admonishers . There is an annual exami

nation in each department of the province, which is presided over

by the director of learning, who is invested with the power of

conferring the first degree. At the triennial examinations, two

officers are sent from Peking, to examine the students, and confer

the second degree .

The Gabel Department is under the direction of a number of

commissioners, whose duty is to protect the government monopoly

in salt they are called, yenching, and rank with the heads of the

civil department of the government.

The Commissariat Department is conducted by twelve commission

ers, whose only duty is collecting grain, and conveying it to Peking.

In six provinces those duties are performed by the pooching- sze.

The Commercial Department duties are strictly confined to mari

time customs, and the prevention of smuggling. The hoppo, at

Canton, is superintendent under this department of government.

Subordinate Officers in the province. From the magistrates of

districts upwards, every civil appointment has to be confirmed by

the emperor. In the province of Kwangtung, (Canton) , there are

seventy magistrates of districts, and a proportionate number in all

the other provinces ; their superiors are called prefects, also assistant

prefects, also circuit commissioners, who have each three prefects

under them. Throughout China the duties of magistrate and col

lector are united ; hence there are frequent changes and removals,

all of which appear in the Peking Gazette from time to time. One

magistrate is recalled to Peking, being unfit to perform his duties

from ill health ; another is required to resign the duties of admi

1

124 MARKS OF OFFICIAL RANK .

nistration for those of literary tuition, the emperor having been

informed of his abilities in that department of the government.

One officer who failed in restoring property that was stolen is

ultimately reinstated, as the property has been recovered. In the

Gazette may be seen a magistrate restored to his office for bring

ing his son to justice for some misdemeanour, which was the cause

of his father being degraded. Petty cases are frequently brought

before the emperor, at Pekin, as he claims his ancient feudal

authority in the capital. His Majesty has frequently expressed

his abhorrence of the system, which has lately sprung up of

employing a low set of plundering lawyers, none of which his

Majesty will permit in his manorial court . Appeals from the

provinces are numerous, against the tyranny of mandarins and the

rich, who oppress and plunder the people with impunity.

The arrangement in China of all official persons and employers

is into nine ranks , or orders, each distinguished by a particular

ball of stone, glass, or metal, on the top of the cap . The nine

are subdivided into two classes , principals and secondaries, but

without any alteration in the distinguishing balls or knobs.

For the 1st rank red precious stone .

"" 2 "" red coral.

‫در‬ 3 در‬blue precious stone.

‫در‬ 4 در‬dark blue or purple stone.

39 5 در‬chrystal.

‫در‬ 6 "" white or jade stone.

,‫ر‬ 7 ""

‫در‬ 8 "" a ball of worked gold .

‫رد‬ 9 ""

Officers who have not entered the course of the nine ranks wear

the same dress as those of the ninth rank.

The Chinese mandarins of the literary rank are distinguished

by a silk dress, on which is embroidered the figure of a bird .

The military officers wear similar dresses on days of ceremony ;

but instead of a bird, have the form of a beast, such as a lion, tiger,

leopard, &c . to inspire courage.

The privileged classes in China are :-1 . the privilege of imperial

blood and connexions ; 2. ditto of long service ; 3. ditto of illus

trious actions ; 4. ditto of extraordinary wisdom ; 5. ditto of great

abilities ; 6. ditto of zeal and assiduity ; 7. ditto of nobility ;

8. ditto of birth.

The preservation of certain names, and the avoidance of any in

termixture of Chinese with Tartar words, indicates the anxiety to

keep the latter distinct. This is shewn in the Peking Gazette of

November, 1814 :

" The following imperial edict has been respectfully received .

' In consequence of some of the imperial family taking the names of

OFFICIAL RECORD OF PROCEEDINGS. 125

Ho-Kwan-pooeo and Tsing-Yung-toe, I send down an order re

quiring them to be changed. Yesterday, Yung-see, my royal cousin,

stated verbally, that a great many of the imperial kingdom had

taken names containing three characters, and which did not form

a Tartar word. He requested that all such should be ordered to

change their names. His request is by no means proper. Those

under the Tartar banner, adopting a Chinese name, are not per

mitted to take three characters. The sons of the eight banners

take Tartar names, in which three or four characters are used ; and

from a change in the termination of a word, they do not well agree

with the Tartar language. If they be ordered to change, it will

cause confusion, and be unsuitable to the dignity of government .

It is ordered, that in all these cases, they act as heretofore.

Respect this." "

The Chinese, or rather the Tartar, government of China , pub

lishes a work in forty -eight volumes , which is the official record of

the proceedings and duties of the rulers in their several depart

ments :

Vol. I. is on the office of the imperial kindred , and on the ma

nagement of this department. The Tartar policy is to keep the

majority of the numerous imperial progeny in a very low condition,

as the imperial design is to retain the princes on a level with the

people. Many of them receive but three taels (£ 1 3s .) a month,

so that several work as servants . An accurate register of the

births, marriages, and deaths, in the imperial family, is carefully

kept.

Vol. II. is on the Nui-ko, or Cabinet, which consists of six ;

generally old men, who have raised themselves to the highest seat

in the empire ; their duty is to assist the emperor in the govern

ment of the empire, to circulate his edicts, and attend at sacrifices.

Vol. III . is on the Kiun Ki-chu, or Privy Council. This is the

most powerful body in the kingdom : the members are chosen by

the emperor himself. They meet from three to five each day, and

any thing that requires despatch or energy , is done by them : they

appoint and remove the residents at Tibet, Turkestan, &c.; and

they supply these colonies . They select presents for tribute

bearers, and translate public documents into and from any foreign

languages, & c .

Vol . IV. is on the Li Pú, or Board of Civil Office, whose duty

is to assist His Majesty in all arrangements concerning the rank,

examination , promotion, or degradation of officers ; the rank and

titles of the nobility, rewards , &c. They have at their disposal

(subject to the approval of the emperor) the patronage of 1,934

offices, from the governor of a province, down to the district magis

trate, with a great number of inferior civilians .

Vol. V. is on the Board of Public Instruction . The number of

functionaries under this board are 12,996 of all grades ; of these

3,931 are teachers entrusted with the examinations. In the grain

126 DUTIES OF DEPARTMENTS .

department there is one governor, and twelve inspectors . In the

salt office, eight superintendents, five assistants, thirteen inspec

tors, and other minor officers . There are in the board of inland

navigation, three governors, fourteen managers, thirty-four de

puties, and some other officers, who bear military rank, who have

the duty of preserving the dykes, and the protection of navigation

on their rivers .

Vol. VI. expatiates on the mode of choice, and on the various

ways of promoting officers, &c .

Vol. VII. is on the Hu Pu , or Board of Revenue, which is

charged with the finances, payment of salaries, and the manage

ment of the granaries. It also contains the situation of the various

districts of the empire, and a vocabulary of the principal rivers

and mountains.

Vol. VIII. contains the Censuses, and degrees of latitude and

longitude of the several provinces, as calculated by the Jesuits.

Vol. IX. is on the expenditure of the state ; and is arranged

under twelve heads :-for sacrifices ; popular festivals ; allowance for

officers ; for their servants ; the examinations ; soldiers' batta ;

stipends of couriers ; inland navigation ; sundries ; manufactures ;

and salaries .

Vol. X. The details of the income and expenditure in some

branches ; the mines and the mint.

Vol. XI. The build of boats ; the transit of grain; and excise

duty on merchandise.

Vol . XII. is on the settling of disputes as to the pay of the

soldiers of the eight Mantchoo banners, and other soldiers ; on the

supply of the commissariat with money and food ; and how to watch

and overhaul the treasury and granaries, for fear of roguery.

Vol. XIII . expatiates on the Li Pu, or Board of Rites, and is

one of the strong-holds of the despotic government ; it illustrates

the hold of etiquette on the people.

Vol. XIV. dilates on the robes of state, worn at the court cere

monies, to be observed between the different officers of state when

they visit each other.

Vol. XV. gives an account of all their schools and colleges, and

how the examinations are carried on.

Vol. XVI . gives a detailed account of the literary examinations,

and on the duties of candidates for office . It also treats on the

seals of the various departments, as used under the board of rites.

Vol. XVII . gives a minute account of their temples and altars ;

of the various deities and saints worshipped by government, and

the ceremonies in the temples .

Vol. XVIII . is a manual of the harem ; it regulates the dress

and etiquette to be observed by ladies of the court.

Vol. XIX. is on the presents to be given to tribute-bearers ; an

account of those kingdoms that paid tribute to China ; on the

generosity that should be shown to tribute-bearers that come a

DETAILS OF SERVICE . 127

long distance ; on sacrifices to the gods of those nations ; and a de

scription of imperial banquets to the living and the dead.

Vol. XX . is entirely on music, and the names of the airs to be

played on certain occasions.

Vol. XXI. is on the Ping-pu, or Board of War ; and gives the

number of all officers and garrisons in the empire, and their reviews .

Vol. XXII . is a continuation of the former ; gives an account of

the navy, the transport service, and the Tartar garrisons in the

provinces. ?

Vol . XXIII . details the ranks of military officers, which are

eighteen .

Vol. XXIV. is on martial law, which is very severe ; treats of

the nobility that is open to the brave, and to the protection of the

children of those who die on the field of battle.

Vol. XXV . is on the cavalry and posts ; as the foot- soldiers are

considered an armed police, so the cavalry are mere couriers to

carry despatches.

Vol. XXVI. gives an account of van, rear, and centre of the

army ; its battallions and companies .

Vol. XXVII. is on the Hing- Pu, or Board of Punishments ; it

details the several modes of punishment, according to the ancient

laws : subdivides the existing codes ; reduces all the statutes it

contains to matters concerning the six boards .

Vol . XXVIII . dilates largely on prisons ; the commutation of

punishments ; assizes ; and an outline of the seventeen principal

courts, with other matters .

Vol . XXIX . is on the Kung- Pu, or Board of Public Works . The

imperial tombs rank first, and next to them the dykes and inland

nigation ; it likewise gives a full description of the imperial city.

Vol. XXX. enforces the manufacture of arms and gunpower ;

the selection of pearls for the use of the Emperor ; the public

works along the rivers and canals .

Vol. XXXI . gives an ample description of the tombs of the em

perors and other persons ; the granaries, the mint, the powder

manufacture, &c.; and points out the places they are to be found.

Vol . XXXII . is on the Lifan Yuen, or Colonial Office, which is

managed entirely by Mongols . It regulates the emoluments of

the nobility, appoints the audiences of the chiefs, and revises their

punishments.

Vol . XXXIII . is on Outer Mongolia, and contains the names of

the different hordes and their chiefs, from the lowest to the ruling

khans. It has a short account of the trade with Russia, and

enumerates the post establishments .

Vol. XXXIV . gives a more minute description of the Mongol

princes : the tribute they pay ; their relationship ; the presents

they receive ; and an account of the nobility, revenue, and situation

of Turkestan .

Vol. XXXV . speaks of the Censorate and its various functions ;

128 ALLOWANCES OF THE EMPEROR,

of the Court of Requests, through which all important papers pass ;

of the Taleshi, or court for revising the judgement of other boards

and re-examining sentences for capital crimes .

Vol. XXXVI . On the imperial stud, and the display of the

Tartars when denizens of the wilderness .

Vol . XXXVII . gives an account of the eating establishment,

and the sacrifices known as the Kwangluh -shi ; and an account of

the annual ceremonial of ploughing in the fields, and the ex-

aminations in the palace .

Vol. XXXVIII . contains an account of the national school, in

which the sons of meritorious officers are supported ; and on the

Kin Tien Kin, or Astronomical Board, which is to foretel coming

events, lucky hours, and national calender.

Vol. XXXIX. is a treatise on Chinese astronomy.

Vol. XL . is on the business of astronomers , end on the medical

college and its various functions.

Vol. XLI . is on the imperial body-guard, and the service they

perform .

Vol. XLII. gives an account of the eight standards of the powers

of the Mantchoos , and their domestic arrangements at births, mar

riages, and deaths.

Vol. XLIII . details their duties and reviews, and their duties

when on active service, &c.

Vol. XLIV. is on artillery, mortars, batteries, &c.

Vol. XLV. is an inventory of the things in the treasury.

Vol. XLVI. is on the marriages of the emperor and princesses ;

and on the duties they ought to perform.

Vol. XLVII . is on the administering of punishment.

Vol XLVIII. enumerates all the pleasure gardens in and around

Peking, and their uses ; and an account of their eating establish

ments . There ought to be placed before the emperor every day

twenty-two catties of meat in a basin ; five catties boiled in soup ; of

hogslard one catty ; two sheep, two fowls, and two ducks ; the

milk of sixty cows ; one catty of butter ; and seventy-five parcels of

tea. The empress is allowed about one-half of the above quantity.

The other ladies and maids receive in proportion to their rank.

Lamas are appointed to read prayers, they being the chaplains of

the court.

The number of mandarins dispersed throughout China is said

to amount to 13,647 . The military mandarins are 18,500, together

with 2,400 at court, where every province has its mandarin, who

stands in the nature of its protector and solicitor- general .

Employments are divided among the mandarins in the following

manner :—when a candidate has gained two or three degrees of

literature, his name is placed on the register of the tribunal Li pu,

which office distributes the vacant offices according to the rank and

merit of the literati, who, when qualified, repair to court for that

purpose ; but they are seldom raised to be governors of cities of

OFFICIALS AND THEIR SALARIES . 129

the second and third rank at first. As soon as four vacancies

occur, the Emperor is acquainted with the circumstance, and then

the four first candidates on the register are called , and the names

of the vacant cities are written on tickets, and put in a box placed

so high as just to be within reach ofthe candidates, who are on their

knees ; each obtains the city which falls to his lot .

The number, rank, and salaries of high officers in China are said

to be as follows :

Salarics.

Rank. Number. In Ounces Total.

of Silver.

Viceroys over one or more 11 . 20,000 220,000

provinces :}

Governors of provinces 15 16,000 240,000

Collectors of revenue . 19 9,000 171,000

Presidents of criminal tri-

18 6,000 108,000

bunals

Governors of more than one

86 . 3,000 258,000

city ofthe first order . } 86

Ditto only of one city 184 2,000 368,000

Ditto of the second order 149 1,000 149,000

Ditto of the third order . 1,305 800 • 1,044,000

Presidents of literature 17

3,000 • 402,000

Inspectors general 117}

Total ounces 2,960,000

Fees and bribes are so universal, that the actual receipts of each

official are unknown.

All superior officers in the provinces of China must appear at

court every three years. A memorial from the governors of Yunnan

province, which is several thousand miles from Peking, complained

of the expense, and the long and fatiguing journey, besides the

loss of their services . The memorialists state that their pay will

not admit of military officers doing so, and the consequence is, that

they will resort to corrupt practices, in order to supply the neces

sary expenses. This triennial journey is ordered to prevent officers

obtaining too much influence in the province, and they are gene

rally shifted when they visit Peking . The code contains a

prohibition against officers of government holding employment in

their native province, or to marry or hold landed property in the

district under their control. The present Emperor in 1833

revived an old edict, requiring all officers to direct their communi

cations to himself, and not under cover ; as he states it is likely to

lead to dangerous and corrupt combinations. The late Emperor in

the year 1818 prohibited all magistrates from holding familiar

intercourse with county gentlemen, unless they held some official

station .

K

130 PRECARIOUS TENURE OF OFFICE .

The fixed salary of the governor of a province is said to be

15,000 taels , (about 8d. each tael) per annum, with a house, & c. ,

the emoluments are calculated at ten times that sum. The Hoppo

has 2800 taels . The households of these officials are very numer

ous, amounting frequently to 150 domestics, all of whom arc

Mantchoo Tartars . From the acknowledgements which are fre

quently met with in the Peking Gazette, of money remitted to

Peking, from the Hoppo of Canton, it is supposed to be sent for a

renewal of his office . One Hoppo (Chung) had got into arrear

when in office in Keangnan, to the amount of 217,000 taels . The

first year he was in office in Canton, he remitted to Peking on

account of his former deficiency 50,000 taels, the second year

45,000 taels . This office was worth from 250,000 to 300,000

taels per annum , a large portion of which is sent to the emperor

as a gift. His household numbered over 200 persons. Governors

and Foyuens when installed into office, have also conferred on them

an honorary title, Foocha, (censor) by virtue of which office they are

expected to confess their faults, and strange as it may appear,

instances are met with in the Peking Gazette ; but the crimes are so

trivial, that it is evident they are sent in to deceive the Emperor ,

and divert him from examining into some grave malversation that

is probably going on at the time.

The last section of the fifth book, on criminal law, enacts that

all military officers of government are prohibited from receiving

gold, silver, silk stuffs, clothes, ornaments, or board wages, from

individuals related to the royal family, in any of the three principal

ranks of hereditary nobility. For the first offence, degradation

and banishment are awarded .

As an act of fealty, every civil and military officer in China, who

receives an appointment, or surrenders one which he held for the

stipulated period , viz . three years, must repair to the capital, and

attend a sacrifice, in company with other officers, who must certify

that he there professed himself a dutiful adherent of the Confucian

doctrine . A hog is usually sacrificed, as the most useful animal.

{ The precarious tenure of office, and the vicissitudes ofpublic func

tionaries, are very great . Keshen , whose name must be familiar to

Europeans, was governor- general of Keangnan and Keang- se, the

highest provincial appointment . He then became assistant minis

ter in the cabinet and government of Chih-li province, in which

capacity he ruled the court, and more or less the whole empire.

He was too well acquainted with the Mandarins to let them escape,

and therefore had from time to time denounced some hundreds of

them for their misdeeds. The Emperor did nothing important

without asking his opinion . This enviable station, as well as his

censorious character, procured him many enemies. It was in this

situation the English expedition found him. He was most desirous

to be the " pacificator," as were also his antagonists, though from

far different motives, and thus the over-prudent statesman fell into

COMMISSIONER KESHEN . 131

the snare which his enemies had laid for him. For not having been

able to exterminate the rebellious barbarians, he was sent in chains

to Peking, and his truly enormous fortune was confiscated, and

sentence of death followed immediately. The Emperor had not

lost all regard for his old favourite, and did not sign the warrant for

his execution . When Ning- po had been captured, and everything

he had foretold had been fulfilled, he was released from the dungeon,

and sent to Hang-choo to conclude the best convention that was

possible, but without rank or power for effecting such a purpose.

On his arrival at the city, he was sent back by the governor, who

stated he would not admit aww traitor. On his return to Pekin he

was unnoticed, and in want of the common necessaries of life.

When peace was concluded, the Emperor gave him a colonial apG

pointment, but was overruled by his enemies ; however, he took him

into the palace as his personal servant. He is now viceroy of Tibet,

and accumulating another fortune.

The servile dependence upon each other, in which all the govern

ment officers are placed, has produced the contrary effect to what

was intended ; in fact, it acts as a bond of union between them not

to betray each others' malversation, and encourages the utmost

artifice and ingenuity in a system of universal fraud and peculation.

The inviolable etiquette of the Chinese court affords great facility

to those who wish to blind the Emperor, and contributes to

strengthen this system of universal corruption . As no representa

tion can reach the throne except through the appointed channels,

and as these channels are only open to whoever pays the highest

price, it is obvious whose complaints will be attended to. De

Guignes, who was an apologist for the Chinese in many points,

states that a viceroy at Canton would admit no suitor who could

not pay a sum equal to £4500 .

It may be asked why the government, laws, and false philosophy

of the Chinese have been extolled by some European writers ? This

must proceed from their admiration of the benevolent doctrine of

Confucius, who exhorts his sovereign to consider and govern his

people as his own family.

This principle is only applicable in the infancy of society, where

the limits within which the chief acts , enable him to see everything

with his own eyes ; the feeling of personal relationship is a bond

of union between the governor and governed, and the dread of

competitors operates as a check upon his actions .

The want of this check is severely felt in China, particularly du

ring the last Emperor's reign, when there was nothing but commo

tion within and without, invasion, confiscation , cruelty, and

tyranny ; the censors who performed their duty were handed over

to the executioner.

The Chinese system of governing the people as a family, has been

rightly viewed as a beautiful theory, but quite impracticable ; for

as the sovereign is unable to see all his children, he must employ

K2

132 SQUEEZING THE OFFICIAL SPUNGE .

deputies . These imperial deputies are sent all over the empire on

special business . When these deputies arrive in a province

they take precedence over the governors . The Mandarins give

attendance to these envoys and make them large presents,

which their salaries would not enable them to do, and hence cor

ruption and extortion are practised by all .

The orders of the Emperor become null, and the recripocal vigi

lance of the Mandarins, is converted into a mutual league to

secure themselves from inquiry . Occasionally, cases of tyranny

are exposed, and the governors or Mandarins suspended for a

short time, all their property confiscated, and them sent to a

strange province to replenish their empty coffers . The learned

M. de Guignes who resided many years in Peking, thus illustrates

the system " The Emperor of China, makes use of his grandees

as sponges to suck up the wealth of his subjects ; when the

sponge is full he squeezes it, and sends it elsewhere to be filled

""

anew .

Whatever may have been the former state of Chinese morals,

there is at the present day an acknowledged total absence of

public virtue. Europeans lay great stress on the courtesy and

politeness of the Chinese, which is considered allied to virtue in

the western world . With the Mandarins those virtues are all

assumed, and are the weapons with which they attack and

defend their diplomacy ; when European embassies have visited

Pekin, and their houses and doors were double guarded, this was

represented as a guard of honour. That their politeness gives

place entirely to insolence and selfishness, was abundantly proved

by their false misrepresentations to our ambassadors . The bar

barous treatment received by the Roman Catholic missionaries, who

imported to them a knowledge of various sciences, is well known .

No language can describe the indignities offered to Mezzabarba ,

(in 1721 ) the Pope's legate, by Lee-pung-shung the great Man

darin . De Lang, the Russian resident minister, received such

treatment, that he very soon applied for permission to retire. Mr.

Thoin, Mr. Lay, Mr. Medhurst, Dr. Gutzlaff, and all conversant

with the Chinese character, concur in stating that the meanness,

cunning, and rapacity of the Chinese officials are alone equalled by

their cowardice and sensuality.

The Confucian philosophy may well be tested by the effect it

has produced on the character of all the great officers, both mili

tary and civil, who as a matter of necessity must have profoundly

studied its works . As to virtue, public or private, in a Mandarin ,

it may be sought for in vain . However writers and visitors to

China differ in their descriptions of the country, all agree on one

point, viz. : that the Mandarins are mean , corrupt, unjust, insin

cere, proud, and assuming. These are the sages of China ; and

when it is recollected the class they generally come from, it is not

CORRUPTION OF PUBLIC FUNCTIONARIES . 133

to be wondered that their parents have probably inflicted on them

sexual mutilation, to give them a chance of promotion .

There were upwards of 6,000 eunuchs at Peking at the period of

the conquest. The present dynasty is said to have greatly reduced

the number, and driven them from the palace ; but it is to be

feared that sensuality is returned to the court, as there has been

an increase in the number of these unhappy creatures.

The corruption of the Chinese functionaries may be estimated

from two instances : Keshen and Hokwan . Keshan, formerly a

member of the Peking cabinet, was deputed, in 1840, as plenipo

tentiary to settle affairs with the western barbarians ; for not doing

so, he was degraded, his property confiscated, and he was sent in

chains to Peking, there to undergo a lingering death, and his body

to be cut in small pieces to serve as food for the vultures . He was

then forty-five years of age, and his property was at first estimated

at £ 8,000,000 sterling, but was subsequently found to be much

greater. Among the property seized and delivered over to the im

perial treasury for the special use of his majesty, were 682 catties of

gold ; 17,940,000 taels of silver, and eleven boxes of jewels . On a

second search, a vast quantity of gold, silver, and other property

was found, including 2,561,217 Chinese acres of land, and shares

in pawnshops, banks, saltworks, & c . His wives and concubines

were then sold by auction, and produced a large sum. Keshen's

life was subsequently spared, and he is now again as before ob

served amassing a large fortune as governor of Tibet.

Hokwan, Hoquen, or Ho - chung, the once illustrious statesman

of China, was a Tartar of obscure birth, and raised himself from

the inferior station of guard of one of the palace gates . His

manners were pleasing, and his understanding penetrating and

acute . His son was married to the emperor's daughter. This

circumstance alarmed both the imperial family and the loyal sub

jects. He had great control over the aged Emperor, and his well

known dislike to foreigners was proved in the failure of Lord

Macartney's embassy, which was clearly traceable to his extraordi

nary influence.

One officer, who displayed more loyalty than wisdom , addressed a

petition to the emperor, praying him to declare his successor to the

throne during his lifetime. The memorialist was instantly sen

tenced to death by the criminal tribunal, whose president was the

creature of Hokwan . Apprehensions were generally entertained

that, on the death of the emperor, he would attempt an open re

volt ; with a view of frustrating this intention, the young emperor,

Keaking, appointed him to the honourable office of superintendent

over the rites of mourning, on his father's decease ; this duty con

fined the minister to the palace, and made his arrest less dangerous,

as every one in power was indebted to him for their authority .

In the fourth year of his reign, A.D. 1799, and when the days of

134 HOKWAN'S CONFISCATED PROPERTY .

mourning had ceased, the new Emperor made known his long pre

meditated designs, by seizing Hokwan, and divesting him of rank

and employment. The following are the charges preferred by his

imperial accuser : " That being summoned by our royal father to the

palace, he rode on horseback through the left gate ; that the young

females brought up for the service of the palace he took to himself

as concubines ; that during the late rebellion in the provinces,

Hokwan was receiving reports from the troops, and did not com

municate the result to our royal father, although bereft of sleep

from anxiety ; that his own kindred were intrusted with high

offices for the duties of which they were incompetent ; that in the

late confiscation (which was previous to any trial or charge) of his

property, many of the apartments were found built of the imperial

wood (nanmoo), and gardens were constructed in the style of the

imperial palace ; that among his treasures, upwards of 200 strings

of pearls were found, many times exceeding in value those in our

possession ; various gems and buttons were found, such as he should

not wear." All these charges were proved, and acknowledged by

his own confession ; and the sentence was, that he should receive

a slow and painful death ." But, in consideration of his once ex-

alted rank, (through imperial favour,) he was permitted to become

his own executioner. The estimated value of his bullion was

about £23,000,000 sterling. Sir G. Staunton says, that " besides

lands, houses, and other immoveable property, to an amazing

amount, not less than 80,000,000 Chinese ounces of silver, about

£23,330,000 sterling value in bullion and gems were found in his

treasury." The gold found deposited in the walls of his house,

amounted to 4,800 pounds weight.

All officers of government, from the first to the ninth rank,

must have literary or military qualifications ; but clerks and atten

dants are classed the same as the community generally. The

ninth rank includes village magistrates, jailers , inferior treasurers,

&c. The large (foo) cities, and (heen ) districts (see statistical table) ,

have from 100 to 1,000 unpaid police.

The 48th section of the penal code gives the sole appointments

and removals of all military or civil officers to the Emperor. Any

violation of this section is punished with death. A memorial from

a censor, which lately appeared in the Peking Gazette, requests

the Emperor to put a stop to several glaring abuses, such as magis

-

trates quitting their districts to look for promotion, while the col

lection of the revenue is left to underlings who fleece the people.

A second abuse is, that governors appoint magistrates to be their

secretaries, and thus obtain their services without payment, and

afterwards recommend them to the Emperor for higher employment.

Another abuse complained of is, that governors take into their

employment the most worthless characters, and raise them to

respectable stations. The censors' reports fully illustrate the

theory and practice of the Chinese government . Concerning the

MAGISTERIAL BRIBERY . 135

state of the province of Chih-li, in the suburbs of Peking, the cen

sors report, that " the magistrates, without fear or shame, connive

at daring robberies ; that horse- stealers bring their plunder for

sale to the fairs and markets ; that in a village adjoining the im

perial palace are many thieves, who are joined by a number of

Mohammedans, who go out in bands of thirty and forty to plunder ;

when some of them are taken,. the magistrates order them a few

blows and imprisonment, from which they are allowed to escape.

We beg that your majesty will make a selection of honest, decided

men, who will not favour or screen this banditti in future." In

the subsequent year, the government of Peking removed upwards

of 20,000 underlings from various employments, charged with ex

tortion and cruelty, from the province of Chih- li alone.

The governor of the Chih -li province points out to the emperor

that the evil arises from not paying the police a reasonable salary ;

and asks for a loan of 100,000 taels from the public funds ; one

half to be placed out at compound interest in merchants' hands

until it has increased to the original sum, when it shall be returned

to the treasury ; the other half to be applied to the payment of the

police.

A censor, who was also a superintendent of grain in the province

of Shen-se, reported , in 1830, that it is a common occurrence to see

a corpse floating in the river ; on asking the people why they did

not inform the magistrates, they answer, that in case the magis

trate is told, he compels the owner of the ground where a corpse is

found to purchase a coffin at his own expense ; and his clerks

and attendants take advantage of this circumstance to extort

money by threatening him with a prosecution for being concerned

in the death .

The censor goes on to say, " I hear that during the fourth and

fifth moons, when the heavy rains fall, that many people are

drowned ; particularly when the grain vessels arrive, there is a great

concourse of people assembled, the number of sailors, pedlars, &c.,

that are drowned is incalculable, and the magistrates seem to take no

notice ofthe affair. It is, therefore, my duty to request that your

majesty will command the governor of Chih -li province, and the

military officers of the district of Shunteen, to give strict orders to

the police that when they meet with a dead body, they should exa

mine into the cause of death, and give information : also to prohibit

magistrates, clerks, and police, from extorting money under false

pretences ; and to order coffins to be purchased at the public ex

pense."

Dr. Gutzlaff officially reported, recently, that " honesty of pur

pose is a quality so rare in China, that the possessor of it is looked

upon as an extraordinary character." During the war, in 1840-1 ,

the most egregiously false reports were made of our utter defeat

and destruction, by the provincial authorities to the government

at Peking in fact, according to the annals of the East India Com

136 MAGISTERIAL BRIBERY .

pany at Canton, " duplicity and corruption have been manifested

for two hundred years." The Select Committee of the East India

Company at Canton, frequently refer in their records to the “ gross

misrepresentations and impositions practised by local authorities

on the Emperor and his ministers at court." This is corroborated

in various ways ; and it is confidently stated that the imperial

government have, even to the present day, not been made fully

acquainted with the origin and proceedings of the late war ; con

sequently, the arrival of our fleet in the Yang-tsze-kang produced

the greatest consternation at Peking. An instance of this systema

tic falsehood and corruption is thus given in the " Hong Kong

Register," of May 6th, 1845 ; of the authenticity of which there is

no doubt :- " When Canton was ransomed, and the money for

that purpose drawn from the provincial treasury, a report was

made to the emperor that it was a debt due to the foreigners by

the Hong merchants, who were unable to pay it ; and these latter

were induced to sign a document to that effect, on the assurance

being given them that it should not be used against them. How-

ever, after the affair was terminated, various attempts were made

to extort the amount from them, but without success. Headed by

Howqua's eldest son, who has taken a literary degree, and who

threatened to lay the matter before the Emperor, they refused to

pay more than 2,000,000 dollars, which they admitted to be due

by the merchants to the Emperor. The local authorities have, at

last, agreed to accept this amount ; and thus has terminated an

affair which has been a source of great uneasiness to the Hong

merchants, and was considered sufficiently important to the foreign

trade, to induce Mr. Cushing, the American plenipotentiary, to

address Keying on the subject .

" The following is the amount paid by each Hong merchant :

Howqua, 550,000 taels ; Poonkeequa, 200,000 taels ; Samqua,

200,000 taels ; Gowqua, 200,000 taels ; Kingqua, 60,000 dollars ;

Poonhoyqua, 60,000 dollars ; Mowqua, 50,000 dollars ; Footae,

50,000 dollars ; Mingqua, 50,000 dollars ; and Sowqua, 50,000

dollars . One-third to be paid in four months, and the remainder

in ten annual instalments ."

The majority of the people of Canton have been induced to be

lieve that the English paid a large sum of money to be allowed to

retire unmolested from before the walls of Canton . A few extracts

from the East India Company's records will illustrate the proceed

ings and policy of the Chinese government.

The Select Committee of the East India Company at Canton, re

corded in 1831 , their deliberate opinion that the history of China

shows " numerous instances of even acts of undue violence, meeting

with respectful treatment in return from the government, while

persons living in obedience to its laws were suffering from severe

and unmerited oppression ;" and in 1807, the Select Committee re

TARTAR POLICY TO EUROPEANS . 137

marked that " the weakness and corruption of the Chinese govern

‫در‬

ment proved a counterpoise to its pride and arrogance .

In 1830, the Select Committee stated the " Chinese government

evince a malignant temper in the publication of several insulting

and opprobrious edicts, promulgated with the evident intention of

(

degrading the character of foreigners amongst the lower order of

the natives, and calculated in a high degree to aggravate the feel

ings of the former, and excite the disposition of the latter to offen

sive acts ."" The whole British community in Canton protested

against the indignities heaped upon them by the Chinese govern

ment.

Again, they record that the English there " are daily in contact

with the lowest of the Chinese, and exposed to assaults so wanton

and often so barbarous, as well as to robberies so extensive, that

self-defence imposes upon them the necessity of attacking their

assailants in a manner from whence death must often ensue .‫در‬

In another place the Select Committee says, " The contempt of

foreigners, engendered and fostered by the abusive terms in which

they are spoken of by the officers ofgovernment, the want of police

regulations, and the defenceless state in which we are placed, leave

us exposed to assaults of all descriptions ."

This passage might have been written at the present moment,

Nov. 1846 ; for it depicts the condition of the British and other

foreign residents at Canton, even under the provisions ofthe treaty

of Nankin and its equally unfortunate supplement.

Dr. Gutzlaff in his official report, says " China is faithless as a !

nation, and its government is based on expediency." Mr. Thorm,

our consul at Canton, and an excellent Chinese scholar, says, " the

Chinese are devoid of truth and morals, and the officials without

honesty or priuciple ." Mr. Lay, consul at Amoy, and a Chinese

scholar, uses still stronger language on the subject. He says, " the

Tartar government, from the highest to the lowest, are liars and ex

tortioners, possessed of witty cunning and ingenious malice ; proud

and insolent ;" (page 3, of published work) . More recently, viz. :

at Amoy, in June, 1845 , Mr. Lay declared that the " rulers of

China are the greatest villains on the face of the earth, —there was

not one to be trusted ." Mr. Lay's sentiments of the people gene

rally, particularly those of the north provinces, were favourable.

Everywhere in China I heard the same opinions from those conver

sant with the character and language of the Tartars and Chinese ;

and that the government only considered treaties to be binding so

long as it was expedient to uphold them.

The following code or abstract of instructions , from the govern-

ment of China to their licensed merchants at Kiackta, displays great

cunning, duplicity, and meanness.

" The end and aim of every commercial nation, should be to pre

vent the advantage being on the side of the foreigners :

138 TARTAR INSTRUCTIONS FOR FOREIGNERS .

" 1st . To do this effectually, all letters received by any one of the

licensed merchants, from their partners, are only to be opened in a

public assembly, so that all may act in concert against the fo

reigners .

" 2nd. Discover what articles the Russians are most in need of,

and what price these sell for in Russia. Every member is to strive

with all his might, to obtain information on this head, and lay it

before a general meeting ; when the president will give to each a

note, which will state the quantity of each article he is to purchase,

and the price he is to buy them at ; and likewise those which he is

to withhold.

"3rd. The least display possible, as to the quantity of Chinese

goods, that may be brought for sale ; do not appear anxious for

Russian goods .

" 4th . The Chinese goods should be at all times less in quantity,

than Russian ; that no fresh goods be brought forward, until the

old are sold off.

" 6th . Let no eagerness be shown for an article of Russian manu

facture ; no matter how much any one member may wish to pro

cure it."

" 7th. When the Russians are scantily supplied with any valuable

article, great eagerness should be displayed to purchase the whole

stock, saying that it was in good demand ; and then to be equally

divided between each merchant : the consequence will be, that the

next year, a large stock will be brought to market, and great bar

gains will be procured, by stating that the demand has ceased ; and

thus gain advantage to the nation .

" 8th . If the Russians should raise the price of any article that

was scarce, no one should buy anything for one month. If they

complain to us, we will tell them that the trade must be stopped .

" 9th . Tell the Russians that the quantity of goods on hand is

much less than it really is ; and likewise tell them, that China

has no silk or cotton to dispose of.

“ 10th. No license will be granted to trade at Kiackta, unless the

merchant is able to write and speak the Russian language ; and

that will prevent the necessity of the Russian acquiring a know

ledge of the Chinese ; and thus preserve the secrets of trade and

the policy of government.

" 11th. Treat the Russians with politeness on all occasions, and

even show them acts of hospitality ; which will enable you the bet

ter to learn how their country is governed. But on no account

sleep in the same house with them .

" 12th . No merchant to transact business for one year after his ar

rival at Kiackta ; but for that period to learn thoroughly all the

secrets of the trade, and thus prevent mistakes .

" 13th. Prohibits gold, silver, copper, and iron, from being ex

changed with Russia.

SURVEILLANCE AND RESPONSIBILITY. 139

" 14th . Proscribes the introduction of all articles of luxury, wine,

spirits," & c.

There are various punishments awarded for a violation of any of

the above rules. For disclosing the nature of the above instructions.

to the Russians, death, or banishment for life ; for lesser crimes,

mistakes, &c., to pull the grain boats five years, i. e. the galleys .

The trade of the interior of China, the prices, demand, & c., are

to be kept a profound secret.

The whole government is a system of strict surveillance and uni

versal responsibility, approaching to the greatest military despotism.

The man who knows it is almost impossible to escape, (except by

entire seclusion) , the emissaries of the government, will be cautious

of offending the laws of his country ; for if he himself should

escape, his family will suffer for his offence, and if he can venture

home, it is most likely his property will be in the possession of

the officers of the government, or of neighbours who feel secure

in plundering him.

The Emperor is not only sole head of the Chinese constitution,

but is considered to be the " Teen Tsze," the Son of Heaven. It is

in unison with these high notions, that they refuse to negotiate with

the barbarians until compelled by a superior power, when it is

thought Heaven wills it .

The absolute power which the Emperor possesses, he arms his

deputies with, to be exercised by them in their various offices :

each being responsible only to his superior officer . The law has

appointed censors over the actions of the Emperor, but he need not

regard them in China all tyranny is so well cloked as to be

styled paternal authority.

The duties to be observed by the Emperors are strictly considered

to be in unison with Confucius and his most celebrated disciples,

as given in their famed works, the Five Classics and Four Books.

The first distinction of castes is between natives and aliens, which

latter class includes all the mountaineers, and other tribes throughout

the empire ; the families that live in boats, also fishermen in the

maritime provinces : these are subject to laws that do not affect

natives. The second distinction is between the conquered and the

conquerors, i.e. Chinese and Tartars : the object of this distinction

is to put a stop to intermarriages, so as to prevent amalgamation

between the two races.

The third distinction is that every native can have slaves, whose

children are likewise slaves, under certain restrictions ; free-born

people are often condemned for their crimes to slavery.

All the people are divided into two classes, the mean and

honourable : the latter loses its privileges should they marry with

the former, who are comprised of people of the lowest grade :

slaves, policemen, stage-players, and jugglers ; and these for three

generations are required to follow some honourable and useful

140 CASTES .- EFFECT OF CEREMONIAL.

employment to work out their liberty. Every thing to perpetuate

distinction is done most artfully.

One of the inevitable results of the system is the spirit of

falsehood, and want of candour which their ceremonies univer

sally infuse. The Emperor's whole study is to decoy or

cajole his people ; and he, in return , is cajoled by his mi

nisters . It is scarcely necessary in China to ask a favour, for it is

sure to be promised, without the slightest idea of fulfilment .

The advantage attending this profusion of promises is, that they

can be estimated at their real value.

It is truly observed, that at one time the government adopts

language pregnant with direful import ; and the next, if encountered

bya show of resistance, sinks into the most ignominious submission ,

and resorts to ridiculous subterfuges, in order to escape from the

consequence of its own folly and audacity.

The people, particularly those of the better class, are very desirous

of associating with the English, but their Tartar rulers take every

possible means to prevent such association ; the most opprobrious

epithets are heaped on the English, and placards are posted on the

walls at night accusing them of odious crimes ; in other instances

edicts are issued as the following, entitled :

66 Regulations for preventing the familiar intercourse of natives

and foreigners. The houses and lanes in the neighbourhood of the

foreign factories, (Canton), are the resort of native traitors ; these

must be banished, to prevent an intimate connexion growing up

between the natives and the barbarians. The Foo and Heen

magistrates are to inspect the said places in person. All the doors

of the foreign factories at the back are to be immediately blocked

up . The square in the front is to be enclosed . The passages

through all the streets near the factories are to be cut off and

never again opened, and the walls built higher and thicker. It

will be proper to have one thoroughfare, with a gate, and a military

sentinel. But the shops in New China- street are so intimately

connected with foreigners, that they suspend signboards with

foreign characters written on them ; this is in opposition to the

law, and must be put a stop to for ever. The private houses must

be also closed, and woe to all those who disobey, and let procla

mations be issued appointing a time to sweep away these traitors !!"

There are various proofs in the Peking Gazettes of the disorgani

zation that is in progress, and the loose and corrupt system of

government in the provinces.

The Lieut. -governor of Che-Keang, sent a memorial to his

majesty, which stated that a numerous band of robbers infested

the province of Hoonan . They grew so bold that nothing could

stop their marauding spirit. He represented them as disbanded

militia, who during the war with the English, fought under the

banners of their country, and being out of employment, and

unable to carn a living, have betaken themselves to these wicked

PROGRESS OF DISORGANIZATION . 141

courses. Cho-ping-teen, a minister of state, recently memo

rialized the throne, respecting the state of the Peking police. The

memorial states, that the residence of his Majesty is infested with

robbers, who have been banished from other provinces, and have

not only taken up their residence, but actually bought houses, and

are living in a most splendid manner on the produce of their

booty. Debts and defalcations are numerous in Keangse ; several

thousand taels are owing from three districts . In the province of

Chih-li, a magistrate is a defaulter to the extent of 12,000 taels .

A defaulter, in Honan, died , while being conveyed to Peking : his

property was put under seal. The undermentioned extracts from

the Peking Gazette, conveys further information to the internal

state of China. In 1827, Peking was in a deplorable state ;

plurdering and murder were frequent in daylight, without

detection ; ten carts laden with grain were taken from the gates

of the city. In 1827 , extraordinary powers were given to the

Governor of Shan-tung ; the banditti were so numerous, and the

expenses so great, that the emperor empowered him to inflict

summary punishment, without examining witnesses . In 1829, the

hills in Che-Keang which protect rebels, were ordered to be set fire

to in order to burn the grass and brush wood ; thirteen of the

soldiers were consumed in the performance of this duty. The

banditti who inhabit the borders of Kwang-tung (Canton) , and

Kwangse provinces, appear to be the most troublesome. The

governor memoralized the present Emperor, that the banditti

in his jurisdiction might not be included in the act of grace on

the occasion of his accession. The same year nearly 500 of a

banditti were taken, within 200 miles of Canton, on the eastern side.

In 1827, the governor of Canton, requested the emperor to be

stow rewards on the troops, as they had routed the banditti on the

southern hills, and taken 200 of the gang. In 1828, a reward of 1000

dollars was offered for the apprehension of a banditti leader, and

3,000 for another. The judge of Canton , this year complains that

he cannot clear the court of the number of cases. After a long

sitting, he states that there were of undecided cases for robbery

430, which involve upwards of 2000 who are not yet taken , and

the number is daily increasing. In 1829 the governor obtained

rewards for the military from the Emperor, for their successful

exertions, in the north and east of the province, where 300 bandits

were captured .

In the vicinity of Canton, Whampoa, and Macao, poor people

who cultivate land on the banks of the rivers, are frequently

plundered of all they possess, unless they take out a ticket of

security from a banditti, which protects them for a certain time .

Among fishermen along the coast a similar tax is imposed. The

Gazette denounces these practices, and that is all that is heard of

them .

1

In 1830, the number and character of the robberies in Canton

142 ROBBERIES AND KIDNAPPING.

were of the worst kind . Government offices and temples were

violated, and the robbers mustered in bands of from 300 to 500

each . The number captured in three months of this year in

Canton, was 467. Kidnappers are never pursued, or if so they are

sure to put their captives to death. The sacred palace of the

emperor, at Yuenmingyuen, was lately plundered, although well

guarded by day and night. His Majesty complained of " the want

of respect that is apparent, in latter years, as every thing belong

ing to his majesty should be respected with awe and veneration . ”

On any occasion of insurrection or tumultuous disturbances,

no mercy is shewn by the military. A recent report from the

Commander-in- chief of Formosa , states, that the neighbourhood of

Taewan, (the capital of Formosa), is infested with a disorderly and

rebellious gang, who openly defy the authorities . About thirty

of these had been taken prisoners, this has caused a disturbance in

which two Chinese soldiers have lost their lives . To quell the

insurrection 1000 soldiers were marched to the place, whilst the

treasury furnished 1800 taels to defray the expense. In the first

engagement ninety prisoners were taken, and their heads instantly

cut off. In a second engagement the commander reports, that he

dispatched about 300 heads . The loss on the parts of the victors

was trifling. The total killed and wounded, slain in battle, was

upwards of 1000 : from 500 to 600 were beheaded, sixty-nine

decapitated, sixteen taken alive, and 100 stand of arms. These

robbers being completely exterminated , all is again quiet . The

only answer made to this report, was " the imperial will has been

recorded ."

The rebellion among the Mohammedans in Turkestan, which

broke out in the year 1826, excited great alarm throughout the

empire, as it was well known that the Mohammedans beyond the

frontiers would join them. The Booriats of Kokan supported

the rebel chief ; and after his death made an entry into Cashgar,

but were defeated by the Chinese.

In 1818, a numerous tribe, called Elucth, who inhabit the

borders of the province of Szechuen and Shense, committed

dreadful plunder on the inhabitants . The governor of the pro

vince reported, that he had defeated them and taken several

hundred captives . When the expenses of this insurrection were

applied for, the Emperor ordered that the governor should pay it

himself. The consequence was that he committed suicide.

A fierce and bold race of mountaineers, called Lolo, inhabit a

country lying between the provinces of Szechuen and Yunnan

and the British territory in Assam ; they are supposed to be the

Shans . The Peking Gazette, of 1819, declared the rewards to the

officers who defeated these rebels, which was all the public ever

heard . An express travelling 600 le a -day ( 168 miles) an*

nounced the victory.

It appears from the Peking Gazette, of the years 1826, 1828 ,

FRONTIER INCURSIONS AND REBELLIONS . 143

1830, and 1834, that the Chinese military was employed in quelling

insurrections that broke out on the western frontier of Yunnan .

The borderers on the Burman frontier were also defeated, and

many prisoners taken in 1830 .

The governor of Yunnan memorialized the Emperor against a re

duction of his military forces, which amounted to 33,970 ; all of

which he stated to be fully employed in keeping off a tribe called

Tsingke. In 1832, the envoy from Tibet to Peking was plundered

and severely beaten, on the borders of the province of Szechuen.

The tribe called Meenpoh, about this time, plundered and burnt

upwards of twenty villages. The most daring tribes inhabit the

country southward of the Yellow River, which, when frozen over,

they cross, carry all before them , and plunder the Mongol

pastoral tribes. The complaints were so numerous that the

authorities sent upwards of 3,000 troops after them, and recovered

I

30,000 head of cattle, with seventeen of the ringleaders, who were

beheaded.

The hill tribes within several of the western provinces, cause

even more expense and trouble to the authorities than the more

distant rebels ; there are upwards of eighty different tribes . The

rebellion of 1832 cost 2,100,000 taels, and the Chinese army lost

10,000 men. The peasantry dread the imperial troops as much as

they do the robbers ; hence the following instructions to the sol

diers to preserve honest and orderly habits by Yu, one of the Com

manders-in-chief, which read well, but are not obeyed .

،،

Every man derives his nature from heaven, and from infancy

to manhood none are destitute of virtue. The virtuous cherish it

in their hearts, while the exercise of it towards a prince is called

loyalty, and towards a parent filial piety . That you should while

at home exercise reverence towards your parents, and fraternal

affection towards your brethren, you very well know. The Sacred

Edict has widely promulgated and reiterated in your hearing, that

scholars and husbandmen, mechanics and tradesmen, by attending

to the appropriate duties of their calling, will secure a reputation,

and surely reap their reward.

" The favors we receive from others ought never to be forgotten .

Here allow me to introduce a similitude . Suppose you were on a

long journey and your pocket -money were expended, and you

found yourself destitute, far from home, without friends, and

perishing from want. Then suppose a man should give you a few

hundred cash to preserve your life. Should you ever afterward see

this man, ought you to make any expression of gratitude for his

mercy ? And, if you made no returus for his kindness, would you

not justly be considered a forgetful and an ungrateful creature,

and thus exhibit no goodness of heart ? It is a common saying,

if we receive from others a favor, like a drop of water, the return

should be like an overflowing fountain .

"

144 INSTRUCTIONS TO PRESERVE ORDER .

" Now you, soldiers, have received favors from your sovereign,

which it is extremely difficult for you ever to repay. It is be

coming you, as you regularly enter the cantonment to receive your

rations and monthly pay, to remember that all you have for the

support of your lives, the nourishment of your family, and the

offerings to your ancestors, is the result of your sovereign's com

passion, whose mercy is higher than the heavens and extensive as

the earth ; therefore loyalty is a sentiment that should be engraven

on your hearts. As you receive liberally of the favors of your

sovereign, it is becoming you, by a careful and diligent attention

to your appropriate duties, to promote the peace of the land, by

exterminating thieves and robbers, and avoid disturbing or dis

tressing the people . Thus you may respond to the distinguished

favors of your sovereign, and yourselves advance in the road of

promotion, from the infantry to the cavalry, and then to official

stations, with increasing honors and emolument . This is in time .

of peace ; but should there be a national disturbance, and you are

sent out in regular file, and on seeing the foe, advance bravely

before him and slay the enemy, you thus repay the kindness of

your sovereign. But if, on seeing the enemy, you cherish un

worthy fears and do not advance, you prove yourself ungrateful

and unworthy creatures, and of the same class with pirates, and

all men will be justified in slaying you .

" You may consider that from ancient times till now, the wise

and the brave have been prosperous and honored,- and for this

reason that with a true heart they destroyed the enemy. But

those who fear to die cannot thus avoid death ; suppose they shut

themselves up within their own doors and die of disease, —are they

not then dead ? But if you would not deserve death, take your

sword and rush amidst a thousand or ten thousand men, bran

dishing your weapon and speeding your horse, and you cannot die.

A discharge of your appropriate duties and the subjugation of the

enemy, all depends upon your loyalty and bravery, and in this way

alone you can preserve the laws and save your lives.

" In time of peace, while remaining in your cantonments, it is

expected that you be quietly employed in your customary duties,

not quarrelling with each other : and when you go out, whether it

be for taking thieves or for war, as you meet the people you should

remember, that your food and salary are the result of their labor.

Therefore, carefully endeavour to protect them. Do not frighten

and annoy them ; but when you see among them old persons,

regard them as you would your own father and mother ; and when

you see young persons, treat them as you would a brother or

sister. Do not think, because you spend your strength in the

service of your Emperor, that you have a right to defraud the

people. When going abroad do not compel the coolies to bear

your burdens, without a suitable compensation ; and as you pass

along the road, do not rob the gardens of their vegetables and

เค

SOLDIERS NOT TO ABUSE THE PEOPLE. 145

fruits . Do not passionately abuse the people, and, relying on your

numbers, insult the defenceless. Should all respond to the voice

of one man, and several tens of you unite in beating one man, and

if, perchance he is killed, do not think that you will pass unde

tected. Your fellow- soldiers, lest they should be implicated , will

make known who was the mover of the disturbance, and when

this is known by the people, they will represent the case to the

proper authority ; who will institute an investigation, and the cor

roborating testimony of soldiers and people will so clearly esta

blish your guilt, that even your friends and relations will not dare

deny it. Such will then be judged according to law, and beheaded,

and your heads suspended by the wayside to the gaze of the multi

tude. These things you all understand .

" You remember that during the revolt of Formosa, in the 12th

year of his Imperial Majesty's reign, A.D. 1832 , the soldiers from

Chekiágg, Honan, and Sz'chuen refused to pay the coolies for bearing

their burdens, and that a dispute arose and life was lost ; also, that

children were kidnapped, and the office of the salt merchant was

plundered : when these things were beyond all endurance, they

were represented to the high provincial officers, who reported it to

his majesty ; and an imperial edict was issued ; and,. after the

necessary investigation, the offenders were delivered down to be

punished according to law. These things are for your admonition .

Therefore, do not trust in your numbers or the fallacious hope of

escape, for your commanding officers will surely understand and

make known your conduct ; also your comrades, for fear of being

themselves implicated, will disclose the matter, and you cannot

escape punishment . From ancient times till now, the laws con

cerning soldiers have been very rigid. On a former occasion a

soldier stole a man's vegetables, and he was put to death for it.

"Now you think that a vegetable is worth but a few cash ;—

why need a man fear to take it ? Man is prone to imitate bad

example ; and if he can take a vegetable, he will take something

else, and soon it will become habitual ; and the people of the

country will cease to fear thieves and pirates, from their greater

dread of the soldiers . Thus the anger of the people would lead

them to call upon the gods for vengeance, and you will incur their

wrath, instead of securing their aid, in time of battle. Think you,

when engaged in battle, should one man draw back, would not all

follow his example and flee, and the foe pursue after them to the

destruction of all ? The laws concerning soldiers are extremely

severe. The good man constantly observes the customs, and dares.

not contend with his associates . He regards his own life as pre

cious, and trembles lest by quarrelling with another he should

accidentally kill him, when he would pay for it by the loss of his

own life. If he escape death, he is banished, and thus precluded

for ever from all honor and profit.

L

146 VALUE OF TRUTH AND RIGHTEOUSNESS .

"C

Anciently, there was a man by the name of Han Sin, who

compelled a thief to pass between his legs ; still he dared not

wrangle. According to the saying, ' The brave act like tigers, and

not like mice .'

" If for a few years there should be peace, and , instead of going

to war, you all remain at home, as good men , I will teach you what

to do , namely, -practice yourselves in your duties, that you may

be able to protect yourselves and your families, thus exhibiting

truth and righteousness . Every thing in heaven and earth is

comprehended in these two terms, -truth and righteousness. They

are to men what the root is to the tree . Where then is truth ?

To speak a word to-day, and follow it ever afterwards ; not pointing

to the east, then going to the west ; not saying that you have what

you have not ; not changing to suit your own convenience ;-if you

speak and act thus, all men will believe you . This is what is called

truth. What is righteousness ? For each to attend to his business

and practice himself in his appropriate duties ;—regarding his

officers as he regards his parents, and his comrades as his brethren ,

avoiding ingratitude and a violation of the laws ; -this is what is

called righteousness. If a man have no truth, but is deceitful and

false, then there is nothing too bad for him to do, and even his

father and mother, and wife and children , will see that he is a bad ‫ܪ‬

man . An unrighteous man in the twinkling of an eye becomes

ungrateful . Therefore truth and righteousness are of the first

importance.

(C

Again, it is easy to move the mind of the ignorant. This you

will understand by observing a play. Suppose the actor, in al

luding to the ancients, should exhibit loyalty and filial piety . The

audience, looking at the faithful minister or dutiful child exposed

to ten thousand ills, still maintaining his integrity, and, in every

temptation to impropriety and unrighteousness, sternly adhering to

truth and uprightness . Therefore, the gods of heaven and earth

will protect him in the field of battle, and crown him with laurels

of victory, -bless him with a blooming wife and honorable chil

dren, and perpetuate his name to a thousand generations . But

how often is it that stupid men frequent the plays, desiring only

to witness impure and incorrect exhibitions, and look upon scenes.

calculated to foster a contentious spirit . You may know from the

expression of their countenances, that such, if they are not already

adepts in the practice of vice, will soon learn to be ; for such

things are very shallow, and easily learned .

" Here allow me to introduce the case of Sung Kiang, a famous

robber, whose name is recorded in the Shui Hu, and history in

forms us that he was at the head of thirty-six giantlike insurgents .

General Chang Suye, of Hwuihai, at one time called out his men

to exterminate them, but they surrendered and swore allegiance to

their sovereign . Sung Kiang lived about the middle of the Sung

dynasty. He was a man of superior natural talents ; and at length

Į

DUTIES OF SOLDIERS IN PEACE . 147

became a faithful subject and a queller of rebellion, and promoter

of peace within the four seas (China), and was praised by suc

ceeding generations . Still, though he became a faithful subject

and distinguished patriot, by all his good deeds he could not erase

from history the record that he was once a robber. Moreover, the

works of fiction have misrepresented the number of his colleagues,

and endeavored to make it appear that he acted not for gain, but

for honor ; thus tempting the age, blinding the eyes of the people,

and injuring the hearts of men in no small degree . In the same

way, novels have so represented the character of the robbers of

Wa Kang, that indiscriminating minds are led to admire their

valor ; not thinking that they were without prince or father, and

that they thus treated with contempt their own body and their

own parents ; not thinking that true courage consists in speaking

with propriety and acting righteously, in not obscuring the laws of

heaven, or throwing away conscience, even if it should be at the

hazard of life .

" The fact is, you cannot rely on what novels say ; for Sung

Kiang was no better than Tai Wu and Manting (notorious rob

bers) . You know that in secret societies, where the members are

sworn to protect each other, the greater guilt rests on the head

man, and his guilt is increased in proportion to the increase of the

numbers under him. For such proceedings they surely will be

apprehended and punished, when repentance will be unavailing.

"Therefore you , soldiers, ought carefully and unceasingly to

follow truth and righteousness, filial piety and loyalty. For if you A

carefully practice your own tactics , and when at home respect your

parents, love your brethren, and attend to your own business, and,

when sent for the apprehension of pirates, you prove faithful to

your trust ; in time of war not oppressing the people, and mutually

admonishing each other to walk in the path of virtue ; and if you

bravely contend for your friends and relations, and also the

rulers of the land, the gods will secretly protect you wherever

you go. But if you do not carefully practice your tactics, and

attend to your own business ; when set after robbers, if you do

not face the foe ;-such conduct cannot be endured by the justice

of the laws, or the mercy of the gods .

" Finally, strive to familiarise yourself with your own business ,

and mutually instruct and assist each other. In giving these

instructions , your general has not employed a mysterious style and

unintelligible terms, but simple and every-day language ; so plain

that it may be easily understood, even by those who cannot read .

Now if these principles of your nature (truth and righteousness)

be established, you may travel to the ends of the earth without

danger of harm ; and is it not a matter to be desired, that the

officers and soldiers, princes and people, should dwell together in

peace and happiness ?"

The feebleness of the Tartar government is well illustrated by

L2

148 STRENGTH OF THE PIRATES .

the constant piracy along the whole coast of China . Pirates in

China are divided into two classes, sea robbers , and water or river

robbers . Chaouchoo -foo, and the neighbouring province of

Foo-keen, appear to be the stronghold of both classes, particularly

during the seasons of distress, as then it is known that many join

them for want of employment . Dr. Gutzlaff, who visited many

parts of the coast of China, in 1831 , describes the social state there

as wretched in the extreme .

The duty of the Chinese navy, is supposed to be for the protection

of maritime commerce, and a few observations on its efficacy, will

show how far it answers that purpose . The governor of Keangnan

reported, in 1818 , that he found great difficulty in procuring timber

to build twelve junks, for the coast of Shan-tung. The Governor of

Canton reports, in 1820, that ninety vessels were disabled this

year, and forty more in the succeeding year. In 1833, 100,000

taels were voted to build ten junks, under the direction of the

Governor of Canton . The admiral received private information,

that the new junks were put together with wooden bolts ; on exami

nation it was found to be so. At Nangaou, which is the second

naval station of Canton , and bordering on Foo -keen, (the stronghold

of pirates) , and the residence of an admiral, with a force of 5000

men, —Messrs . Lindsay and Gutzlaff found eight small junks in

1832 .

Mr. Glasspole, who was taken prisoner by the Chinese pirates,

together with seven of his men, in 1809 , calculated their whole

force to consist of 70,000 men, navigating 800 large vessels , and

1000 smaller ones, including their row-boats . The united forces of

the Chinese navy, aided by vessels belonging to the Portuguese of

Macao, consisting of upwards of 100 sail, were totally unable to

make the least impression on the pirate band. Mr. Glasspole was

with them nearly three months, and was compelled, along with his

men, to enter into many engagements with them during that time,

and consequently had a good opportunity of calculating their

forces . It was not until division appeared between the rival com

manders, that the imperial government proposed a general pardon,

and employment to those who would surrender. Kuo Patao,

commander of the black squadron, surrendered and entered into

terms for all his followers, and subsequently found employment in

Peking. Paoer, the admiral of the red flag, very soon surrendered

on the same terms, and he and many of his forces were employed

by the government in hunting their former associates . Ever since,

every effort has been made to prevent their uniting in so strong a

body, but they are still numerous .

In 1831 , the Peking Gazette contained a proclamation, against

allowing in future, tea to be conveyed to the Northern Provinces

by sea, as his Majesty had been informed that the tea-dealers

carry with them powder, to supply and pacify the pirates. The

Governor of Canton, in 1829, issued a proclamation against the

In

'} }

SALE OF PUBLIC OFFICES . 149

Lintin smugglers, who have boats with from thirty to forty oars,

who when smuggling fails, turn pirates, carry fire arms, and even

fire on the revenue cutters of the government.

In a representation made to the emperor in 1830, from the

Governor of Che - Keang, it is stated that the officers of the coast

permitted pirates to do as they wished, that murder and plunder

was an occurrence of every day ;-the emperor in answer, deprived

the officers of their cutters for three months, during which time

they were to have all the pirates made prisoners, or failing therein

to be dismissed.

The Peking Gazette of August, 1831 , has a peremptory order

from the Emperor, concerning the nine pirates who were taken for

the plunder of Howqua's fort ; he desires that they be put to torture,

in order to discover the remainder. A fleet of Cochin China

pirates was discovered this year, which consisted of ninety sail.

One of the most remarkable indications of decay in the empire,

and of general corruption, is the sale of offices, which has recently

increased to a great extent, and is at total variance with the

literary examinations which had hitherto been the basis of official

employment, and powerful means of keeping the empire consoli

dated and tranquil.

1822. A memorial to the emperor, from Sin Tsung-yih, head

master of the literati in Shanting province, and Yuen- Seen, the

censor of Yun-nau province, in 1822, is as follows :

We have heard that the sale of high offices originated under the

Han dynasty ; but the disgrace of selling office under the pre

sent is of greater enormity than theirs . The sums procured under

the Han dynasty were applied to the public service, but our

dynasty puts the whole of such revenues into its private purse.

" Our dynasty commenced the sale of office , in 1637, Teentsung's

tenth year, to supply money for the use of the state, and to collect

human talent ; for many of our sages arose from fish and salt

markets, and those who bought office , made up a portion of talent

unsupplied by those who obtained office by literary merit . But

it was ordered by imperial authority, that the literary should have

the majority in the proportion of eleven to eight.

" But at the present time, there are unemployed by government

more than 15,000, who have obtained the third degree, (tsin - sze) ,

and near 30,000 of the second degree, (ken-jin), and those that

are waiting to be employed were made eligible thirty years ago.

The design of your Majesty's heart is to give age to their talent,

and prepare them for service.

CC

Allowing them to be thirty years of age when they obtain the

degree of ken-jin, and then wait thirty years more, they are then

generally pointed out as feeble and stupid, and thus the learned

will ultimately be excluded from office.

" The buyers of office are both young and have abundance of

money, and are thus put over everybody's head, and pointed out

150 QUALIFICATION FOR OFFICE .

as possessing talents . The qualifications for graduates are most

rigorous . A candidate must state his descent for three genera

tions back ; also procure five graduates to enter into bonds of

security . The purchaser of office has nothing to do but pay his

money, and there is his office ; and governors become his sureties.

Thus priests, who are prohibited , and actual highwaymen , are

daily promoted to office. When in authority they are cruel

oppressors, they terrify the people, and their superiors point them

out as possessing decision . Of late none of them have been

impeached , and their numbers are unknown . When this docu

ment reaches the privy council, they will say, the resources of the

country are inadequate, and thereby darkly insinuate their

slanderous aspersions ; we have, therefore, made a calculation.

In the third year of Keaking a banditti, in Sze- Chuen, and two

other provinces, caused an insurrection, and the sale of offices

procured 70,000 taels, (about £25,000 . ) In the eleventh year of

his reign, a rebellion broke out in Yun-nan, and the sale of offices

realized 120,000 taels ; the 19th year 60,000 taels ; thus the

whole amount for twenty years, make but a few hundred thousand

taels. Now if the expenses of imperial honors were once removed,

it would save as much in one year, as the sale of offices has pro

duced in ten .

"The expenses of flowers and rouge at the imperial harem is

annually 100,000 taels. The salaries at the harem for waiting

boys is 120,000 taels . The gardens of Yuenming cost more than

200,000 taels. The establishment at Jeho, costs 480,000 taels .

The other expenses of these gardens for salaries to great officers, is

160,000 taels ; and there are conferred in largesses on the women

of these gardens 250,000 taels. Ifthese few items were abolished,

talent might be brought to the service of the country, and the wealth

of the people be secured .

" We find in the provinces, from governor, lieutenant-governors,

down to the village magistrates, all combine to gain their purpose

by hiding the truth from the Emperor.

" Now for the tricks played by the great salt officers, they are

numerous . Each bag of salt supplied to the emperor weighs

sixty catties, charged 500 cash per bag ; but the salt supplied to

the people only weighs eight catties at the same charge.

" If your majesty deem this statement to be right, and will act

thereon in the government, the army, the nation , and the poor people

will have cause of gladness of heart. Should we be subjected to the

operation ofthe hatchet, or suffer death in the boiling caldron, we shall

not decline it ."

His majesty's reply :

" The report of Yuen- seen and his colleague is extremely lucid,

and shows them to be faithful statesmen, who are grieved for the

state of their country, and who have the spirit of the great states

PRICES OF OFFICE . 151

men of antiquity. Since the days of Yun-Chawwantoo, 221 B.C.

such men have not appeared .

TAOUKWANG, (Feby 22, a.d. 1822. ) ”

Nothing, however, was done, on the " lucid and faithful,"

report.

The sale of civil and military offices , in 1826, produced

6,000,000 of taels . The privilege is only granted for one year at a

time ; but it was renewed 1828 and 1829 .

The Peking Gazette for January, 1831 , announces that two

sons of Howqua have been promoted, one created ken-jéh by patent,

for having one year previously subscribed 36,000 taels, the other

son had contributed 100,000 taels towards the war in Tartary,

for which he was made a director of the salt monopoly.

The literary chancellor of the province of Keang- se, in 1828,

having been reported to the emperor as guilty of selling degrees ;

two special commissioners were dispatched to his house, who

discovered 400,000 taels, and to save any examination, he was

given an opportunity to commit suicide .

The price of a first degree , is said to cost 7000 or 8,000 dollars ;

a substitute can be had on much less terms, who does not regard

the punishment. At an investigation which was held in Peking,

in 1832, six writers were ordered for execution for forging diplomas.

An officer, in the Board of Revenue, in Peking, was discovered to

have sold 20,000 diplomas of rank.

The imperial Court Calendar gives the number of provincial

officers as follows :-Governors, 11 ; fooyuens, 15 ; treasurers, 19 ;

judges, 18 ; chancellors, 17 ; magistrates of cities of the first order,

184 ; of cities of the second order, 212, and of the third, 1305 :

total, 1781. According to law, all these officers must be changed

every third year, and they must not fill a similar office in the province

a second time ; this principle carried out would require 35,620

great officers to fill all these appointments during sixty years .

The extent of bribery and corruption, and the number of offices

sold, may, therefore , be fairly inferred as very great .

Police ofPeking.- The police of Peking are composed of part of

the Chinese infantry, belonging to the regular troops ; they keep a

very strict surveillance over the city, and they are constantly in the

streets with swords at their sides, and whips in their hands, ready

to strike any one who would create a confusion . They take care

to have the streets kept clean, and will put their hands to it them

selves in case of necessity ; they keep watch during the night, and

allow no one to go through the streets, except with lanterns, and

then only on very urgent business - such as to call a physician , &c .

They even question those who may be charged with missions to the

Emperor, and all must give satisfactory answers ; if not, they have a

right to arrest them. The officers of the guard are bound to be

extremely vigilant with respect to the men under their command ..

?

152 DUTIES OF THE POLICE .

The slightest negligence would be punished, and the officers cashiered

on the following day.

One of their principal duties is to prevent a famine in the city.

In the city as well as the suburbs there are large granaries, where

rice is kept to provide against scarce seasons . The regulations are

very honestly executed in the vicinity of the court, but not so in

provinces ; which occurs through the negligence of the mandarins .

Besides these public stores, there are large granaries of the Emperor

which are filled with wheat, and pulse, and fodder, for the beasts.

of burden.

The following edict against forestallers of rice, indicates the

anxiety of the government to maintain a low price for food :

((

Keying of the imperial house, governor- general of Kwang-tung

and Kwang-si, a director of the board of war, vice-high chancellor

and guardian of the heir apparent, minister and commissioner ex

traordinary, &c., issues a severe prohibition against storing rice from

fear of famine. Whereas it is important that rice should be in the

market, to stop it is against the law. The population of Kwang

tung is great, and its produce is too little, and the support of the

people always depends upon the rice of Kwang-si, which the mer

chants bring. But now the price of rice in Canton rises every day,

and it has been found out that there are some villains and dissolute

persons stirring up the people, and saying that in the year Ping-woo*

and Tin-wi in the reign of Kin-lung there was a famine, and now

this year is Ping-woo again, and we should keep our rice for a good

market. These villains hinder the rice -boats from coming, and

squeeze them in every way according to their wishes, and the mer

chants stop their trade ; and this causes the want of rice among

the people. But these men surely do not know the rainy season

of the last year Yih-sze came exactly in time, and it enriched the

earth very much, and when compared with the Yih- sze year in the

reign of Kin-lung it is very different, and I believe, when the spring

comes we shall have fine rains . If those villains still dare to keep

back the rice, seeking profit, the law cannot suffer them, and their

policy must be thwarted, so that the merchants may trade again,

and the people have food. Besides commanding the governor of

Kwang-si to renew his former edict, I will command all the officers

of the districts through which the merchants of Kwang-tung must

pass in trading with Kwang-si, to issue proclamations, so as to let

all people know, that after this no man should store up rice for the

fear of famine. Ifany merchants from Kwang-tung go to Kwang-si

* " The Chinese have two sets of characters ; the one of which, called Teen-kan ,

" the celestial stems," includes ten characters, the other set called Te-che, the " ter

restrial branches," consist of twelve characters, and these characters are applied to

years, months, days, and hours. They have been combined so as to form a cycle of

sixty ; and Pingwoo ' is the third year in this order, and ' Ting-we' the forty- fourth,

and‘Yih- sze' the forty- second. Some Chinese think that in the space of sixty years

all former occurrences will come again, like the four seasons of the year.- Note by

Ashing, the translator of this edict.

FORESTALLING OF FOOD . 153

to buy rice, they should buy their rice freely, and bring it to.

Kwang-tung to sell, and there should be no secret hindrance of

buying and selling rice, so as to raise the value of rice, and cause

all sorts of difficulties to the poor. If, after this second edict, any

of the villains dare to store up their rice, seeking profit, and send

*

boats along the entrances of the province to hinder and squeeze

the merchants, the officers of their districts shall seize them, and

bring them to trial, and punish them with heavy penalties, and

shall not set them at liberty. Do not disobey this special edict. 1

" First month, 21st day." (Feb. 16 , 1846. )

The police of China are thus aptly described by one who has

closely studied the subject .

"With the exception of prying into families, the police are very

vigilant. To form a proper idea of this body elect, we must consi I

der them to be a collection of the very scum of the nation , well

versed in all tricks, personally acquainted with thieves, robbers ,

and gamblers, initiated in all the mysteries of iniquity, and often

partaking largely, not only of the bribes, but also in the practice of

abomination, in the very haunts of vice . The government being

well aware of the character of this gentry, degraded them below

the level of citizens, excluding them from entering upon the an-

nual examinations, and partaking of the general privileges of the

nation at large. A small number receive pay from their employ

ers, of about one to two dollars per month, but by far the greater

part serve for honour's sake, and even pay to their masters a monthly

sum of money to bear the venerable name of Chae or Chae-yuh—►

runners. This is the most conclusive proof that their situations

must be worth something, for otherwise we cannòt imagine how

they would enter upon a profession which requires incessant exer

cise, without the least prospect of gain . The headman of the police

stipulates to pay a considerable sum to his master, he secures his

many myrmidons, and takes very good care to reimburse himself

as soon as possible. These men , therefore, are a terror to the

nation, their very appearance sickens the people, and the guilty as

well as the guiltless tremble at their sight. No police-runner will

move a single step, unless it be with the view of making some

money ; no persons are apprehended, no measures are put into

execution, without their being well and honorably paid for.

How odious soever the executors of the law may appear, they

enable the mandarins to know everything that passes in their juris

diction. Hence the ease with which criminals are discovered, and

abuses temporarily checked, whenever it suits the views of the

Chinese government to do so . But still the mandarins must oc

casionally be satisfied with becoming the dupes of these knaves,

and seeing their measures frustrated by the antipathy borne to them

by their own people. Hence it has happened, that thieves have

been harboured in the very offices from whence the warrants for their

apprehension were issued ; that contraband goods have been stowed

154 LAWS OF CHINA .

away in the hall of justice ; and that even rebels have been secreted

by the very men sent to seize them. To dispatch a rogue in order

to catch a rogue, may perhaps sometimes be convenient ; but rogues.

can never be trusted for any length of time, and the best intentions

may be defeated by making them guardians of the law.

A peculiar feature in the police of China has lately been their

joining of the triad society. We cannot assign any other reason

for this step, but their wish to keep themselves free from the wrath

of their own mandarins, for no official dares openly to attack a

member of the brotherhood. On the other hand, this fraternity

must have been very glad to number amongst its votaries men ac

quainted with all the measures of government, who could give

them a timely warning, and screen them in case of persecution .

Though the police is often allowed to carry on extortion and to

harass the people for any length of time, the patience of the over

patient people is still occasionally worn out, and they rise in a body

to resist their tormentors . Such proceedings are of frequent oc

currence, and if they happen on a large scale, the government is

wise enough to forgive the whole, while partial resistance is punished

with the utmost severity. The whole system is full of contradic

tion, there is a laxity almost amounting to lawlessness ; and again ,

a rigor exceeding all bounds and reason . The police, once know

ing the tone assumed by government, are careful to follow its dic

tates, and the richest harvest is always the time, when the laws are

going to be put into execution. The innocent people may be

seized and again released, upon paying a handsome sum ; the guilty

may obtain a chance of escaping by discharging a fee ; and those

in prison may get relief by bribing their keepers. During such

seasons the exertions of the whole tribe are extraordinary, they

traverse all streets, holes, and haunts, none can escape their hawks'

eyes, and if criminals get out of danger, it is owing to the friendly

services of their patrons, the police."

Laws of China . It is the general opinion that the Chinese ad

ministration of their laws is salutary, and that the laws are never

changed : such is not the fact ; for the Emperor himself acknow

ledges, that in every department of the government there are cor

ruption and carelessness ; that famine visits the land frequently,

and that its horrors are aggravated by the rapacity of the autho

rities ; that conspiracies exist in all parts of the country (of men

who are confederated into brotherhoods, whose avowed object is to

upset the present Tartar dynasty) , which break out occasionally

into insurrection against the government ; that every part of the

country is infested with banditti, who are countenanced, if not

permitted, by the officers of government, and we may conclude

that such a government is held together more by the force of habit

than through intrinsic merit.

The penal code has been several times altered within the last

thirty years ; it consisted originally of the leuh, which for several

UNCERTAINTY OF CHINESE CODE . 155

ages comprised 457 heads ; in the fifth year of the Emperor Yung

ching, it was reduced to 436. The le (novelle) or modern clauses,

to limit, explain , or alter the old statutes, were first introduced

during the Ming dynasty, which preceded that now on the throne.

In the first year of the present reign , they amounted to 1573. In

the year 1829, the criminal board of Peking addressed the Emperor

to recommend a new edition. The late emperor had ordered that

a revised and a corrected edition should be published every five

years ; the first being a slight revisal, the next being a thorough

one. In consequence of the many alterations which had taken place

during the preceding reign, the law and practice no longer agreed .

The following year a new edition was published, (very likely

with the request of a board,) comprising twenty-eight volumes

octavo. The emperor then decreed, that instead of fixing ten

years, or any other time, for the republication of the whole code,

the supreme courts should make as few alterations as possible on

the last code, and that only when they are obliged to do so.

The 44th section of the penal code provides, that in cases where

there is no law in existence precisely applicable, such cases may

then be determined on by an accurate comparison with others

which are already provided for, and which approach most nearly to

those under investigation, in order to ascertain afterwards whether

an aggravation of the offence, or a mitigation of it, was necessary.

The uncertainty of the Chinese code is seen in the following in

cident, which happened about the year 1835, in the Nganhwuy

province , where six people were killed by salt smugglers. A Ma

hommedan, one of the murderers, plucked out the viscera, split

the head, and threw the different parts of the body into the river :

this man was sentenced to suffer death, after confinement (which

generally means to have his life spared) . The Emperor not only

censures the judge who sentenced him, but the board of Peking

who referred it to him, because they noticed the gratuitous cruelty

of the murderer ; and orders a new law to be made to apply to such

cases .

In the year 1829, the Emperor enacted a law, which refers only

to his own clan, in consequence of their litigious spirit. Of late,

he remarks, they have constantly appeared in cases that do not

immediately concern themselves, and have employed their privi

leges and influence to extort money on legal pretexts . The tenor

of the law was, that should any member of the imperial clan appeal

in cases that do not concern himself, and should it be found that

it was done for the purpose of extorting money, he shall be sen

tenced to sixty blows with the cudgel, and forty blows with the

bamboo this circumstance is worthy of notice, as the 9th section of

the code enacts, that all the subjects of the empire who are en

rolled under Tartarian banners, when found guilty of any offences

which render them liable by the laws in general to a corporeal

punishment, shall receive the whole number of blows specified ,

156 PENAL LAWS AND OFFENCES .

but the chastisement shall be inflicted with the whip instead of a

bamboo .

The provincial officers often stretch the laws without reference

to the Emperor. The governors of provinces generally invite foo

yuen, judge, treasurer, &c., to share the responsibility. Some of

these precepts even affect life . The governor and fooyuen of Can

ton issued a proclamation, in 1830, directed against a banditti,

who, under disguise as custom-house searchers, plundered boats

on the river. An imperial edict of 1824 says, that holding of

fire-arms is illegal, and fixes a period for valuing them and deQ

livering them up . And again, in 1831 , fire- arms, excepting fowl

ing-pieces, are to be delivered up in six months . In 1830, the

magistrate of the Nanhae district in Canton , took it upon himself

to proclaim all as thieves that were seen on tops of houses after

first-watch ; and after second-watch, they might be fired at, but

with grains of paddy (rice unhusked) ; " because," he adds, " I

want to detect thieves, not to take lives."

The existing penal laws for China were promulgated by the pre

sent Tartar usurpers, in the middle of the 17th century, shortly

after they seized on the throne and empire of China. The last

edition was published in 1830 , in twenty- eight volume octavo : the

lowest degree of punishment is from ten to fifty blows, with a

bamboo five feet long and two inches thick ; the second degree of

punishment is from sixty to one hundred blows ; temporary banish

ment, with one hundred blows , is the third degree of punishment ;

perpetual banishment is the fourth ; and death is the fifth degree.

The Tartar subjects are beaten with a whip, and instead of banish

ment, put into a moveable pillory.

The law for enrolment is plain and clear ; every person from

the age of four years must be entered on the registry : omitting to

register all the family annually is punished with 100 blows, if

there be any property in the family ; 80, if otherwise . Every 100

families all over the empire form a division, and appoint ten asses

sors to oversee their district, and make the annual returns ; for

any neglect the bamboo is applied.

The first and most severe enactment is the protection of the

emperor's apartments, of the empress, her mother, and grand

mother, whose dwellings are sacred, and whoever enters without

authority will be strangled . No one but his majesty's attendants

shall cross his bridges or roads ; and during his journeys, any ob

struction or intrusion while travelling, is death : hence, it may be

said, being near an emperor is as dangerous as meeting a tiger.

All persons who carry the productions or inventions of the

country beyond the frontier, or remove themselves out of the em

pire, shall be beheaded : it is also forbidden any one by the laws to

build or settle on any of the islands near the coast ; no horses or

cattle can be killed without permission ; all official letters and dis

patches must travel at the rate of 300 le, or Chinese miles, in a

day and a night ; one hour's delay subjects them to the bamboo,

RESPONSIBILITY OF RELATIONS . 157

ten blows for each hour ; the distance from Peking to Canton is

1200 English miles by land , and the distance is performed in thir

teen or fourteen days ; the gazette seldom arrives in less than

thirty days ; officials are allowed ninety days to perform the

journey.

In the 6th article of the criminal code, high treason, rebellion,

allegiance, sorcery, and magic, are treated under the head of theft

and robbery. All persons convicted of high treason, shall suffer

death by a slow and painful execution ; also all the male relations

in the first degree, from the age of sixteen upwards, namely, father,

grand-father, sons, grand-sons, paternal uncles, and their sons,

shall suffer death : all male relations under sixteen years of age,

shall be given to the great officers of state as slaves, and the

females of all ages, likewise ; all property is confiscated .

Quarrelling and fighting are punished : striking with the hand,

20 blows of the bamboo ; tearing more than one inch of hair, is

50 blows ; breaking a tooth, or any bone of the body, 100 blows ;

any person guilty of striking their father, grandfather, grand

mother, or any wife who is guilty of striking her husband, father,

grandfather, or grandmother, shall suffer death.

All the courts of justice in China are furnished with a drum, the

beating of which by those who demand justice, together with

the noise and confusion, has a very novel appearance to an Euro

pean.

There does not appear to be any fixed period for the courts of

justice to sit, and sometimes the magistrate presides to hear causes

in private ; but, generally speaking, the public are admitted indis

criminately. The magistrate sits at a table, which is furnished

with writing materials ; plaintiff, defendant, and the witnesses

kneel in the front of the judge . The pleadings are all written by

licensed notaries, who are permitted to read them, but no counsel

is allowed to plead.

The 416th section of the criminal code provides, that when a

prisoner has been tried and convicted, he shall be brought before

the judge a second time, together with his family and his nearest

relations, each of whom are at liberty to acknowledge or protest

against the judgement about being pronounced . The protests are

taken down in writing, and form a case for a second investigation .

The same section provides a punishment of sixty blows to any

magistrate who refuses to receive a protest under such circum

stances, viz . , whether a subject has been sentenced to banishment

or death . When the case is disposed of, a full report of the pro

ceedings is required to be furnished to the emperor.

State of the Prisons. -The fooyuen of Canton, in a report to the

Emperor on the state of the prisons , reports that they are not suf

ficiently large to contain the vast number of prisoners that accu

mulate, in consequence of the great delay in the administration of

justice. The report further states, that the magistrates have been

in the habit of taking separate buildings when the jails were full ;

158 STATE OF THE PRISONS .

that in one district, he found three such private prisons, with upwards

of 300 prisoners, witnesses, and accusers, who had been sent from

some distant part of the province, to have their cases decided at the

provincial capital. These private prisons are built in the form of

a bird- cage, and are used as a means of confession and extortion ;

some of the prisoners had been confined (untried) for long periods,

averaging from three to twelve months . Two magistrates had ap

pointed females to attend them, who provided female slaves for the

basest purposes . In 1816 there were upwards of 10,000 prisoners

confined in the various jails in China convicted of capital offences,

awaiting the imperial order for execution . In 1829, Governor Le,

of Canton, sent a report that a prison had been burnt, and twenty

prisoners had lost their lives. His Majesty ordered all the autho

rities to be put on their trial, as it appeared that torture had been

illegally resorted to by the officers, and a disposition of revolt

having shown itself, the prison was purposely set on fire . The

Peking Gazette, of the 15th May, 1830, announced a return of

10,500 prisoners capitally convicted, but respited , in consequence

of an imperial anniversary .

Prisons are made use of as an instrument of torture that baffles

description . Those who have money to spend can be accommo

dated with private apartments, cards, servants, and every luxury.

The chains and fetters are removed from the body, and suspended

against the walls until the hour of going the round occurs . Those

who have no money to bribe, are in a pitiable condition. Not only

is every alleviation of their sufferings denied, but actual infliction

of punishment is added to extort money, or buy burnt offerings

(of paper) to the god of the jail ; for this purpose the prisoners are

severely tortured . The words " hell" and " prison" are synonymous

in the Chinese language .

Modes of Punishment, Torture, &c.—According to the penal

code, magistrates are permitted to use instruments of torture to

obtain a confession of guilt. The code also provides punishment

for unjustly abusing this privilege . The only limitation is the

eight privileged classes, and all below the age of fifteen and above

seventy years.

A censor, from the province of Honan, reports to the Emperor

as follows, " All courts of law have fixed regulations, in ques

tioning prisoners, that should guide their conduct before the

magistrates inflict punishment. Latterly, when prisoners are

brought before district-magistrates on suspicion, in order to obtain

a character for activity they resort to various modes of torture to

induce them to confess . The common practice is pulling them by

the ears, and obliging them to kneel on iron chains for a length of

time, with the breast, small of the back, and legs bent up, and

fastened to three crossbars ; and suspending them from a beam

by strings placed round their fingers and thumbs . By this means

many innocent people are compelled to sign a confession of guilt."

The same censor reports , that "the police fix on timid people, who

TORTURES . -APPEAL REGULATIONS . 159

are known to possess property, and falsely accuse them of seditious

practices, and by that means extort large sums of money." And

he'goes on to say, that " these things could not be done, unless the

local magistrate connived at it. I lay this statement, with respect

and reverence, before your majesty . - Chow. "

Flogging, otherwise beating with the bamboo, and whipping

with a rattan, are the most general modes of punishment for petty

offences. The whip is a modern instrument, and only exercised

on Tartars . A sentence of banishment is convertible, for the

Tartars only, into wearing the wooden collar. This punishment is

not clearly laid down in the penal code ; but from what is known

as the practice , the distance averages from one hundred to fourteen

hundred statute miles from the culprit's native place ; the desti

nation rests entirely with the emperor. The fifteenth section

provides, in all cases of perpetual banishment, the criminal's wife

must be sent with him ; his children and relations, only, when the

offence is high treason,-the relations are designated " imperial

prisoners ." Those sentenced to banishment for short periods, are

employed in government salt-works . A large number of those

who are sentenced for long periods, or for life, are sent to Western

Tartary, and handed over to the soldiers as slaves . From the

northern parts of the empire the criminals are sent to the south,

as slaves to the Tartar soldiers . Yuen, the governor of the pro

vince of Yunnan, in 1832 , memorialised the Emperor, complaining

of the vast number of convicts which are annually sent to that

province from Tartary. This is done on account of the unhealth

iness of the climate ; their numbers average 4,500, of whom one

fourth are ignorant of any trade, and must be supported by the

province, which cannot afford it. The annual expense is 4,000

taels .

APPEALS . According to the section 332 of the penal code, all

subjects of the empire, soldiers or citizens, who have complaints to

make, must address themselves , in the first instance, to the lowest

tribunal of justice within the district to which they belong. Sec

tion 341 provides, that "in all cases of adultery, robbery, frauds,

breach of laws concerning landed property, pecuniary contracts, or

of any such offences, committed by or against individuals in the

military class , or if the people are implicated in any way, the

military commanding officer and the civil magistrate shall have

joint jurisdiction ."

Chang-ling, who was prime minister in 1830 , was fined to the

amount of one year's salary, for permitting a petition to be handed

to the emperor in person, although the petition was from a soldier

of the body-guard .

A memorial from the captains of infantry who had charge of

the city gates, complains of the vast number of petitioners who

have lately resorted to Peking . The memorialists attribute the

number of appeals to the perverseness of the people, and the

neglect of duty in the local officers, so that women and girls of

160 SUBSTITUTES FOR MURDERERS .

tender age travel thousands of miles to obtain redress . To cure

this growing evil, the captains have suggested that all petitioners

coming to Peking, without previously laying their case before their

own governor, be punished ; that, should their case be unjustly

decided, those who have tried it be likewise punished .

It is evident that the numerous appeals arise from the delay in

obtaining justice . The Emperor, in approving of a magistrate in

the province of Hoopih, who had disposed of 1,000 cases within

the year, in which the parties had appealed to superior courts,

says, " what must the number be throughout the empire ?" His

Majesty added , " that unjust decisions must be the cause of só

many appeals being brought forward . Hereafter, let all governors

of provinces issue strict orders that all appeals be disposed of as

soon as they are presented . If they are allowed to accumulate in

future, report to me ."

A case occurred in 1829, in the province of Keangse, and on

examining into the appeal it appeared, that two substitutes had

been found for the real murderers, who were bribed to undergo

the sentence of death in their stead .

On an appeal to Peking against two magistrates, for torturing

the appellant's father to death by a false accusation, they were

sentenced to transportation with hard labour.

A widow of Foo -keen, after appealing in vain for four years to

the local authorities for redress for the murder of her son , sent her

nephew to Peking. The case was attended to , but the court was

unable to comprehend him owing to his local dialect. The fact

was, that the robbers belonged to such a powerful gang, that the

authorities dare not take them up.

The governor of the two Kwang provinces, interdicts women

from presenting memorials or appeals, and old men appearing as

witnesses. " How can old men, in the evening of life, become wit

nesses ? But, among the people of Canton, there exists a litigious

spirit. Now, as old men cannot be punished, these seditious cha

racters hire them as witnesses . As the punishment of crimes

cannot be inflicted on women, they send young delicate females

openly into the halls of justice . You, magistrates, must examine

into the matter ; question both parties and find out the bribery:

and inflict severe punishment. If people stop my chair in order to

force a petition into it, I will seize the presenter and punish him

severely ; let them go to the inferior courts ."

In 1821 , the crew of H. M.'s ship Topaz had an affray with

the inhabitants of Lintin, when two Chinese were killed . Two

years after this transaction , the brother of one of the men who

was killed, visited Peking to complain against the authorities in

Canton, particularly Howqua, whom he charged with receiving a

bribe from the foreigners . The case was referred to the emperor,

who sent the appellant back to Canton, with an order to the go

vernor to enquire into the affair. The governor reported, that the

accusation was false ; and, according to law, the appellant is guilty

TI

REDEMPTION FROM CRIMES . 161

of false accusation , and sentenced to be banished 2,000 miles

distance from his native place,

OATHS. The form of an oath is dispensed with in their courts

of justice. Still the people consider an oath as a most solemn

engagement. The man who persists in a denial or affirmation of

a fact, is led by the parties who are interested to a temple which is

completely darkened . He then denounces against himself the

most dreadful imprecations, invoking both heaven and earth to

witness . After this he cuts off the head of a fowl, and, while the

blood is streaming, repeats his former words, devoting himself to

destruction if he does not speak the truth . Any man that has

gone through this ordeal is held in superstitious dread and ab

horrence ; and this is the reason why oaths of this kind are seldom

resorted to. Oaths, however, are freely administered amongst the

various secret societies . The novitiates are sworn to abjure all

human ties, to merge their family feelings, and, if necessary for

the objects of the society, to abandon their names and country.

An oath common among the people, consists in pointing with

the finger to a near object, and saying, as sure as this exists, so

true are my statements .

The following table exhibits a scale of pecuniary redemption

from crimes, which, by an edict of Keenlung, is acted on in

China :

Rank of the Party offending . Sentence. Pecuniary

Commutation.

Ozs. of Silver.

An officer above the 4th rank • 12.000

"" of the 4th rank 5.000

Death by

"" of the 5th or 6th rank 4.000

Strangula

‫ور‬ of the 7th, or any infe tion or

rior rank, or a doctor of literature 2.500

Decollation .

A graduate or licentiate 2.000

A private individual 1.200

An officer above the 4th rank 7.200

‫رو‬ of the 4th rank 3.000

‫در‬ of the 5th or 6th rank • 2.400

Perpetual

"} of the 7th, or any infe

Banishment

rior rank, or a doctor of literature 1.500

A graduate or licentiate 1.200

A private individual 0.720

An officer above the 4th rank 4.800

‫رد‬ of the 4th rank Temporary 2.000

‫در‬ of the 5th or 6th rank • Banishment 1.600

A graduate or licentiate or Blows . 0.800

A private individual 0.480

M

162 NUMBER OF CAPITAL PUNISHMENTS .

Strangulation is performed by tying a man with his back to a

THE CARTHE FIR post, around which and his neck a rope is drawn tight and twisted

by a winch. This mode of execution is considered the least dis

graceful in China . Section 422 of the penal code prescribes a

punishment of sixty blows to any magistrate who substitutes,

wilfully, this punishment for beheading. The smallest crime for

which a sentence of strangulation is pronounced, is a third con

viction of stealing, and defacing the brand-marks inflicted by the

two former convictions .

The criminal code provides that no execution shall take place

during the first or sixth moons in any year. Europeans, who have

been long resident in Canton, have never been able to ascertain

the exact number of executions that have taken place, as the

Peking Gazette only occasionally publishes the total number fixed

by the Emperor. In March 1817 there were twenty-four men

beheaded in Canton, and five days after eighteen more . Executions

in Canton excite little or no interest, from their frequent occur

rence, and the crimes for which so many suffer are rarely or ever

made public .

The Peking Gazette, of October 1817, states the number of

warrants signed by the Emperor was 925, of which 135 belonged

to the province of Canton . The whole of these were minor of

fences only, which awaited the autumnal decision . All offences

of a serious nature have the penalty of execution performed before

the Emperor is informed of it, notwithstanding the law.

A maniac who killed his father was punished with death, in the

province of Hoonan, although he was proved to be deranged

several years .

The number of autumnal death-warrants, in 1826, was 581 .

The same gazette states that a Tartar soldier, who had killed his

mother, had been handed over to the privileged tribe to which he

belonged, to be dealt with as they thought proper. In 1828, a

young female was cut in a thousand pieces, for poisoning her

mother-in-law ; her husband was compelled to witness the scene,

and shed tears at this butcherly sight. For this display of feeling

he was instantly sentenced to wear the cangue a month, and re

ceive fifty blows . There is no exhibition of feeling allowed where

the death of a father or mother is vindicated .

The total number of executions in Canton , in 1829, was 190, of

which 130 were executed without any reference being made to the

Emperor, and sixty died by imperial warrant .

At the autumnal sittings of 1828 there were ordered for execu

tion 782, of which the single province of Szechuen had 112 marked

for execution .

The succeeding year the number published was 579, of which

the above province had 104. In 1833 the number executed, in

Canton, was 156 .

On a recent occasion , the Emperor having gone through the cus

tomary form of fasting and prayer, received, in autumn, the list of

PERIODIC READING OF THE LAWS . 163

criminals sentenced to death, from the hands of Muhchangah,

the prime minister. In presence of the ministers of the cabinet,

the members of the privy council, and the president and officers of

the board of punishments, the following number was marked off in

eight successive days, for execution, viz.: for Turkestan, 4 ; Yun

nan, 28 ; Kwiechoo , 11 ; Szechuen . 125 ; Kwang-tung (Canton) ,

25 ; Kwangsee, 10 ; Foo-keen, 9 ; Leaoutung, 21 ; Kan-suh and

Shense provinces, 26 ; Chekeang, 14 ; Keangse, 20 ; Hookwang,

49 ; Keangsoo, 25 ; Ganhwuy, 23 ; Honan, 29 ; Shan-tung 29 ;

Shanse, 24 ; Chih-le, 17 ; Jehol, 4 ; and Peking, 13. This list

only shows the number who have accumulated during the whole

year, and on whose behalf mercy has been sought in vain . Total, 506.

A proclamation from governor Loo, in the Peking_Gazette,

against exhumation, states that the law is as follows : " To open a

grave and see the coffin, shall be punished by perpetual banishment.

To open the coffin and see the corpse, death by strangulation . To

carry off the body and demand a ransom, death by immediate

decapitation, both for principals and accomplices . At the north

gate of Canton city, where many are buried , there are three classes

of resurrection men. First, those who open graves and break the

coffins of their foes from revenge and malice ! 2nd , those who` do

so to strip the dead bodies of their ornaments ; and 3rd, those who

carry off the dead to obtain ransom . These are crimes sufficient

to make the hairs of one's head stand on end. The law shall be

strictly enforced without mercy ."

Every city has its town hall, where the laws are periodically read

to the people .

The Sacred Edict, containing sixteen maxims of the Emperor

Kanghe, is by statute required to be proclaimed throughout the

empire, by the local officers , on the first and fifteenth of every

moon. The maxims are as follows :

1st. Pay just regard to filial and fraternal duties, in order to give

due importance to the relations of life .

2nd . Respect kindred, in order to display the excellence of har

mony.*

3rd. Let concord abound among those who dwell in the same

neighbourhood , in order to prevent litigations.

4th . Give the chief place to husbandry and the culture of the

mulberry tree, in order to procure adequate supplies of food and

raiment.

5th. Hold economy in estimation, in order to prevent the lavish

waste of money .

6th. Magnify academical learning, in order to direct the scholar's

progress .

7th. Degrade all strange religions, in order to exalt the orthodox

doctrinc .

* There are not more than 100 family names in the empire.

M 2

164 IMPERIAL MAXIMS .

8th. Explain the laws, in order to warn the ignorant and ob

stinate.

9th . Illustrate the principles of a polite and yielding carriage, in

order to improve manners .

10th. Attend to the essential employments, in order to give un

varying determination to the will of the people.

11th . Instruct the youth, in order to prevent them from doing

evil.

12th. Suppress all false accusing, in order to secure protection

to the innocent .

13th. Warn those who hide deserters, that they may not be in

volved in their downfall.

14th. Complete the payment of taxes, in order to prevent fre

quent urging.

15th . Settle animosities, that lives may be duly valued .

16th . Unite the paou and kea, in order to extirpate robbery and

theft .*

The following case illustrates in some points the nature of Chinese

law and justice :-A French merchant vessel was wrecked on the

coast of Cochin China, in 1829, but the crew were saved . The

10

captain hired a Chinese junk to convey his crew, thirteen in number,

to Macao. In the progress of their journey the Chinese murdered

every man of the crew, except one Italian, Francisco Mangiapan,

who escaped by swimming to a Chinese boat, which brought him

to Macao. The Chinese authorities displayed the most laudable

anxiety to discover the murderers, and offered fifty dollars for the

detection of each, and a monthly allowance of three taels to the

Italian, and a present of 100 dollars . The whole gang were taken,

tried, and condemned, and due notice was given to all foreigners

resident in Canton, that the government would confront the mur

derers with Francisco in the Hong merchants' hall on a certain day,

that they might be present.

On the day of trial, the prisoners arrived, each in a separate cage ;

about three feet long, two wide, and three deep, with chains round

their necks, legs, and wrists . One of the prisoners, a native of

Foo-keen, appeared most anxious to communicate with some person

who understood his dialect . A foreign gentleman who was pre

sent, ascertained from him, that from the torture he had undergone

he confessed to a guilty knowledge of the crime, but wished to

recant that plea. The prisoners were brought before the judge

three at a time, and put on their knees . Francisco was attended

by a Portuguese interpreter, and with very little hesitation he fully

identified all the murderers . In his first statement, one of the

crew was described as not having taken any part in the massacre ;

* " The law of the paou and the kea." Ten families form a kea, and ten kea

constitute a paou. Every kea has its elder, and every paou its chief. A register is

prepared, and the names of all must be enrolled.

THE PEKING , OR GOVERNMENT GAZETTE . 165

but on the contrary, early intimated to the French captain their

murderous intention . Francisco described him minutely, by a

mark on his face. When the prisoner who spoke to the foreigner

was brought forward, Francisco instantly pointed him out as his

deliverer, and regardless of the consequence or presence ofgovernment,

gave vent to the intensity of his gratitude by embracing him with

all the warmth and ardour so peculiar to his country. The judge

having closely questioned Francisco, appeared fully satisfied, so the

sentence was respited for banishment. Seventeen men suffered

for the murder, and the French consul received 3,000 dollars

made up from property which the malefactors possessed in their

own right, but was confiscated ; their relations were mulcted out

of 150,000 dollars, by the various officers. The subsequent con-

fession of the pardoned culprit, discloses an extraordinary fact, that

six of those that suffered death were bought substitutes.

The Press. Government communicates its orders and transmits

information through a Peking Gazette, called king-paou ; (king

great, and paou to report) , which is published by government and

circulated in every province, entirely for the use of officers of go

vernment ; its indiscriminate circulation is contrary to law. The

Gazette at all times contains curious information, by which we

are made acquainted with the machinery of the government. The

chief contents of each number is taken up with rewards to meritor

ious officers, the degradation of others, memorials, disasters attend

ing the rivers, &c.; impeachments and proclamations occupy a

great portion of it : these documents are all signed, Taoukwang,

‫در‬

(Reason's Glory) , as with us in the form of " God save the Queen .'

All licentious books are prohibited, but the law is a dead letter,

and they have a wide range. Works on sorcery, witchcraft, and

divination, (except those branches sanctioned by the government) ,

are interdicted, and the authors and printers are liable to lose their

lives . Political subjects are not to be discussed . The government

publishes all political works, and only permits their circulation

amongst the officers . The code of laws is an exception to this ge

neral rule ; at the rate of two dollars 24 volumes are circulated, so

that no person may plead ignorance of the laws . Dr. Gutzlaff had

the goodness to translate into the general printed character of the

Chinese language- my " Analysis of the Bible," or code of social

ethics ; it has not been interdicted by the government, and is now

in extensive circulation throughout the whole empire.

Secret Sects. - The Tartar rulers of China are continually dis

turbed by the discovery of secret sects and associations in different 1

provinces . The vigilance with which the present Emperor per

secutes all those societies is accounted for thus ; his father's life

was attempted by one of those sects, and only preserved by the

valor of his present majesty. The various disturbances that have

lately occurred in Shanse province, and Hoonan, have been traced

to a society called " Heaven and Earth." In the province of

166 SECRET SOCIETIES .

Foo-keen a sect called the " Tea Society " is considered most

dangerous . Soldiers and police join these sects ; the novitiates ,

it is said, go through a ceremony of drinking each other's blood

mixed with water.

The disorganized state of society, and the conduct of the police

and petty officers in the country, may also be gathered from "a

memorial to the Emperor, showing the daily increase of enervation

and degeneracy in the province of Kwang-tung," & c., in 1838 .

" 1st. In the department of police, no negligence or indolence

must be suffered ; all judicial cases must be speedily attended to

and determined ; then will peace dwell in the abodes of the people,

and the instigators of strife be checked.

(C Many are the cases of plunder that are from time to time

brought forward in the province of Kwang-tung ; and of these a

large number are attributable to unlawful associations . Bands of

men combine and join together, under the designations of Teente

Brotherhoods , Triad Societies, and such like. They carry off*

persons in order to extort ransoms for them ; they falsely assume

the character of policemen ; they clandestinely build fast-pulling

boats, professedly to guard the fields of grain, and these they man

with a crew of from ten to twenty people, who cruise along the

rivers, violently plundering the boats of travellers as they pass to

and fro, or forcibly carrying off the wives and daughters of the

tanka boat people. The inhabitants of the villages and hamlets

fear these robbers as they would tigers, and do not offer them

any resistance, lest they should draw down their resentment . The

husbandman, when he has received a field to plant and ready for

culture, must take the precaution of paying these robbers a charge,

which is called procuring an indemnity,―else, as soon as the crop is

ripe, it is plundered, and the whole field laid bare. In the precincts of

the metropolis, where their contiguity to the civil and military

tribunals prevents them from committing violent depredations in

open day, they set fire to places during the night, their aim being,

under pretence, during the conflagration, of saving and defending,

to avail themselves of opportunities to plunder and carry off. Hence,

of late years, calamitous fires have greatly increased in frequency.

The local officers have treated these merely as common accidental

fires . And robbers, finding that they could thus act with impunity,

have added to the irregularity of their doings .

" In cases of petty altercations, or of more serious disputes,

among the people themselves - as the uneducated villagers adhere

closely to the use of local dialects, it consequently rests entirely

with the clerks and under- officers to interpret the evidence . When

the judicial officer, whose duty it is to hear and determine, is in the

slightest degree lax and inattentive, the attendants and servants

of the court have the evidence pre- arranged, and join with bullies

and strife-makers to subvert right and wrong- fattening themselves

upon bribes extorted under the names of ' notes or memoranda of

OFFICIAL CORRUPTION AND OPPRESSION . 167

Tins GND

the complaints,' ' purchases of replies, ' and so forth ; retarding in

definitely the decision of cases, and even instigating thieves to bring

false accusations against the good ; who, ere a true judgment is

elicited, and the stolen effects are recovered, are already ruined and

deprived of all their property. While the officers of government

and people are thus kept apart and separated, how can it be other

wise than that appeals to higher tribunals should be incessant, and

that instigation of strife and perseverance in litigation should

prevail ?

" It behoves, therefore, that a declaration of the imperial plea

sure should be solicited, commanding the governor and lieutenant

governor of Kwang-tung to issue orders to the magistrates through

out the province, to apprehend the lawless, and give security to the

good ; and with severity to seize all who are joined in illegal asso

ciations, sending them to the metropolis, that they may be openly

punished, and that like proceedings may be interdicted . By these

means, masters will be led to command their families ; and these

will have knowledge to be deterred from being seduced to attach

themselves to such associations . Whenever any case of plunder

arises, the magistrates should make personal investigation, followma

ing the traces till they succeed in apprehending the thieves ; they

should not seek, by disregard of the matter, to avoid censure for

ill- success . When fires break out among the abodes of the people,

the magistrates should ascertain how they originated,. and should

not be allowed to assume indifference, and so let the matter pass

off. As soon as complaints, or appeals , are brought before them,

they should immediately give their personal attention to the inves

tigation, and, if true, should inflict punishment with strictness ; if

unfounded, should visit with like punishment the false accusers .

They should not give the rein to the clerks and attendants of the

courts, lest their so doing should result in a want of truth or of

perfect justice. In this way it may be expected to clear off the

judicial cases, to settle long-delayed litigations, and gradually to

bring to an end habits of plunder and robbery ; and thus it may

be hoped that the people will be enabled to rest upon their beds

in peace .

(6

2ndly. The magistrates of districts, when collecting the taxes,

whether of money or of grain, must not overrate the amount due,

with a view of deducting from it, nor suffer the excise officers to

connive at non- payment .

" If the taxes be overrated, each individual will entertain schemes

whereby he may hope to avoid payment, and the result will be,

opposition to the collectors, and defalcation of the revenue. If

non-payment be connived at, debts from the people to the revenue

will accumulate, and still increase, and the consequences must be

that bribery will become necessary, in order to obtain continued

delay.

The province of Kwangtung, in place of its original contribution

168 TRIAD SOCIETY, ORIGIN .

!

to the supplies conveyed to the court, has for a long time past paid

the tax of grain, due from it, in money, which, after being collected,

is remitted to the provincial treasury, under the charge of the

financial and territorial commissioner. The people have always

attended to agriculture, and have not failed gladly to discharge

this tax. But it is said, that, of late years, whilst inundations and

drought have in no small degree afflicted the land, causing very

scanty harvests, the magistrates when levying the tax of grain,

have rated the price of it as high as six or seven taels for a sheih

M

of 120 catties.* The common people are not possessed of abund

ant wealth, and cannot sustain being thus peeled and scraped ; con

sequently, the clerks and tax collectors, and village bullies, have

received bribes to shelter them and to let them pass free of pay

ment. And hence, old debts and new levies conjointly press upon

them, and remain alike unpaid.

" It behoves, therefore, that a declaration of the imperial plea

sure be solicited, commanding that strict orders be issued to all

the magistrates, that whenever the tax on grain has to be collected ,

they shall, previously to the collection , issue proclamations through

¿ out every city, village, and market-place, declaring what is the legal

amount leviable as the price of the grain-contribution , upon each

acre of arable land, and commanding the payment thereof within

a time named ; adding, also, that the clerks and tax-gatherers are

not permitted to extort fees, or to receive any surplus above the

legal amount ; that if any persons venture to undertake such exac

tions, in opposition to the commands so issued, they shall be strictly

apprehended and punished . At the same time, these orders must

not be stretched to involve the unoffending . All debts incurred

prior to the year 1835 , have, by a gracious declaration of the im

perial pleasure, received full remission ; which fact should be made

known by appending to the magistrates' proclamation a copy, on

yellow paper, of the imperial commands. Thus will be attained

the certainty, that the village husbandmen and field labourers.

are all fully aware of, and thoroughly imbued, by the sovereign's

benevolence and any semblance of sanction will be removed from

an undistinguishing enforcement of the payment of these remitted

debts. Such measures as these will produce, in place of a tardy,

a most ready and joyful payment of the taxes. "

The Triad Society.-This society excites great interest, as its

object is stated to be the overthrow of the Tartar dynasty, and

the restoration of the Chinese, which two centuries ago, was dis

possessed by the Tartar race . Dr. Gutzlaff found some of their

papers, and has translated them. They consist of songs used at

the initiation of new members, and of the oath taken by the

novices. The societies take their beginning from a war between

the Manchoos and the Suloos, towards the close of the seventeenth

* The sheih is legally rated at from three or four tacks.

ORGANIZATION OF THE TRIADS . 169

century. For many years the Triads have maintained a bold

struggle with the usurping government ; but in 1736, they were

dispersed into various parts of the empire, having previously

agreed upon certain signs by which they might be known to each

other, until the day of vengeance shall arrive, when they are all

to march to Nankin, and establish the ancient Chinese dynasty

upon the throne . From that time to the present, they have main

tained a secret organization, somewhat like the Freemasons of

Europe, divided into lodges, and connected by certain signs only

known to themselves, such as certain passwords, or modes of

putting a question, the manner of placing cups and dishes on the

table, of putting on a garment, of saluting, &c.

Meetings are held often by night, in secluded places ; blood is

mingled and burnt with incense on an altar ; a cock is frequently

sacrificed, vows of fidelity are renewed, traitors denounced, and

vengeance declared, which is rarely unfulfilled . Men frequently

join these societies for protection, and seek the strongest body to

enrol their names.

The society is rapidly extending to all the lower classes, and

Dr. Gutzlaff thinks that should they ever join the other numerous

political societies forming in every part of the empire, against all

barbarian encroachments, their resistance would be very for

midable.

The manifesto, of which a translation is subjoined , was found in

the English burial ground, at Macao, in the year 1828 .

It is discovered to be a kind of oath or speeeh, which is used

by a secret society, whose object is to expel the present, to them

hateful dynasty, from the throne . There can be no doubt that

these affiliated and formidable associations pervade all parts of

China ; members of them are said to be in every public office.

" Manifesto to invite an Army."

" Ist. Illustrious, illustrious, the middle nation : vast, vast, the

celestial empire .

2nd. A thousand states offered her tribute ; ten thousand nations

attended her court.

3rd . The Hoo-men usurped and seized her : resentment for this

it is impossible to suppress .

4th . Invite soldiers, buy horses-high respond the flowery bridge.

5th . Arise, soldiers, uplift the pike ; destroy and exterminate the

‫رو‬

Tsing dynasty.'

The 152nd section of the penal code, provides punishment

for magicians, and teachers of false doctrines ; 255 for rebel

lion : this clause extends to Tartar subjects, as well as to

other subjects of the empire, to all religious associations , but

particularly to the " Heaven and Earth society," of Foo-keen : 256

170 DENOUNCEMENT OF SECRET SOCIETIES .

to sorcery and magic ; the 266th section awards death to all, of

any party whose number shall amount to a hundred and more, who

meet to plan or commit robbery.

The commentator (Shing-Yu), on the Sacred Edict, given at

page 163, cautions the people against attending religious meetings,

which he designates as nonsensical and mischievous ; such as

keeping fasts, and building temples, and which things, he says, are

got up by the priests of Budha and Taou to deceive. It appears,

that the objection government have to religious assemblies is

founded on the tendency they all have to combine against the

Mantchoo dynasty. Sir G. Staunton states, that in the provinces

inhabited by Tartars, half a dozen natives cannot meet without a

clamour against their rulers. Amongst the most numerous of the

illegal societies are the Water-lily sect, who about the beginning

of this century, revolted in four provinces, Hoopih, Kausuh , Shense,

and Szechuen, which comprise a population of upwards of

80,000,000 ; the rebellion was not suppressed for nearly nine

years.

In 1813 , this society again broke out, and attacked the Emperor,

Keaking, in his palace, at Peking, whose life was only preserved

by the great courage displayed by his second son, the present

Emperor. The first edict issued denounced the guilty sect ; but the

magistrates, to exhibit their loyalty spared no society except the

Budhists, and advantage was taken of this opportunity to prosecute

the numerous Christians and their missionaries, who were expelled

from Peking. This period might be called the reign of terror, as

very many of the innocent suffered for the guilty. The greedy

mandarins and underlings tortured and extorted with impunity.

The state of the empire from these proceedings cannot be better

exhibited, than by giving some extracts from a manifesto from the

Emperor, which appeared in the Peking Gazette, of 13th November,

1814, " This moment great degeneracy prevails ; the magistrates

are destitute of truth, and a great portion of the people are false

and deceitful. There is little of conscience or shame in their hearts.

They enjoy the sweets of office, and carelessly spend their days :

it is monstrously strange."

After some unsuccessful attempts, the society adapted another

name, called , the " Triad Society, or Heaven , Earth, and Man,"

which according to the Chinese doctrine of the universe, are the

three great powers of nature . There are other societies called

the " Flood Family," and " Queen of Heaven's Company," these arc

numerous in the Chinese colonies, and Singapore and Borneo, &c.

The Peking Gazette of June, 1816, is much taken up with pro

ceedings against a secret society called the " Pure Tea Sect," the

leader of which had been put to death . In 1817, a member of the

imperial family was discovered to be connected with one of those

societies, and degraded . Governor Yuen, about this period ,

apprehended upwards of 2000 members of a secret society in

BANKING AND CURRENCY . 171

Canton . In 1818, a large number of families were implicated in

Peking, but on making a full confession were forgiven . In 1824,

a society was discovered in Shan-tung, and upwards of 500 appre

hended ; another in Soochaw, was this year scattered, by the

increased vigilance of the authorities . In 1827, a serious disturb

ance occurred at the Meiling Pass, in which a magistrate was

killed ; also at Leenchaw, this year, the inhabitants were plundered

of all their moveable property, including rice- crops, &c. A censor

reports, that the local magistrates are in dread of punishing the

members when brought before them : the Emperor in answer ordered

the military to take up the matter.

In 1831 , the Emperor ordered proclamations to be issued offer

ing free pardon to all who would recant, and give up their conThey

nexion with those societies. The Governor of Canton, in a kind of

answer to his majesty, suggests a mode that has been tried in four

districts of the province with success, viz . giving them waste lands

rent free. The emperor has consented to this plan, but desires

that tax-gatherers and underlings may not be allowed to oppress

them, also that free schools should be established among them ; and

that strict attention be paid to the half monthly reading of the

Sacred Edict ; in order to incite them to the practice of virtue.

The conclusion at which I have arrived, after an attentive exami

nation of the whole of the question respecting the government of

China, is that it is corrupt to the core, and losing control over

the nation, which is held together by habit, -by the natural love

of the people for order and peace,-by the associations, interests,

and feelings which more or less pervade every large and long

established community . But this will be a subject for future dis

cussion .

CHAPTER V.

BANKING AND CURRENCY.

THE trade in money , in China , is carried on by bankers, assayers

of the mint, and money-changers, whose establishments are com

prized under the general term of " money-shops :" their occupation

is similar to that of like establishments in Europe. The money

shops in China are generally private establishments, composed of

one or more individuals, with equal or unequal shares in the busi

ness . Sometimes only one name is used, although there are seve

ral partners in the firm. They receive money in deposit at one

172 BANKING LAWS . - INTEREST .

rate of interest, and lend out at another ; they advance money on

good security, and deal in gold, silver, and native and foreign coin.

They discount either their own bills, or those of their connexions

in business, with whom they are on a footing of reciprocity. In

Canton they do not issue notes payable on demand ; but in other

large cities in the north, such notes are in circulation, often with a

great many endorsements on them. They, however, only circulate

in the places where they are issued , or in their immediate vicinity.

The notes issued by the bankers rise and fall in value according to

the demand for them. On our occupation of Ningpo, they rose in

value, as the people wished to carry off their property, and our

troops did not think it worth while to seize pieces of paper. The

confidence reposed in large banks is unlimited : a low-class China

man will cheat for a " cash," but the higher class, in large dealings,

are scrupulously honest. The bankers receive deposits drawable

at will of the depositor, when no interest is allowed ; or they take

money at interest, not exceeding one per cent . per month, in which

case timely notice must be given before any portion of it can be

withdrawn. At Shanghai, on a deposit of 100 taels of silver, inte

rest is allowed at the rate of seven mace per month : on a loan of

the same amount effected, the rate of interest is fifteen mace per

month : loans are effected to any amount. One bank in Shanghai,

whose books I minutely examined, seemed very methodically con

ducted . The highest lawful interest is three per cent. per month ;

but this is seldom obtained without considerable risk, except by

pawnbrokers. When money is deposited, a receipt for it is given,

in which the terms upon which it is deposited are stated .

Agreements to receive money at compound interest are unlaw

ful ; but when the interest is to be added to the principal, the ori

ginal receipt is cancelled, and a new one given, the aggregate being

considered as the principal, at single interest . This may be done

monthly, annually, or at any other periods, according to agree

ment.

By the Chinese law, three per cent. per month thirty -six per

annum, is the limited rate, and whatever the period upon which

interest is due at the day of repayment, no more can be received

or demanded than the original sum lent, and the lawful interest

thereon, to an amount not exceeding the principal. Debtors not

fulfilling their agreements are punished by blows, or by banish

ment, to a given extent, according to the amount of the debts ; the

blows to be repeated from month to month .

Bills of exchange, and promissory notes, circulate : these are

either payable at sight, or within a given period after sight, in which

latter case they are regularly accepted ; and lastly, they are some

times made payable at a fixed period . A certain sort of promissory

notes is in use among the Chinese at Canton, which do not pass

through the hands of more than three or four persons, all of whom

are well acquainted with each other. In lieu of endorsing the

BANK NOTES . — EXCHANGES . 173

original note in the manner customary in Europe, they attach a

piece of paper to it, in which they assign the reason why it has

been handed over to another person instead of money : at maturity

the holder does not apply for payment to the drawer, but to him

from whom he has received the bill ; and thus each endorser pro

ceeds , until at last it reaches the drawer ; or the three or four per

sons whose names are on the endorsement, including the actual

holder of the bill, call together on the drawer for payment : this

latter mode is considered the most simple and effectual. The

Chinese in Canton , therefore, do not consider promissory notes so

much as an accommodation, but rather as a security for the pay

ment of money. The discount charged on such bills varies accord

ing to the scarcity or abundance of money in the market, but

would rarely exceed one per cent . per month. Money can be

transmitted through the banks from Canton to those places with

which they stand in relations of business, and this is effected either

by credit or bills of exchange, at a cost of about half, one, two, or

three per cent . , according to distance. Many of the banks, how

ever, only confine their transactions to Canton, and the adjoining

province of Kwangse . Some have correspondents in one or two

other provinces, but the connexions of only a few extend beyond

those limits. At Foochoo, the capital of the Foo-keen province,

banks are numerous, and paper notes almost the sole circulating

medium . The lowest notes I obtained at Foochoo were for 400

cash, about a quarter of a dollar ; some notes are issued in the

northern cities as high as 30,000 taels, or 35,000 dollars. Money

was safely remitted for our consulates by native bankers between

Amoy and Foochoo . The cost for sending 9950 dollars from Soo

choo (the large city of which Shanghai is the port) to Canton, is

fifty dollars . The bank which possesses most credit at Canton is

said to be that of Anshing, whose correspondence is chiefly with

Nanking and Peking ; and it is said that his intercourse with these

places is as regular, if not more so, than that of government .

On placing funds in a bank, the depositor is furnished with a

pass-book, and whenever he draws for money, he sends his book

to the bank, where the sum paid is entered in the same. It ap-

pears that when the pass-book is lost, there is a great difficulty in

recovering the money which has not been drawn for . The larger

bank establishments have branches in some of the principal places

of trade connected with Canton. The bankers take each others'

notes where there is an understanding between them to that effect :

failures of banks are of rare occurrence. None of the persons, vari

ously employed in banking business, are responsible to, or in any

way connected with the government, except the government shroffs,

or assayers of the Mint. Every public officer, superintending any

branch of the revenue, employs one of these shroffs to receive the

taxes and duties, with the addition of a fixed allowance for loss in

melting ; and the shroff having reduced them to sycee silver (in

174 ANCIENT PAPER MONEY .

which state only they are received by the imperial treasury) ; he

becomes responsible for the purity thereof.

The establishments thus connected with the government are

licensed, and remunerated by a certain allowance for waste, which

always exceeds the amount actually required. Taxes are generally

handed over to them by the public departments ; and duties of im

port and export are paid into their banks by the merchants from

whom they are owing ; in which latter case the banker grants a re

ceipt for the amount, accompanied by a certificate that it shall be

paid to the government within a certain period . The refined silver

is generally cast into bars of the form of a horse shoe, and stamped

with the banker's name, and the date when it was refined . Any

deception on the part of the assayer, at whatever distance of time

discovered, is liable to severe punishment . The following details of

the progress of paper money may interest :-in the year 119 B.C.,

paper money was used by the Chinese ; sometimes a nominal cur

rency was issued on pieces of skin a foot square, or on pasteboard ;

in the Hung Dynasty, A.D. 807, the currency was more regular,

and copper only used for coining . Contributions were obliged to

be made to the treasury, for which "the Sian," voluntary money,

was issued ; A.D. 960, notes were issued for merchandize deposited

in the public treasuries - like pawnbrokers ' duplicates : they were

called " pianthsian," or accommodation money, were everywhere

negotiable, made on paper a foot square, with their current value

stamped on them, and had an official seal . Subsequently a system of

cheques (tchilse) were issued to replace the heavy iron coinage used.

About the tenth century a better system of banking was intro

duced ; bills of exchange (kiao-tse changes) were issued, payable

every three years. 2 The kiao-tsee, is one ounce of silver, or 1,000

cash. About the eleventh century the public creditors were paid

by the issue of notes, or contracts in nominal value, varying from

200 to 1,000 cash. The extent to which these were issued towards

the close of the century, is stated to have been 28,000,000 ounces

of silver . Different provinces, also, issued their own paper, and a

great monetary confusion arose.

Marco Polo, the Venetian traveller, who resided in China upwards

of twenty years, about the year A.D. 1256, thus describes the mode

in which paper money was then made and issued by the emperor,

or grand khan, in the city of Kambalu ( Pekin) . The bark is strip

ped from a tree (the mulberry) , on the leaves of which the silk-worm

feeds . It is first well soaked in water, then pounded in a mortar

into a pulpy consistence, and then made into paper of a dark

colour, which is cut into oblong pieces of different sizes, and of the

respective values of a denier tournais of 1 , 2, 5, and 10 Venetian

groats, and 1 , 2, 3, and as high as 10 besants of gold. These notes

are signed by special officers, and stamped with the emperor's seal,

which attaches value to it . The penalty for forgery is death . This

CIRCULATION OF PAPER MONEY . 175

paper money is circulated throughout the empire, and any article

can be procured by those who have this money.

Several times throughout the year, large caravans of merchants

arrive at Peking, with pearls, jewels, and gold tissues, which they lay

before his majesty . Twelve valuers are then sent by the emperor,

to fix the price of the goods, which are then paid for in this paper

money. Should the caravans happen to be from a distant empire,

they make no objection, as they invest the whole amount in mer

chandize suited to their own markets .

When these notes are damaged from use, they are exchanged at

the Mint for new ones at the charge of three per cent. The holders of

these notes could obtain gold or silver for them at any time, by ap

plying to the Mint, provided it was for having the bullion manu

factured into ornaments, drinking cups, &c. The armies of the

empire were paid with this currency .

One of the government notes extant, issued during the Ming

dynasty, has the following on one half of the note :

“ At the petition of the treasury board, it is ordained that paper

money thus marked with the imperial seal of the Ming, shall have

currency and be used in all respects as if it were copper money ;

whoever disobeys will have his head cut off."

Paper money continued to be used, or rather abused, in China.

under the Moguls ; and Klaproth states that when they were driven

from China, they had ruined it by their paper money. The Ming

dynasty revived the paper currency, recalled the old, and issued

new notes for 100 to 1,000 cash, and tried to keep up their value

by forbidding traffic in gold or silver ; but the value of the notes

declined in 1448 to three cash of copper for 1,000 cash paper. In

1455 the Government decreed the taxes to be paid in paper money,

metal money was forbidden ; but the nominal government cur

rency gradually declined or passed away, and since then the people

will not trust the government with the issue of paper money.

The founder of the Ming dynasty in China, Hung-woo, issued

large quantities of paper money ; the dynasty which the Emperor

destroyed, Yuen (who were Mongol Tartars) had also a great deal

of paper money in use.

There had also been paper money in circulation 140 years pre

vious to this, under the dynasty of Kin (oriental Tartars), who

reigned in the northern provinces of China and Tartary.

It does not appear that any of the native Chinese dynasties,

which reigned in the southern provinces of China, resorted to this

mode of raising supplies ; but it was generally adopted by the

usurpers, for obvious reasons .

In imitation of Spanish dollars, the reigning Emperor, not long ago

issued pieces of money, nearly equal in weight, but of finer silver, with

which the troops are paid ; the coin has on it in the Mantchoo and

Chinese languages, the words " Soldiers' pay." They are cast at

176 METALLIC WEALTH OF CHINA .

Hangchou and at Formosa. Gold bars circulate at a value varying

from 180 to 220 dollars . Private individuals cast the coin called

"cash," as well as the government, but they are continually dimin

ishing them in size, and debasing their quality, although it is felony.

The cash is the smallest coin in the world, there being about

1,000 to 1,500 in a dollar i . e . one-fifth to one- seventh of a farth

ing. Privately casting copper coin is punished with strangulation,

all accessaries in proportion . Other forgeries are punished by

blows, except those for deceiving the sovereign, counterfeiting an

official seal, or the imperial almanac, or the stamps which are used

to authenticate the land or water permits for the conveyance of

salt or tea throughout the empire-for which the punishment is

death. Judging from the constant influx of large quantities of

silver, supplied by the foreign trade for more than a century, with

out any being exported or wrought into plate to any great extent,

the stock of silver hoarded up in China must be very considerable,

notwithstanding the present heavy drain upon this accumulated

treasure, by the large exportation of bullion for opium ; this is also

counterbalanced in some degree by the annual production of the

mines by the importation of bullion and coin from Europe and

South America, and by the savings of thousands of Chinese, scat

tered over the Indian Archipelago, who remit money home for the

support of their parents and relations. It is computed that

400,000,000 dollars passed from Acapulco to Manilla during the

250 years of their intercourse ; of this sum it is estimated that one

fourth passed from Manilla to China. Since 1784, about 100,000,000

dollars have passed from the United States to China. Siam and

Cochin China send large quantities of gold and silver in ingots to

China. Japan , it is estimated, has poured into China during sixty

years of free intercourse, at least 100,000,000 dollars. From all

other sources during the past century, China has received about

50,000,000 dollars. The estimated metallic circulation is 500,000,000

dollars . Silver mines exist in several parts of the empire, some of

which may have been already exhausted and the working of others

prohibited ; but the most extensive mines and those from which a

part of the sycee silver is obtained, are at Fok- shau on the frontiers

of Burmah, and at Sung- sing in Cochin China, on the frontiers of

Kwang-se they are worked by a company of Chinese merchants,

who are said to keep constantly twenty thousand men employed in

the works, which they farm from the crown . The quantity derived

from these mines annually, does not, however, appear to exceed two

millions of taels , or about six hundred thousand pounds sterling.

Gold is said by some to be but little produced in the country. A

small proportion is said to be derived from copper after it has been

melted, and some is obtained from the sand of rivers, by washing.

It is altogether considered as an article of merchandize, and is

bought and sold at the current price, but from its scarcity it has

GOLD AND SILVER VALUES . 177

hitherto been rather dear, one tael of gold being exchanged for

about sixteen taels of silver. The money shops deal in gold .

At Amoy, in June last, I saw a considerable quantity of gold in

ingots offered for sale . The touch was said to be ninety-two ; weight

of fifteen doubloons worth 215 dollars ; fourteen dollars, 33 cents .

per oz., or £2 19s. 8d. Taking our standard gold at ninety-one

and a half touch, and the oz . as fixed by law, at £3 17s . 10d. per

oz., this would show a difference of 18s. 2d. per oz . The opium

ships on the coast used to take gold in payment until they found a

great deception practised . On one occasion 5,000 dollars were

lost. The Loocho islanders bring gold in bars annually, to

Foochoo for trade, when purchasing their yearly investments.

Copper mines are found in all the provinces, but the most produc

tive are those in Wannam, which are worked under the superinten

dence of government . This metal, with the addition of tin, lead,

and spelter, constitutes the coin which forms the circulating medium

in China, commonly called " cash," of which from one thousand to

twelve hundred good ones go to the tael of silver. These " cash"

have a square hole in the centre, for suspending them on a string,

which renders them more portable. Accounts are kept in taels,

mace, candareens, and cash :

10 cash (Chinese name le) 1 candareen .

10 candareens ( "" "" fun) 1 mace.

10 mace "" "" tseen) 1 tael.

The Chinese name for taels, is leang.

Owing to the admixture of many Cochin Chinese cash, with

those in circulation at Canton, there is a difference in the number

of these small coins which are given as an equivalent for the

Spanish dollar . An uncut dollar is valued at seven mace, two

candareens .

Articles of commerce in Canton, are paid for in Spanish dollars,

or in taels of silver . The Chinese at Canton are very fastidious in

the choice of dollars ; rejecting some and choosing others, according

to those more or less popularly preferred . Spanish dollars, with

pillars, especially those in the reign of Charles or Carlos IV., are

the most popular, and often bear a premium ; while on the other

hand, the coin issued by the American states, such as Mexican dolC

lars, are passed with difficulty, even at a discount, varying from

three to six per cent. There is another kind of Spanish dollars,

bearing the stamp letter G. or G. , which denotes their being

coined at the Guadalajara mint, called Kaw-tseen ; these are never

received but at a discount of four and five per cent. The dread of

change which is the characteristic feature in the domestic and

foreign policy of China, has extended its influence to the circulating

medium of the country. The government are determined that its

coffers shall suffer no defalcation by depreciation of currency , and

hence the imperial taxes and duties are required to be paid in pure

N

178 COINING- SPANISH DOLLARS .

silver. Since the increase of foreign trade, the introduction of

dollars has furnished a circulating medium of metal to a limited

extent. The authorities seemed so sensible of the advantages, that

they allowed a coinage of dollars in imitation thereof, but they were

re-issued at a higher rate than the foreign dollars, and in a short

time sank greatly below them, while the foreign money still pre

served its purity. Coining dollars is now disallowed by the laws,

but the common report is, that they are still manufactured in the

district of Shunlih, south of Canton ; it is said, as many as one hun

dred workmen are employed in one establishment . These coiners

practice great deceptions, and are said to have obtained European

stamps at a considerable expense : their dollars are in common cir

culation, and natives of this district are selected as shroffs, or

judges of it ; a book is printed for the use of the public, giving an

account of each kind of false money ; when the dollar is made of

true value, it is difficult to detect it, but the shroffs can see it at a

glance . The profits of this mint are so large, that the proprietors

are enabled to prevent the inteference of the local officers. One

English mercantile firm at Canton, had a mint there, in which

Spanish dollars were coined , and from which large profits were

derived. Gold and silver may not be legally exported from China

except in limited quantities and in foreign metal. A large amount

is, however, annually taken away in broken Spanish dollars and

sycee silver and gold. The gold is chiefly taken as gold leaf, but it

is also exported in bars and ingots . Gold leaf is used as money

the exchange is seventeen taels of silver, about twenty-two and a

half dollars per tael of gold .

Export of Sycee. — A censor from Che- Keang complains of the

exportation of silver and yellow gold, and that there is no law

to punish those guilty . By his majesty's directions, the criminal

board have decided that, in future, the same punishment shall

be awarded for the exportation of gold and silver as for export

ing rice. The board urges that trade with foreigners should

be in the way of barter ; and as dollars were imported they might

also be exported .

The censor of Foo-kein has appealed against this law. He

states that the people like dollars ; they are so easily counted , and

can be made of an inferior touch . Dollars are made of sycee

silver by crafty merchants, similar to the foreign . So that, if the

law is not altered , all the silver in China may be coined and sent

away. He, therefore, prays his majesty to attach the same penalty

for coining dollars as he does to the secret coining of cash ; as

rice and money are so different in value while the same in bulk,

that he should increase in the same proportion the punishment for

exporting silver. Otherwise, the treasures of the land will go forth

to feed hungry barbarians, and injure China for ever. The export

of copper and iron affects only military weapons, but that of silver

touches the vitals of the empire.

TOUCH OR FINENESS OF SILVER. 179

Sycee silver is the medium in which the government taxes and

duties, and the salaries of officers, are paid ; it is also current

among merchants in general. The term sycee is derived from two

Chinese words, se sze (fine floss silk) . This silver is formed into

ingots, sometimes called shoes, and in India hoofs, which are

stamped with the mark of the person that issues them, and the

date of their being issued . The ingots are various in form and

weight, of one to fifty taels, but are, most commonly, ten taels

each . Sycee silver is divided into several classes, according to its

fineness and freedom from alloy. The kinds most current in Can

ton province are the five following :

1. Kwan-heang, the hoppo's duties, or the silver which is for

warded to the imperial treasury at Peking. This is always of

ninety-seven to ninety-nine touch. On all the imperial duties a

certain per centage is levied, for the purpose of turning them into

sycee of this high standard , and of conveying them to Peking

without any loss in the full amount. This per centage is, how

ever, increased by the hoppo to an amount far exceeding what is

requisite, that he may be enabled to retain the remainder for him

self and his dependents.

2. Fan-koo or fam-foo, the treasurer's receipts, or that in which

the land tax is paid . This is also of a high standard, but inferior

to that of the hoppo's duties, and, being intended for use in the

province, not for conveyance to Peking, no per centage is levied on

the taxes which are paid in it .

3. Yuen-paou or une-po, literally, chief in value. This kind is

usually imported from Soochow, in large pieces of fifty taels each.

It does not appear to belong to any particular government tax .

4. Yen or een-heang, salt duties . It is difficult to account for

these being of so low a standard, the salt trade being entirely a

government monopoly.

5. Wuh-tae or mut-tae, the name of which, signifying " un

cleansed," or " unpurified," designates it as the worst of all.

The immense masses ofwealth accumulated by official individuals,

in a few years, would indicate an abundance of specie in China.

The property of Keshen, seized after his negotiation with Captain

Elliott, in 1840-41 , and delivered over into the hands of the

imperial treasurer for his majesty's special use was

682 catties of gold,

17,940,000 taels of silver,

11 boxes of jewels, worth unknown.

This was only the first instalment.

Muh-Changah, then prime minister, on a second search, confis

cated the following effects :

1438 large pieces of silver, valued at 60 dollars each,

6,100 taels, annual rental of property,

2,561,217 Chinese acres in land,

independent of houses, shares in pawn-shops, salt works, &c.

N 2

180 CROWN REVENUES AND LAND-TAX .

His property, as first rated, was equivalent to £8,000,000 ster

ling ; but, on a subsequent minute calculation, was found of far

greater value .

A similar instance to the confiscation of the property of Keshen

is recorded by Sir George Stanton.

Hockuntong, or Hoquen, or Hokwan, the celebrated minister of

China, under the Emperor Kien- Lung, amassed, before his im

peachment by the Emperor Kiaking, in the fourth year of his

reign, eighty millions of Chinese ounces of silver, or about

£23,300,000 sterling value, in bullion or gems, which were found

in his treasury, besides lands, houses, and other immoveable pro

perty to an amazing amount. — Sir George Stanton's Penal Code,

Appendix, p . 492 .

We have no corrected returns of the specie drain on China.

The bullion exported from China, in dollars, was calculated ,

1830. 1831. 1832. 1833 . 1834 .

London 961,439 No returns . 2,132,936 .. 155,730

Calcutta 2,575,931 ‫رد‬ 1,074,553..1,929,931

Bombay 2,995,617 ‫در‬ 1,479,250..3,854,280

Sundry places 213,385 ‫رد‬ 140,016 .. 277,879

Total . . 6,746,372 4,826,755..6,217,820

In 1834, there was also shipped of gold, to the value of 513,795

dollars, making a total export of 6,731,615 dollars, at 4s . 3d .

£ 1,430,468 ; of this sum €1,197,035 was native silver and gold .

This drain is now largely and annually increased , to provide for

the payment of opium, and probably amounts to about four million

sterling.

CHAPTER VI.

THE CROWN REVENUES AND LAND TAX, DEFAL

CATIONS, & c.

THE whole revenue of China is said to amount to nearly

60,000,000 pounds sterling annually, of which only 12,000,000 are

remitted to Peking-the remainder is retained in the provinces,

which appear to be subject to different rates of assessment, accord

ing to some defined relative proportions.

DETAILS OF GOVERNMENT REVENUE . 181

The landholder is said to be taxed fully one -tenth of the produce.

It is upon landed income that all the superannuated officers of

government, merchants who have given up trade, all the Tartar

families, who hold their property under a species of feudal vas

salage, and all farmers who are not actually labourers, must be

supposed to subsist. As there are are no public funds in China,

the purchase of land is the chief mode of rendering capital pro

ductive, and there is no part of the east where the rights of landed

property are more respected, if we except the acts of the govern

ment.

All lands that remain unproductive are, by the penal code, con

fiscated, and the owners punished ; as lands must be registered, the

discovery is easily made. The taxes are paid both in money and

kind, and the whole of the taxes on the summer harvest must be

paid before the end of the seventh moon. The duties on salt pro

duce a large revenue, as the quantity of fish cured is enormous,

and its use is indispensable for rice and vegetables The salt

merchants are licensed, and are a wealthy and respectable class.

The penal laws against smuggling salt are, half the value to the

crown, three-tenths to the informer, and fifty blows of the bamboo

to the smuggler .

Dr. Gutzlaff says that the whole revenue of the Chinese empire,

as stated in their official books, is as follows :

Land tax, in money Taels . 53,730,218

Ditto in kind, valued at 113,398,057

Salt tax 7,486,380

Tea duties . 204,530

Duties on merchandise . 4,535,459

Ditto on foreign ditto, at Canton 3,000,000

Sundries 1,052,706

Duties on marketable articles 1,174,932

Ditto on shops and pawnbrokers 5,000,000

Ginseng 1,000,000

Coinage 1,000,000

Total . Taels . 191,804,139

exclusive of small items and stamp duties. Calculating the tael

at 6s . 8d. sterling, this sum would yield annually £63,934,713

sterling. The indemnity paid us, of 21,000,000 dollars

£4,375,000, is, therefore, not equal to the revenue of one month

of the imperial revenues. A taxation of 63,000,000 sterling

cannot be considered very large, for four shillings per head on

300,000,000 people, would yield £60,000,000 sterling. There is

no national debt in China, and no person would trust the govern

ment.

J

182 MONEY STOLEN FROM THE TREASURY .

Budget of 1843. Extracted from the Chinese Statistical Tables .

}

SENT TO THE CAPITAL . PROVINCIAL

TREASURY.

PROVINCES.

MONEY TAELS. SHIH RICE. MONEY TAELS .

Chihle + • • 1,939,941 1,180,514

Keangsoo • ► · 2,564,728 1,431,273 1,471,543

Ganhway = • 1,194,914 3,274,683

Keangse 1,602,431 795,063 795,224

Chekeang • 2,287,346 678,320 907,905

Fulkien 1,055,290 309,380

Hoopih · 776,173 96,934 365,741

Hoonan • 944,432 96,314 280,192

Honan . • • • • 2,441,110 221,342 658,923

Shantung · • ► ་ · 2,730,736 353,963 743,532

Shanse • • · • 2,702,285 898,081

Shense • • • 1,344,548 306,121

For the Turkestan

Garrisons .

Kansuh 182,644 218,550 133,061

Szechuen . • 306,366 24,271

Kwangtung 719,370 542,603

Kwangse • 278,559 113,725

Yunnan 188,927 227,626 87,852

Kweichow 53,346 27,056

23,313,146 4,119,385 12,120,407

Total in money ··

. 35,430,552 taels,

REMARKS ON THE FOREGOING TABLE .

1. The tax on salt (in Kwantung) amounts to 602,977 taels;;

transit and maritime custom-house duties, 1,490,981 taels ; for sun

dries, 995,412 taels. The remainder is derived from the land tax.

2. The Kwantung receipts do not include 864,232 taels, which,

since the new arrangement, the hoppo at Canton is respon

sible for levying upon the foreign trade. The rice, also, which is

issued to the troops and petty officers of the various provinces,

fully equal in amount to that sent to the capital, is not contained

in the statement .

3. The above is the net revenue of the country ; but the ex

penditure of collection, and the extortion and fees, make the taxes

that are actually levied at least three times as heavy.

4. No statement of the expenditure is given ; but, from the

repeated reports, as well as the accounts published in the Peking

Gazette, it would appear that there has been a deficiency in many

provinces, which the governors and high officers must make good

by a loan or some other expedient. At Peking, the public money

was recently so scarce that the necessary repairs of the imperial

gardens could not be made.

5. This year's expenditure is more heavy than that of an

* The shih of rice is about 2 bushels.

wit mat

DEFICIENCY OF IMPERIAL REVENUE. 183

previous one for various reasons . 1st. Because the millions of

dollars furnished by various provincial treasuries had to be paid to

Great Britain. 2nd . Nine million of taels were wanted for the

repairs of the dykes of the Yellow River, the largest amount ever

required for this purpose. This sum is to be raised by temporary

loans, a paper currency, and patriotic contributions, which give

the donor a claim for office : part of this money has been already

collected . 3rd . Government wanted 2,500,000 taels to reconstruct

the marine defences and navy, which item has been obtained by

the sale of offices.

6. Nine million of taels were stolen from the Imperial

Treasury. The very circumstance that such an enormous sum of

money could be abstracted without discovery, shews at once,

that there must be immense hoards, which are scarcely ever

touched ; to reimburse the Emperor for his personal loss, all the

officers that have held a situation for more than thirty years

at the Treasury, if still alive, or if not, their posterity and families ,

must pay their respective shares, until the whole is made good .

Amongst the defaulters are several princes of the blood, whose

property has been confiscated .

7. All the colonial possessions and dependencies of China.

require considerable sums for the payment of troops, and the

subsidy of the Mongol chiefs, as well as the Mantchoo vassals in

their own country ; all this is paid by the Peking treasury, and

proves a considerable drain, without the most distant hope of

recovering the money in any way.

8. Various proposals for raising the revenue to a level with the

expenditure have been made, but none has yet been finally adopted,

nor has the ministry published the result of long and frequent

deliberations .

(Signed) CHARLES GUTZLAFF .

Chinese Secretary .

[Three taels are K £ 1 sterling ; one shih, 160 pounds ; one

king, 100 mow ; one mow, 6000 square covids . ]

The revenue of last year has, it is said, immensely fallen short of

the actual amount required to pay off the arrears due since the

war ; so that there remained in October, 1844, taels 38,711,000 to

be paid. The rice annually ordered has, for the greater part, on

account of the inundation , not been forwarded to the capital .

There are sundry branches of revenue which arise from the pro

ceeds of pawnbrokers ' shops, mercantile establishments, and various

fees and duties ; there are, moreover, innumerable local items not

mentioned in the statistical returns, because the mandarins on the

spot receive them without sending any account ; for this they have,

however, to keep up a considerable establishment .

The colonial possessions, instead of yielding a revenue, absorb

184 IMPERIAL INCOME AND EXPENDITURE .

considerable sums. The subsidies paid to the Mongol chiefs, both

in money as well as kind , are very large ; the expenditure of the

army in Turkestan amounts to several millions annually ; and to

keep up the establishments in Mantchouria, the treasury is con

stantly drained . Tibet requires only about 200,000 taels annually.

No returns of these liabilities are ever published .

It ought always to be kept in mind, that the sums specified are

the net revenue, after the deduction of the expenditure of col

lection, so that, in many instances, the sums actually raised are

five times more than what is put down here. In the estimate are

not included the duties on the foreign trade, which are, at the

lowest, about 3,000,000 taels per annum. So , also, the monopoly

in Ginseng, per centage from the numerous mines, profits from

coinage, &c ., which is the most moderate calculation, does not

amount to less than 5,000,000 taels per annum, which are paid

direct to the Emperor .

Neither has there been calculated about 34,000,000 shih of grain ,

which, according to the regulations, is kept in deposit by govern

ment in order to provide against starvation . The people have

some claim on this, and reap the profits arising from the sale.

The quantity, moreover, fluctuates very much ; the amount quoted

is abstracted from a work published about twenty years ago . It

is difficult to know the total taxation .

From the Peking Gazette of the 11th Oct. 1833, we obtain the

deliberations of the Hoo-poo, or treasury department. It appears

that during the last few years, the current expenses and outlay

have exceeded the income more than thirty million taels of silver.

The deficiency is attributed to the two Mahommedan rebellions ;

also to the troubles with the mountaineers, in the provinces of

Kwei-chow ; and to the natural calamities from drought, repairing

the banks of rivers, &c . , so that the land tax was obliged to be re

mitted . The plan recommended is the sale of offices for a short

period, to replenish the treasury.

The Peking Gazette of Nov. 9th, same year, has a long state

ment from Na-sze-hungah, the censor of the province of Keang- se.

This state document says, that the whole income of the empire,

from land tax, salt tax, customs and duties, with all the sums paid

to make them good, does not exceed 40,000,000 of taels ; and that

the outlay is upwards of 30,000,000 . He states, that although the

overplus be not great, were there no deficiencies of income, the

state machine might go on : but of late years, there has not been

one in which numerous defalcations in every department have not

occurred, so that the income has not been adequate for times of

tranquillity ; therefore, on occasions of insurrection and drought, the

deficiency has amounted to millions . To make good the revenue,

many plans have been proposed : one party says, open the mines ;

another, raise the price of salt ; a third is for selling offices, and

persuading merchants to subscribe towards the wants of the state ;

PLAN OF ENRICHING THE TREASURY . 185

thus causing anxiety to the mind of his sacred majesty, on whom it

devolves to balance the advantages and disadvantages of these

plans, and either reject them at once, or give them a trial, and

then desist.

By a secret memorial from the governor of the province of

Keang- soo (Lin) , it appears, that this province pays to the

revenue (taking its extent) as much again as Che-keang ; three

times as much as Keang-se; and ten times as much as Hoo-kwang.

The years of abundance in this province are, probably, not one in

five, and, consequently, the required sum cannot be remitted

punctually, owing to frequent river inundations. Lin states he

has received from the Emperor, a letter charging him with neglect

in of duty to government. The statesman, in reply, declares that

everything has been done to induce the rich to make up the defi

ciency for the poor, but that the numerous calls on them for the

last few years had dried up their resources. He gives the amount

of voluntary subscriptions for two years of great calamity ; the

third year of the present reign, the amount raised by admonitory

proclamations to the rich was 1,950,000 taels of silver ; and in the

eleventh year, 1,400,000 taels. He tells the Emperor that all the

government possesses comes from the people, and attention to them

is the first duty of a statesman : but who can withstand natural

calamities ?

During the year 1843, one district in Keang- se province re

sponded to the urgent call to defend the empire, by subscribing

103,000 taels of silver (nearly £30,000) , and 58,000 chon of copper

( £10,000) ; another district, 27,000 taels of silver, and 87,000

chon of copper. A chon (tseen ) , in the court dialect, is the de

signation for a string of copper cash which count 10,000 .

The following is a curious memorial to the Emperor of China,

with a plan of enriching the treasury, and for the establishment of

a property tax in China :

" Your slave Keenéen the lord mayor of Moukden, comes kneeling

and beseeching of your majesty to give a sacred glance to a plan I

submit for enriching the royal treasury. The sacred favors be

stowed on your slave in making him lord mayor, induce him to

give your majesty his opinion on what he has seen and carefully

inquired into ; your slave approaches the subject with caution, in

making changes in old regulations, but the great deficiency in the

revenue from the late plunder, and the large sums required for

maritime fortifications and hydraulical works, I find amounts to

many tons of myriads of taels, and I hope my plan will give per

manency and respectability to the state and fresh life to the people.

In devising this plan, I am like one groping in the dark, but the

honour and esteem I have for your majesty, are my only apology .

The four following measures are the result of my best judgment and

anxious enquiries :—

" 1st. All bonds held by the people, for house taxes, to be can-

186 IMPOSITION OF A PROPERTY - TAX .

celled . I have noticed with astonishment the great quantity of

goods stored in the shops and dwellings ; in towns and suburbs

it exceeds belief. The law hitherto has given the taxes to two wings

of the Tartar army, and great fraud and extortion are practised, and

smuggling to a great extent, which must greatly affect the revenue.

Fraudulent mortgages and sham sales are practised to evade the

taxes ; I beg to call the attention of the board of requests, or have

an officer of high standing appointed , whose sole duty would be to

look after these things, or empower the police to give in a correct

return of all inhabitants and the number of houses ; remit all the

old bonds, and call on the people to repair instantly to the man

darins, and honestly state the value of their property, and pay three

per cent. on the whole, for which they will get a seal on their bonds

to protect them from other extortions ; if mortgaged, the mort

gagee to pay the taxes . After a fixed period, all defaulters to have

their property confiscated . This will be best for all parties, as it

will give the people security against extortions and law suits, and

restore every farthing of the duties . The clerks and officers must

be strictly looked after ; if my plan be carried out the people will not

practice frauds, neither should the inferior officers be allowed to

extort money, and apply it to their own use ; strict attention will

save great confusion . All violaters of this law to be prosecuted

with severity, which will have a good effect.

“ 2nd . That all taxes should be increased except the land tax, as

an increase there would bear on the poorer classes : but all shop

keepers, markets, bazaars, and merchants who sell goods by weight,

derive a much larger profit than those who till the ground ; pawn

brokers are very numerous, and I find they only, like others, pay

about five taels per annum ; coal mines, iron works, and large

mercantile houses, pay even less . Pawnbrokers should cheerfully

pay the increase. As to the tea shops, I would strongly advise the

governors to look to them, and report accordingly.

" 3rd . Provincial fees should be transferred to the public trea

sury. I, your slave, held appointments in Chih-le, and other places,

and know that all magistrates and others, receive fees, and volun

tary contributions under various names, and expend it in public

works, which your treasurer has accounted for ; but for the present,

I would stop all public works, and have the fees sent to the capital.

The mandarins' salaries I would reduce, and remit the amount, and

cause a strict enquiry as to the amount of those fees ; after paying

the army expenses, the balance should be paid into the state trea

sury.

66

4th, The mandarins or collectors of the taxes are behindhand

in paying them in, and when urged to do so make sundry excuses

and delays, notwithstanding there is a period fixed . Look to this

matter without delay, as they frequently turn bankrupts , or pre

tend to be so, to avoid payment, and often propose paying by in

stalments. May I request that this system will be stopped, and no

THREE HUNDRED TONS OF SILVER STOLEN . 187

instalment taken, but that their security and themselves be made

pay at once ; this would be acting severely and mercifully ; great

severity must be used. When I was prefect under Taoukwang

(1834), a deficiency was discovered, and I demanded from the high

inspector 1,000 taels and sent them to your treasury, and the re

mainder soon followed. I, your slave, have drawn up this statement

with a view of enriching the treasury, and stupid as I am I hope

they are suited to the occasion, and humbly beg your instructions

thereon ."

Answer written with vermillion pencil, saying the Board would

consult about it. "Respect this."

October, 1843.

Dr. Gutzlaff states that there were abstracted from the imperial

treasury, when alarm was spread of the British army proceeding to

Peking, in 1842, 9,252,000 taels of silver, about 2,000,000 sterling,

or 250 tons of silver . On the 19th day of the 5th month, an im

perial edict appeared to the following effect : " An extensive de

ficiency was discovered in the treasury ; kings and other high

ministers were ordered to investigate it, and have furnished me

with a list of officers and auditors that have successively held ap

pointments in the treasury, and it appears they are all abandoned

characters concerned in this affair, and must be severely punished,

as an example, and to maintain the law. We direct that all the

officers in this list shall be prosecuted, and we direct that all Tartar

mandarins in office or on leave, shall be first degraded, and a list

taken of them, likewise the sons and grandsons of such as are dead,

whether in office or not, and handed over to Muchangah for pun

ishment. Respect this. "

Imperial edict the second has been received to the following

effect: " We have appointed from time to time, kings and high

ministers to superintend the receipts and disbursements of our re

venue ; and this year we made an addition of two, a Mantchoo and

a Chinese ; these high officers were instructed to examine with great

care into all matters, and we find they are all blind and stupid .

Changchingpaon, a high treasury officer, has made away with the

public money, and we sent a great minister to inquire into it, and

his report reached me this day, and it states the deficiency to amount

to the enormous sum of 9,250,000 taels of silver ! Never was the

like known, and on hearing it my anger knows no bounds ; only

think of them acting like common thieves of the country ! This

peculation has been going on many years, and the number in office

has been great ; but still a strict investigation must take place,

otherwise some of them will escape . I find, ever since the reign

of Keaking, (1801 , ) the mandarins in the treasury have all been

blood relations, but some of them were ministers of high rank, and

not one of them has ever denounced the plunder : they ought to

be ashamed of such conduct . I blame myself for not seeing to

it, and my mortification is exceedingly great . I direct that they

188 PRESSURE ON THE TREASURY .

be handed over to the board that will be appointed, and well

punished, and that said board enquire, and report the best means

of recovering, and making the deficiency good by fines, &c. &c .

" Respect this."

[The result of this measure, as previously stated , has been that

every treasurer, since the year, 1801 , or their descendants, have

been required to make good the defalcation of 9,252,000 taels of

silver .]

A careful analysis of the Peking Gazette throws much light on

the mechanism and policy of the Chinese government, at home and

abroad, as it is the organ of government, and the only publication

of the kind permitted in the empire. A selection of extracts, re

lative to the state of the revenue, indicates that there is consider

able pressure on the imperial and local treasury.

The system of lending money adopted by the Chinese govern

ment, is believed to be carried on upon a very extensive scale. It is

said that several of the imperial palaces at Peking, are wholly

supported by the interest which is paid by the salt and other

merchants, who from time to time are compelled to borrow money

from the government. This system has been brought to light

from translations which have been made from the government

gazette among these are memorials from merchants, stating

their inability to pay the interest, and edicts from the Emperor,

stating that the superintendents of the palaces, to whom the

interest is paid towards the expenses of these establishments, are

seriously inconvenienced by this want of punctuality.

Finances. May, 1844, the Board of Revenue have furnished a

schedule of all the out-standing debts in the provinces . Answers

have been received from the local authorities, declaring their in

ability to satisfy the demands, and praying further time.

1844. Proposals have been received by the Board of Revenue to

lay on transit duties on the cattle that pass the frontiers from

Mantchouria and Mongolia. It is stated that the sheep alone

amount to some millions of heads annually.

Pwanshegan, at present minister of finance, has submitted a list

of Mantchoo defaulters who have not paid in the sums which they

were sentenced to furnish, in order to make good the 9,252,000

taels of silver which were embezzled lately from the treasury .

They are to be deprived of their situations, and imprisoned until

every tael is paid.

1844. A memorial from the mandarin of the province of Keang

soo, stating that they are unable to collect in the whole amount of

the revenue . Ordered that the mandarins make good the re

mainder. "Respect this ! "

The Board of Revenue ordered, that all who generously contribute

to the exigences of the country, and repairs of the rivers, should

obtain a receipt, which will certify their claim to favour and emolu

BREAKING OPEN MONEY CHESTS . 189

ment. Provincial officers are ordered to make monthly returns of

the sums paid into their respective treasury. Likewise all man

darins in arrear shall be instantly degraded . Regulations have

been prepared to fill up their offices. The expedient is desperate,

but the case is urgent- “ so tremble ! ”

The Board of Revenue has requested the Emperor to ordert hat

all the money to be levied in the shape of voluntary contributions

and patriotic gifts, should be exacted with rigour. It was first pro

posed that Hoopih and Canton provinces, only, should be called on .

Unfortunately, other large expenses were rendered necessary by

the overflowing of the Yellow River, amounting to 800,000 taels of

silver. The emperor now calls on the whole realm to furnish the

means of constructing dykes. No extortions will be allowed, but

his majesty will be enabled to distinguish the real friends of the

country by their generosity . "Respect this."

Imperial Treasury. A second attempt has been made to break

open the money chests in the Imperial Palace ; strict inquiry is inG

stituted, and condign punishment threatened.

1845. Board of Revenue, ordered that 27,300 taels be granted

for the repairs of the dykes in Shan-tung province . The same

Gazette publishes an ordinance, calling on all merchants who had

borrowed money from the public treasury, instantly to pay up the

arrears of interest, to enable government to procure lighters, in

order to unload part of the rice junks in their progress to the

capital, where the water is shallow.

Ordered that 131,000 taels be placed at interest, for defraying

the expenses of the Imperial Palace of Jeho . Surplus of revenue

from one of the custom stations, above the first annual amount ,

27,056 be placed in the household treasury ; 223 taels to be given

as a present to the collector .

The Yellow River is a source of uneasiness almost every year,

and for the repair of its banks voluntary subscriptions are raised.

The last collections only amounted to 348,000,000 cash . This sum

fell short to finish the works, and complaint is made to the go

vernor of the river, and he petitioned his Majesty to receive the

cash at the rate 1,300 per tael , (that is about six shillings sterling) ,

and prayed that his Majesty will distribute rank and emolument

to the generous contributors to this necessary undertaking.

When the canals suffer from the flood, the Emperor decrees that

all magistrates along whose districts the banks had been destroyed

should be degraded , but remain in office, and repair, with their own

money, the damage.

The superintendent of Teentsin harbour, had entrusted to his

care a large amount of subscriptions to build war junks, and put

the harbour in a good state of defence . His embezzlement and

extortions were represented, and his Majesty ordered him to be

degraded until the defalcations were made good . The governor of

190 FINANCIAL EMBARRASSMENTS FOR RIVER DYKES .

the rivers has made a personal inspection to ascertain the damage

done by the floods of 1844, and demands 283,790 taels of silver to

commence the works .

The capital of the fertile province of Honan was again under

water, and the whole of the walls levelled . The lieutenant-governor

commenced raising subscriptions, which were responded to ; the

Emperor was so highly pleased that he rewarded the author, and

desired that the principal contributors be promoted to situations .

The governors and lieutenant-governors who have been dismissed

for neglect in not seeing to the state of the canals and rivers, by

which so much damage had been caused, petitioned his Majesty

for forgiveness . The answer denied that they had any claim on

his Majesty's clemency, as they had occasioned enormous expenses

to the state . For immediate wants, the sum of 800,000 taels were

granted, and his Majesty called on all the neighbouring provinces

in which the calamity had occurred , to send in their portion of this

sum , and thus exhibit their loyalty and attachment to his throne .

The same Gazette has a petition from the superintendent of the

pleasure seat of his majesty at Zehol, complaining of the dilapidated

state of the walls of this once magnificent estate, and praying that

something may be done to save the pleasure grounds and gardens

from ruin : the stags, he states, have free access to the gardens .

1844, September, Treasury.-A strict investigation for the

recovery of the lost nine millions of taels, has ended in the dis

covery of the strong boxes containing the silver being in a very

decayed state, and the sycee had gradually dropped out. This

subterfuge, however, has availed nothing, and several members of

the imperial household , who were under heavy liabilities, have been

obliged to discharge them.

Upon the representation of Hwuy the governor of rivers, sub

scriptions to the amount of nine million of taels, were last year

raised, in order to reconstruct the dykes. Since now, however, the

injury done by the inundation is far greater, new measures are

necessary. It is therefore proposed to levy additional sums, during

the space of a year, upon the same principles as in the maritime

provinces (by bestowing offices upon the subscribers .)

The whole money contributed is five million by merchants, and

six million by the gentry and people . Of this the salt merchants

at Canton subscribed 1,200,000 taels, which has been applied for

military purposes. Of 2,400,000 taels subscribed, 1,000,000 was

to be used for the repair of dykes, and in three instalments within .

six years to be repaid. The merchants of Chekeang furnished.

1,500,000 taels, of which above 120,000 were applied to the dykes,

and the money will be refunded just as the above. The Loo tra

ders subscribed 400,000 taels, and paid up 50,000 taels, which is to

be restored by the gabel within five years.

The money in Shanse for which rank was bought, amounts to

above 1,600,000 taels ; in Shense to above 1,000,000 ; in Chih -li

PROPOSED ISSUE OF TREASURY BILLS . 191

370,000 taels. As for Canton and other provinces from 340,000

to 800,000 taels . The sums however collected in the maritime

provinces, are to be retained there and applied for military

purposes.

This proposal is adopted, that the merchants and people might

have time to collect the sums within the space of a year, but by no

means to distress the nation .

Leyanking, a member of the censorate entrusted with the super

vision of the river, has reported , that considering the immense

expenditure necessary for the repairs of the hydraulic works, and

the difficulty of procuring the money, and even when this is

obtained, the ruinous exchange that hence arises, proposes that

henceforth treasury bills be issued in lieu of payment. This plan

did not succeed under the Ming and Sung dynasties ; but to

obviate the difficulties and the rapid fall of the value of paper money,

the revenue is to receive the assignats and immediately to destroy

them .

Muhchangah and others have submitted various proposals made

by Keying, which bear upon the subject of collecting duties ;

and the privy council as well as the board of revenue having

taken them into consideration, and submitted them with their

opinions thereon to the Emperor, they are approved of and

confirmed .

1. The amount of fixed duties to be sent to the capital by the

Canton maritime custom house was 899,064 taels ; and besides a

surplus of about 1,000 to 40,000 taels . However, since now the

trade will be carried on in the other four ports, the receipts at

Canton will fall short of that sum, and therefore Fuchoo and the

other emporiums, must, after having realized their respective quotas,

make up the deficit of Canton.

2. In order to fix the whole amount of duties of the other

ports, three years must pass before a true estimate can be made .

It will then be determined, how much each port according to the

respective receipts of money can supply to Canton.

3. All extra charges, although formerly paid into the public

treasury, are at once abolished .

4. On every 1,000 taels sent to the board of revenue, there

was formerly a per centage of 15 taels, and the recent extra charge

of 25 taels is for that very purpose . There were, moreover, 55,000

taels paid in tribute, and 100,000 taels as an equivalent for the

ginseng, and these sums were forwarded by the Hong merchant to

the court establishment, besides 4,000 to 30,000 taels made over to

the inspector of grain for charitable purposes by the same indivi

duals, and sundry fees to the Hoppo and his people.

Since the Cohong, however, is now done away with, the tribute

must be paid from the surplus of the stated duties. As for the

ginseng, which at the rate of 700,000 taels, the value to be sti

pulated, if paid by the said merchants would within four years

192 FINANCIAL EMBARRASSMENTS . - DOWNFAL.

amount to 2,800,000 taels ; it must now be sold for whatever it will

fetch. The Hoppo, moreover, must make arrangements to provide

for the other items, and manage matters accordingly.

5. A sum of about 120 to 130,000 taels was hitherto kept in

reserve, to be transmitted to the court in presents and for other

purposes. As now, however, the sources whence the money was

derived are exhausted, the Hoppo must in future manage this

matter.

6. The duty on raw silk now fixed at 10 taels per picul is less

than it was formerly. And the five ports being now open , mer

chants will go with this article to the nearest market. But they

must make up the loss of the transit duties, which otherwise would

have been paid, if they had proceeded to Canton, in whatsoever

port they sell their cargo.

7. Tea, raw and wrought silks, were hitherto prohibited to be

exported by sea. But under existing circumstances, every junk

that navigates the ocean, shall pay upon them the same duty as

foreign vessels, to prevent their smuggling these articles on board

the ships.

8. Every other part of the native trade, is to be carried on ac

cording to the old regulations without the least change.

9. All fees and payments to the inmates of the custom house

are entirely annulled, and the superintendents ought henceforth to

provide for their whole establishment.

Taoukwang, 23rd year, 7th intercalary month, 21st day, —14th

September, 1843.

1845 , Formosa.Gogla From a recent investigation, it appears that

during the late severe storm above 3,000 human beings lost their

lives by the immense floods and inroads of the sea. On the whole

coast there prevail much destitution and misery, the fields having

been rendered unfit for cultivation by the sea water. It does not

yet appear what measures the mandarins have taken for alleviating

the sufferings of the poor islanders . They have been again com

manded by the court to furnish a true statement of the damage

done both to the people and public buildings . One of the leading

men in the island has declared that "the government can only

levy taxes with the consent of the people," and he has refused

payment ofthe imposts.

Every thing I heard and saw in China, impressed on my mind

the conviction that the finances of the empire are in a most

wretched state, and that corruption pervades the officers entrusted

with the collection and appropriation of the resources of the

state . In all kingdoms, and in every age, financial embarrassments

are the sure precursors of the downfal of a nation, or of the

dynasty or administration who rules its destinies .

ANALYSIS OF CHINESE SOVEREIGNS -THEIR CHRONOLOGY, CHARACTER, &c.

Termination

[ Indicating a greater extent of crime and sensuality than even the Roman Empire .]

Years

No.

reigned

.of n

of

Reig

Died, Cause of Name and Position of Character of Sovereign and Events .

.

Era. Name of Sovereign. Dethroned, or Death, Dethronement, or Successor.

Abdicated. Abdication .

B. C. Chow Dynasty .

946 55 Died Natural Son. King-Wang Fond of display; sensible of his

1001 Muh-Wang

faults .

12 Died Three successors, no Aged and feeble on accession .

946 King-Wang ··

thing remarkable

873 827 19 Died Fourteen years in exile Son . Suen-Wang Tyrannical, rapacious, and cruel .

Le-Wang Warlike, defeated the Tartars

781 46 Died Of grieffor killing two His son. Yew-Wang

827 Suen-Wang

Courtiers . with great difficulty.

781 Yew-Wang 770 11 Killed Killed by the Tartars Lawful heirPing-Wang Extravagant, sensual, andindolent .

and his son. The European eclipses recorded .

Died ... ... A weak monarch. A declaration

770 Ping-Wang 719 51

of independence by nearly all the

719 princes .

to Hwan-Wang ... Died Died of grief and There were five Emperors reigned,

but the historical details relate

:

mortification .

:

618

to the minor states chiefly.

30 Died Natural His two sons contend A faction formed in favour of the

675 | Hwuy-Wang ed for the Throne Emperor's brother, who took the

capital.

645 Dethroned Dethroned by his ... Twenty years of civil war (page

Seang-Wang

brother 204) between the two brothers .

0:

:

By the aid of the prince of

Tsin, the usurper was killed .

618 Well disposed men, but had no

to King-Wang, and Ting-Wang authority .- Eleven states con

Kwang-Wang } federated to restore order.

606

6 DO ... Birth of Laou-tsze.

606 Ting-Wang 613

583 Keen-Wang ··· 12 Died ... Ling-Wang A fruitless endeavour to equalize

the power of the vassals.

... Died ... Grandson . King Merely the title of sovereign .

571 Ling-Wang Wang

:

The princes plundered each

other.

536 519 35 Died Two brothers Partial to his youngest son, and

King-Wang

unable to govern his palace.

519 six Killed Killed by his half Discord and slaughter within the

Mong

:.

months brother palace, and civil war throughout

the empire .

472 Died ... One prince despoiling another ;

Kae, or King-Wang the great prince of Tsin lost

nearly all his possessions .

Died Three sons , two of This period may be termed the

440 Ching-ting-Wang whom killed each other " dark ages " of China .

:

::

366 Heen-Wang ... ... The end of the dynasty fast apw w

proaching. Tsin again powerful.

:

:

.

306 Nan-Wang ... ... Deposed by the Prince The Usurper E-jin Wall building to keep out the

of Tsin . Tartars .

286 Chaou- Seang ... Died ... Ambition was hereditary in the

Tsins .

During several periods of the above epochs the Emperors are only mentioned incidentally, and therefore it is a chronology of

powerful Wangs (Kings) .

B.C. Tsin Dynasty . B.C.

Che-hwang-te 210 37 Died Natural. Assassination Son . Urh-she-hwang- Sanguinary, despotic, bold . Built

246 Great Wall in five years.

failed te

4 Dethroned Suicide . Dethroned Tsze-Ying Cruel and debauched. Succeeded

210 Ur-she-hwang-te 206

by Lew-pang, an ad by nephew.

venturer

Do. Subdued by Lew-pang, Lew-pang Feeble . Unable to resist the

206 Tsze-Ying 202 4

a bandit . bandit, Lew-pang .

Han Dynasty .

202 195 7 Died Natural Son . Heaou-hwuy-te Bold. Resisted the Huns .

Lew-pang, alias

Kaou-tsoo

195 188 7 Died Natural ; without issue Mother Sunk in effeminacy.

Heaou-hwuy-te

188 Mother of above 180 8 Do. From excesses Wan-te Ambitious, cruel, dissolute .

180 Wan-te 157 23 Do. Natural King-te Very popular. Paper invented .

141 16 Do. Do. Woo-te Unsuccessful rebellions .

157 King-te

141 Woo-te Do. Do. Chaou-te . Son Cruel and superstitious . Killed his

mother to prevent her reigning.

Chaou-te 68 Do. Natural ; ascended by his Uncle Foreign invasion and domestic

throne at 7 years

treachery .

Uncle of above 73 Dethroned by the Nobles Seuen-te

73 Suen-te 48 25 Died Natural Yuen-te Literary. Subjected the Huns .

48 Yuen-te 34 16 Died Do. Ching-te. Son Literary .

32 Do. Natural, but resigned Ping-te . Son Sensual and effeminate.

32 Ching-te

power to his uncles.

A.D. A.D.

Ping-te Poisoned by a noble, Wang- Mang A regency of Wang Nine years old when placed on

-23 < Mang throne .

23 Killed Destroyed for usurping Kwang-Wo-te Ambitious and unprincipled.

Wang Mang, regent

throne

03 Kwene Woo-te 58 35 Died Natural Ming-te. Son Many rebellions .

Ho-te Budhism introduced .

"I Liv-ic

Several minorities Ambitious ennuchs placed boys on the throne, in order to hold power during long

minorities, and then destroyed them .

168 Ling-te 180 21 Died Natural Heen-te Ascended at twelve years old.

189 Heen-te 220 31 Abdicated Cruelty caused by Tsaou-pe Great bloodshed in this reign.

Tungcho

220 Tsaou-pe Do. Lew-pei Foreign intercourse at Canton .

:D

35

Lew-pei Died How-te Printing from blocks invented .

How-te 255 ... Abdicated Invasion and internal Prince of Wei-Woo-te Termination of Han Dynasty .

weakness

Tsín Dynasty.

255 Prince ofWei-Woo-te Do. Compelled by Woote

:

290 Hwuy-te ...

::

307 Hwae-te 313 6 Assassinated Attacked by King of Min-te . A member of Unparalleled cruelty .

Han Tsin family

313 Min-te 318 5 Do. Empire in miserable by Governor- General

condition

43

318 Sze-Ma-Juy 322 4 Conspiracy and trouble | Ming-te

322 Ming-te 325 Numberless plots Three minorities

Three minors ·· Died from drinking " Am Gae-te

brosial" liquid to pro

cure immortality.

362 Gae-te 365 3 Died drinking Heaou-Woo

365 Heaou-Woo 396 31 Strangled When drunk, by wife Gan-te. Son

396 Gan-te 419 23 Do. by an ambitious general Kung-te . Brother

419 Kung-te 420 1 Abdicated & Compelled by the Lew-Yu End of Tsin dynasty.

poisoned above

Sung Dynasty .

420 Lew-Yu or Woo-te 422 2 Died Shaou-te. Son

422 Shaou-te Removed Unworthy of throne Wan-te. Brother

Wan-te 454 } 32 Murdered by one of his sons by his son Patron of learning . Suppressed

Budhism .

454 Son of above 465 11 Died from debauchery Fe-te. Son Sensual and depraved .

465 Fe-te 466 1 Murdered for his ferocity Ming-te Slew all who displeased him .

466 Ming-te 472 6 Killed fourteen ne Tsang-Woo-Wang These were rivals in their eager

phews ness to shed blood .

53

472 Tsang- Woo-Wang 477 Do. Bloodthirsty Shun-te . Son

477 Shun-te 480 Abdicated Forced by his general Seaou-teaou- Ching End of Sung dynasty.

Tse Dynasty.

480 Seaou -teaou - Ching, 482 2 Died ... ... Woo-te. Son Excellent character.

or Kaou-te

::

482 Woo-te by son

492 10 Dethroned

Sun of do. by Seaou-lun Seaou-lun

492 Seaou-lun 499 7 Killed by the priests Paou-Keuen. Son

499 Paou-Keuen 502 3 Dethroned by his general Seaou-Yeu End of Tse dynasty.

Leang Dynasty .

502 Seaou-Yeu or Leang Abdicated Went into a monastery Son Became a Priest of Budh .

:

Woo-te

Keen-Wan-te 50 Slain by his general How-King

:

How-King Do. .. Yuen-te

552 Yuen-te 557 Do. His brother

King-te 557 5{

} 5 Abdicated Finding he had no Chin-pa-Seen End of Leang dynasty .

power

Chin Dynasty .

557 Chin- pa- Seen or 559 2 ... Nephew

Kaou-tsoo

559 Chin-tseen orWan-te 566 7 Died ... Son Wise and judicious prince.

566 Pe-tsung 568 2❘ Deposed by his uncle Uncle Imbecile .

568 Chin-heu 582 14 Died ... ... Son

582 Haw-te 590 8 Dethroned by General Yang-Keen By General Voluptuous and effeminate .

Sup Dynasty.

590 Yang-Keen 604 14 Died ... Son End of Chin dynasty.

His son Strangled by his brother Brother Utterly unfit to reign by de

604 Yang-Kwan 13 Slain by assassins bauchery .

Ը՝Ո ດ Murdered

:.

hv LeYuen, his general Ley-uen End of Suy dynasty .

wavu- vSUU Repelled artars .

30 Do.

Kaou-tsoo 649 } { Kaou-tsung Encouraged science .

649 Kaou-tsnng 684 35 Do. Chung- tsung Warlike . Entered Persia and Tibet

684 Chung-tsung 710 26 Confined by his mother who Brother Weak and debauched .

reigned

710 Juy-tsung

Heuen-tsung Dethroned by a rebellion Son Murdered his empress and chil

:.

dren .

Tih-tsung

782 Suh-tsung 1 Abdicated ... Son

Heen-tsung Poisoned by liquor of " Immor

::

tality"

Seuen-tsung ·· Do. by do.

Several successors Do. Do. Various successors All perished similarly.

888 Chaou- tsung 905 17 Murdered by Choo -Wan

905 Cheaou-Suen-te Abdicated in favour of Choo-Wan End of Tang dynasty .

Five Dynasties

succeeded.

The How-leang,

How-tang, The usual train of murders, rebellious, abdications, and infamy ; cruelty and imbecility . The last

How-tsin, of the How-tang dynasty obtained the throne by murdering his brother, and when attacked, A.D.

How-han & 936, collected all the insignia of royalty, and set fire to them, to himself, his empress and children .

How-Chow

Sung Dynasty .

960 Chaou Kwang-Yin 976 16 Died Natural death Son Warlike, learned, frugal and good .

977 Tae-tsung 997 21 Do. Do.

Chin-tsung 1022 45 Do. Do. Weak and credulous .

997

27 Do.

::

1127 Made a prisoner by Revived the Eunuchs' influence .

::

1100 Hwuy-tsung

Tartars

1125 Prin-tsung Do. ... ... Brother

1162 Heaou-tsung

1194 Ning-tsung ... ... Invited the Mongols, who retained

1265 Too-tsung 1277 13 End of Sung Dynasty the country- first under Gen

ghis Khan, and then under

Mongol Dynasty .

Kublai-Khan.

1279 Kublai-Khan or 1294 14 Died of vexation Grandson

Che-Yuen

1204 Timur, or Yuen Ching 1307 13 Died

1307 Woo-tsung 1311 4 Do. ·· •• •• Devoted to wine and women.

1311 Jin - tsung 1320 9 Do. ··· Son Learned and good .

1320 Ying-tsung 1323 3 Assassinated in his tent

1323 Ye-Sun-te Mur 1328 5 Died Second son

1328 Toote-Mur Abdicated in favour of elder bro

Ho-chila 1332 4 Poisoned ther

1332 To-hwan-te Mur 1368 36 Fled Conquered by Choo- Chang About this period end of Mon

Yuen gols' dynasty.

Ming Dynasty.

1368 Hung-Wu 1399 33 Died Natural. Rose from a Grandson Extirpated the Mongols .

poor labourer

1399 Kien-wan • Dethroned by rebellions, & c.

Yeu - Yungloh 1425

Successor A prisoner

:

1450 King-ti

Choo-Keen-Shin ... ... ... End of Ming dynasty in 1644 .

:.

Tae-tsing Dynasty .

1644 Taetsing, and other Tartars in succession

Kanghe, who died 1722

Yung-ching, died 1537

Keen Lung, who reigned 63 years, and at 85 years of age resigned the throne to his son

Keaking, (1796, ) an imbecile sensualist, cowardly and cruel ; he died 1820, and was succeeded by the present Emperor

Taou-kwang, who is more than 60 years of age, and on whose death there will be a disputed succession, and probably great internal

disturbances .

193

CHAPTER VII .

TRADITION, HISTORY, AND DYNASTIES OF CHINA

FOR THREE THOUSAND YEARS .

CENTRAL ASIA was most probably the cradle of the human race ;

man was placed by his Creator in a temperate region, abounding

in all the products of the earth, adapted for the foundation of

great kingdoms, and affording facilities for dispersion when aug

menting population pressed on the means of subsistence, or the

desire for change stimulated an emigration to distant countries.

The Chinese are supposed to be a branch of the great Scythian

family, who entered China from the north-west, gradually drove

the aborigines before them, occupied in separate states the most

fertile and eligible spots, until they reached the tropic of Capricorn,

and after the usual strife and bloodshed incident to small com

munities, finally were consolidated into one empire. The Scythians

may have penetrated to the " far east " before they became known

in the west, which was about the year 630 B.C. , when they ad·

vanced with their conquering hordes to the borders of Egypt . The

Scythians would appear to have been the common parents of the

Tartars, the Mongolians, and other races that afterwards spread

themselves over the northern and eastern portions of Asia.

In craniological formation- in language, habits, and character

the Chinese are a distinct people from any of the other inhabitants

of Asia, to whom, in all these particulars, they bear less resemblance

than they do to the European races.

B.C. 2,204 is the utmost extent to which Chinese tradition ex

tends . This was about 140 years after the Flood ; and supposing

the human family had increased to a degree that required them to

migrate, the Chinese may have separated from the parent stock,

after their dispersion, and , diverting their course to the eastward,

colonized on the Yellow River.

Their first great Emperor, Fohi, ( supposed to be identical with

Noah) , is said to have settled in the province of Shen-se, which

is the north-western part of the empire, and includes the ancient

Serica, also the country of Sinæ.

His length of reign is reputed to have been 115 years ; he in

vented everything useful, and appointed a prime minister and four

mandarins to govern the four provinces. His successor, Shin

Nong, reigned 146 years, and invented the plough, the same as it ex-

ists at the present day. In physical knowledge he was said to be an

0

194 STATE OF THE EMPIRE UNDER YAO .

adept. Whang-ti, the third emperor, was also highly gifted, could

speak when a year old , reigned at ten years, and invented the com

pass * at fifteen . This sample is given of Chinese history, as the

best means of disabusing those who are inclined to place reliance

on their fables .

Yu, or Yao, the founder of the first dynasty (B.c. 2204) , is said

to have devoted his whole life to the draining of the land ; and for

thirteen years he never entered his own house, would rise from his

food and listen to complaints, and thrice he tied up his hair, while

in the bath , to answer some urgent call ; by this means he set an

example to his subjects of attending to business first, and pleasure

afterwards .

Meng-tse, the Chinese historian, gives an account of the state of

the empire under the Emperor Yao, "The country presented only

a desert, and the men were mere savages . The empire was not

formed ; the lowlands were covered with stagnant water, the re

mains of inundation ; those parts which were not still submerged ,

were covered with trees and bushes, and were the haunt of wild

beasts.

" Yao set fire to the forests, in order to clear the ground , and drive

the wild animals off. China was at this period only a residence for

serpents and dragons ; the people had no fixed dwelling-places, but

were compelled to shelter themselves on trees, when in the low

country, and in caves when among the mountains .”

Such are the terms that the Chinese philosopher Meng-tse uses

in describing the state of his country, centuries subsequent to

the time that some credulous authors would make people believe

that it was a flourishing and populous empire.

Formosa, although within twenty leagues of China, was not

known until the 15th century.

Manufacture of cotton is not spoken of in China until one or two

centuries before the Christian era, from which period to the sixth

century, the cotton cloth, which was either paid in tribute, or

offered in presents to the Emperor, is always mentioned as a thing

rare and precious .

It is recorded in the annals of China, that the Emperor Vou- ti ,

who reigned A.D. 502 , had a robe of cotton . Up to the eleventh

G

* Du Halde gives the following account of the discovery ofthe compass : " The Em

peror Hoang ti being at war with Tchi- l'eau, and perceiving that thick fogs saved the

enemy from his pursuit, and that the soldiers rambled out of the way, and lost the

course of the wind, made a car which showed them the four cardinal points ; by this

method he overtook the enemy, made him prisoner, and put him to death. The same

author says, that certain ambassadors from afar, after they had taken leave in order to

return to their own country, were given by the Emperor Tcheou- Kong, an instrument

which on one side pointed to the north, and on the opposite side towards the south, to

direct them better on their way home, supposed to be Cochin China. This instrument

was called Tchi -nan, which is the same name by which the Chinese call the sea - com

pass. This is said to have occurred in the twenty-second Cycle 1040 B.C.

Remusat, whose able translations are worthy of credit, adduces strong arguments

against the supposed knowledge of the mariners' compass at so early a date in China.

INVENTION OF THE COMPASS . 195

century, the cotton tree appears to have been a garden shrub, as

there are several poems in praise of its beautiful flowers . After

the Mongol Tartars conquered China, in 1280, great encourage

ment was given by government to the culture and manufacture of

cotton, although it was much opposed by the people, who considered

it an innovation ; about 1370 , the progress of this new branch was

rapid, and at present nine-tenths of the population are clothed in

its fabrics .

Of the eighteen provinces into which China is now divided, fully

one-half were occupied by wandering savages, who had never been

under any control, the other half was roamed over by pastoral

tribes, with here and there a city or large camp, which had been

dignified into the name of kingdoms.

From the constant strife that existed between the rival sove

reigns, it must have taken a long time to have united the nume

rous petty kingdoms in the present extensive empire . If the civiAlta

lization and refinement of the Chinese had an existence, at so early

a period , it would have been known to other ancient nations.

No reliance can be placed on the semi-historical period, which

French authors have endeavoured to pass for authentic . The

Chinese chronological system or cycle, was said to be established

by the Emperor Hwang-te in the sixty-first year of his reign, B.C.

2637.

The cycle of sixty years was said to have been then invented by

an individual named Ta-naou : seventy-four of these cycles were

said to have been completed A.D. 1803, making 4440 years. *

* The year 1839 corresponds to the year ke-hai, or the 36th year of the 75th Chi

nese cycle of sixty, which is the 19th year of Taou-kwang, and commences on the 1st of

February.

The Chinese cycle of sixty is said to have been invented by an individual named

Ta-naou, who lived under the reign of the Emperor Hwang-te, and its use commences

with the 61st year of that monarch, 2637 years B.C. The Chinese compute also by the

year ofthe reigning Emperor, frequently joining to it that of the cycle . Formerly,

when the Emperors often changed their titular names or designations, this plan

must have been very inconvenient, as every few years a new epoch commenced, with

out any change of reign. But for some centuries past, the Emperors have usually

retained the same designations throughout the whole period of their continuance on

the throne.

The Chinese year is luni - solar, consisting of twelve lunar months, to which an

intercalary month is added, when requisite to preserve correspondence with the solar

year.

The rule respecting the intercalary month is this : that when, during a lunar month,

the sun does not enter any sign of the zodiac, that month is intercalary ; and the year

consequently contains thirteen instead of twelve months.

The year commences on the new moon nearest to the fifteenth degree of Aquarius.

It is corrected according to the solar year, by the use of twenty-four terms, or half

months, called Tsee, each of which expresses the period of the sun's passage through

the half of a zodiacal sign. The names applied to those terms, like those of the

French revolutionary months, have a reference in their meaning to the season of the

year.

They date from the commencement of the reign of each successive sovereign ; thus

they write " Taoukwang, 26th year, 10th month, 19th day," corresponding to 19th

November 1846. The age of a person is reckoned from the number of years of the

cycle that have elapsed since his name and birth were registered, which has the effect

o 2

196 CHRONOLOGICAL SYSTEM . -CYCLES .

China could not be considered an empire, or have any pretensions

to a universal rule or dominion at the early period alleged . Ma

twan-lin, reputed a good authority, says that when Ching-tang

founded the second dynasty, (1766 B.C.) called the Shang, the

number of feudal principalities was three thousand ; and that there

were five sorts of fiefs, forming in the whole " one thousand, seven

hundred and seventy-three principalities ."

Ching-tang, the founder of the second dynasty, (B.c. 1763) is said

to have " ruled the people gently, removed many oppressions , and

lent a willing ear to the wants of the people, so that all confided in

his judgment ."

It was during this Emperor's reign that the seven years famine

from drought occurred, and the Emperor was called on to propiti

ate heaven, and offer up prayers .

History relates that he fasted, cut off his hair and nails ; and

binding his body with white reeds, which was the symbol of a

sacrifical animal, thus went into a lonesome place, confessing his

of making the age appear greater than it is in reality ; a child, for instance, born on

the last day of the year will be described as two years old, as it is considered to have

lived in two years of the cycle. Several classes of characters are employed for

chronological purposes. The most ancient and most generally used, consist of two sets

of characters : the one called shih kan, the ten stems, ' or teen kan, the celestial stems,'

includes ten characters, the other set, called shih - urh che, the twelve branches,' and

te che, the ' terrestrial branches,' consists of twelve characters.

These characters are applied to years, months, days, and hours, as well as to the

points of the compass . For chronological purposes, they have been combined so as to

form a cycle of sixty. In this cycle, the ' ten stems' occurring six times, and the

'twelve branches' five times, both sets terminate in the number sixty, and the cycle

is thus completed. The method of combination is this,-kea, the first of the ten, is

joined to tsze, the first ofthe twelve, and read kea- tsze, which denotes the first year,

month, & c. of the cycle. In the same manner, the second year is yih-chow,-the

tenth year, kwei- yew,-the twelfth year, yih-hae, and so on up to sixty, which is desig

nated by the characters kwei- hae, the last of each set.

For the hours of the day, the twelve branches' are used singly. The civil day of

twenty-four hours is divided into twelve periods of two hours each, called she- shin,

which are designated by the characters of twelve branches, in the following manner : P

11 to 1 , or midnight, tsze ; 1 to 3, (4th watch, ) chow ; 3 to 5, ( 5th watch ,) yin ; 5 to 7 ,

maou ; 7 to 9, shin ; 9 to 11 , sze ; 11 to 1 or noon, woo ; 1 to 3, we ; 3 to 5 , shin ;

5 to 7, yew : 7 to 9 , ( 1st watch, ) seuh ; 9 to 11 , ( 2nd watch, ) hae .

By prefixing to these characters the words ching and keaou, these twelve periods are

divided into twenty-four hours ; each of which is subdivided into four kih or quarters.

Thus, ching-tsze denotes midnight, or from 12 to 1 o'clock ; while keaou- tsze denotes

from 11 till 12, ching- tsze yih kih denotes a quarter past 12 at night.

The night, from 7 o'clock in the evening to 5 in the morning, is also divided

into five kang, or watches, each watch consisting of one she-shin, or period of two

hours.

In reference to the compass, Tsze is the north, Woo the south , Maou the east, and

Yew the west. The other eight are intermediate points between these.

The following terms, which are the names of twenty- eight constellations, are also

employed to designate days.

1 keo ; 2 kang ; 3 te ; 4fang ; 5 sin ; 6 wei ; 7 ke ; 8 tow ; 9 new ; 10 neu ; 11 heu ;

12 wei ; 13 shih ; 14 peih ; 15 kwei ; 16 loo ; 17 wei ; 18 maou ; 19 peih ; 20 tsze ;

21 tsan ; 22 tsing ; 23 kwei ; 24 lew, 25 sing ; 26 chang ; 27 yil ; 28 chin.

These characters being applied in regular order to the days of the month, four

of them (those printed in italics) always mark the weekly sabbath, while the others

designate the week days respectively.

DYNASTIES BEFORE THE CHRISTIAN ERA. 197

errors, saying, " Let not the lives of the people be forfeited, on

account of the neglect of one individual. Is it that my govern

ment is extravagant, or that my palaces are too grand, or that the

wants of the people are not attended to ?" When he had ceased

praying, the rain is said to have fallen in great abundance, and to

the distance of several thousand miles .

1153 B.C. A remarkable character, Chaw, is said to have ruled

the empire at this period ; he was a tyrant by disposition , endowed

with supernatural strength, and was ruined by the fascinations of

a wicked woman.

This portion of Chinese history agrees with that assigned in

sacred history to Sampson.

Ven- Vang was the first sovereign of the Tcheou dynasty, whose

reign began B.c. 1122. This prince and his son Vou- Vang reigned

over the country round about Sy-gan-foo, in the province of

Shen-se.

According to this their territories could not have been very

extensive, as it is alleged in their more modern history that this

very province was in possession of barbarians. The first origin of

large cities and towns, was in order to keep in subjection the

barbarians as they conquered them ; so that their own history gives

the credit of building them to the Han dynasty.

Ching- Vang the successor of Vou- Vang, after consulting the

oracles, according to their dictation built a city at a place called

Fong, which was the centre of the world ; this city is alleged to

have been built in six days B.c. 1109, and was probably little better

than a camp .

" One of the causes," says M. de Guignes, " which have led the

Chinese into great errors with regard to the ancient state of their

country, is the having given to their ancient characters the accepta

tion which they did not acquire till later times .

" The characters which are now translated by the words emperor,

province, city, and palace, meant no more in former time than

chief of tribe, district, camp, and house : these simple meanings

did not flatter their vanity sufficiently, and they therefore preferred

employing terms which would represent their ancestors as rich and

powerful, and their empire as vast‫در‬and flourishing in the first year

of its foundation, as if by magic .

This learned and judicious writer says, their early history " is

entirely destitute of facts, extremely uncertain ; in a word, so far

from this empire having had an existence 3,000 years before the

Christian era, it has not been united together in a durable manner

above 529 years B.C."

Writers of the last century who wished to cast discredit on the

Mosaic narrative, readily propagated ideas of the remote antiquity

of the Chinese, which are fabulous, and at variance with Sacred

Writ. A discussion on this subject would , therefore, be out of

place ; it may, however, be safely asserted that China is the oldest

198 DURATION OF CHINESE EMPIRE .

empire extant, and that it has had existence as a civilized govern

ment for more than two thousand years .

It is stated by Chinese historians, that Confucius wrote two

histories, the Shoo-king (book of records) and the Chun-tsew ; the

former ends B.C. 722, and the latter commences .

The Chun-tsew, or history of his own times, is represented by

characters to denote " Spring (youth) and Autumn " (age). This

favours the opinion that the sage was unwilling to perpetuate

fabulous narratives, or stamp them with his authority.

The history of his own time consists of dry details of the twenty

one independent kingdoms, or principalities, into which China was

then divided .

The Shoo-king, which professes to give the several dynasties in

regular order, does not state the number of Emperors of the Hea,

or first dynasty, (B.c. 2206 to 1766, ) its duration , or the number

of years each Emperor reigned . The same omission is observable

in regard of the Shang dynasty. Some Chinese historiographers

give the duration varying from 644 to 446 years.

M. Biot has lately translated (1843) the Shoo - king, —“ Book of

Odes," which is undoubtedly the production of Confucius, and

met the fate of all the other ancient writings ; but, being in metri

cal pieces, was retained in the memory of the people, and more

likely to be authentic .

M. Biot says, " it is evident that this collection exhibits the

manners of the ancient Chinese in their purest state of nature,

and which are seen more easily than in the historical works, where

the facts are often buried under long moral discourses ." The

book has reference to a period antecedent to the Christian era

about six centuries.

Their dress is thus described : -Officers of state had six kinds of

dress ; the princes had seven. The court dress was woollen , em-

broidered with silk ; some courts adopted various furs to adorn

their dresses . The officers of the court wore a red collar to their

robe. The nobility wore various colours, except red, which was

imperial ; the caps were of skin (fur) ; the girdles of silk, fastened

by a clasp . The farmers wore straw hats tied with ribbons ; the

women wore undyed cloth, and a veil or cap .

The toilette was furnished with a mirror made of metal. Ladies

of rank plaited or frizzled their hair on each side of the head.

The children of the rich wore in their girdle an ivory needle , which

they made use of to untie a knot when they disrobed . Both men

and women anointed their hair or head.

The walls of the houses were of earth . The soil was beaten

hard, and upon the beaten foundation of the intended wall was

placed a frame of four planks, two of which corresponded to the

two faces of the wall ; the frame was filled up with moistened

earth, which is the mode of the present day. The doors were of

.

EARLY SEAT OF GOVERNMENT. 199

wood, except those of the very poorest, who stopped up the en

trance, in winter, with mud .

Their chief subsistence depended on the chase, which consisted

of wild fowl, boars, wolves, foxes, deer, and wild cattle (buffaloes) .

The agricultural productions were the same as those of the pre

sent day ; as were also the various metals , such as gold, silver, iron,

lead and copper .

From a very remote period the court or government of China

was held in the province of Shan- se : and , it is the general opinion ,

that the foundation of the empire was laid on the banks of the

Yangtzekang and the Hwang- ho rivers ; that from thence the

people spread themselves first in a northerly direction, and that

the province of Shan-se was chosen, because it enabled the Emperor

to oppose the barbarians from the northern regions.

An erroneous impression has prevailed that there has long been

internal peace in China, and a regular succession of sovereigns by

hereditary right : such is by no means the case. Dr. Gutzlaff and

Mr. Thornton have, at considerable length, and with much com

mendable zeal, translated and prepared several documents on this

interesting subject ; the following abstract will, however, suffi

ciently elucidate the various changes of rulers, although it is imA

possible to narrate in detail the crimes, murders, wars, anarchy,

and desolation which have overspread the land .

No nation has had so many historians as China from the time of

Confucius, who was born B.C. 550. He was the first who col

lected the records (bundles of wood), and formed them into a

history ; every age since his time has had its historians, many of

whom, however, are only transcribers .

Dr. Bridgeman, a master of the language, speaking of the

native historians, says, that a few are found among them whose

writings are remarkable for their originality of thought and purity

of diction, and that they have supplied rich and various materials

for composing a history of one of the first nations that existed .

He adds, that the author who would furnish a good history of

China must make up his mind to study carefully more than one

thousand volumes of native works .

THE CHOW DYNASTY.

B.C. 1001. Muh-wang, the " magnificent king," is reported to

have had an immoderate passion for horses, which Confucius says

were scarce in China. His love of pomp and splendour was ex·

hibited in constructing gorgeous palaces and temples. He de

clared war against the northern Tartars, who began to make

incursions across the frontier.

Modern Chinese history relates that this Emperor made a

journey to Mount Kwan-lun, and other places beyond his empire ;

200 ANCIENT CHINESE ODE .

B.C. 984. It is related by several historians, and confirmed by the

great chronological tables, that when this Emperor was at Kwan

lun, > a western prince, or princess, named Se-wang-mao,

(" Mother of the Western King,") paid him a visit ; that the two

princes interchanged presents, and entertained each other with

great magnificence. Their amusements comprised poetical com

position ; and two odes, said to have been written to each other,

are extant. The western prince, or princess, sent artificers to

China to construct palaces and gardens . Chinese authors are

divided in opinion as to what country they came from ; some say

Persia, others Arabia (Ta- tsin) .

The following is a literal version of these two odes :

SE - WANG - MOO's.

" White clouds float in the sky ;

The mountain-top appears in view,

Its distance far remote :

Hills and rivers intervene .

When we have a son, we die not :

Marry, and then you may return ."

MUH-WANG'S .

" I return to the eastern land :

I have reduced the nine tones to harmony.

The ten thousand people are in prosperity.

I regard you attentively :

For three years have I continued here :

Now I return to the deserted place."

Although the visit is not noticed by Confucius, it may neverthe

less have occurred, as it was foreign to his notions of propriety to

hold intercourse with foreigners . Some have traced an analogy

between this interview and the well-known visit of the Queen of

Sheba to King Solomon.

Another supposition is probable, that later authors may have

copied a mutilated relation of that occurrence from the Bible or

rabbinical writings .

The Shoo - King gives an expression of opinion, which Muh

Wang is said to have related of himself—thus, " my disposition in

clines towards what is wrong, but my resource is in my ministers,

who are bound to supply my defects by their prudence and ex

perience ; they should check me when I swerve from the straight

path, correct my perverseness, and expel from my mind what is

bad."

Muh-Wang is stated to have died в.c. 946, after a reign of fifty

five years .

Although great doubts are naturally cast on the traditional his

tory of China, yet there is less mythology or fable in their tradi

DATE OF ECLIPSES IN CHINA . 201

tions than in those of any other people except the Jews ; and the

eclipses recorded by the Chinese (who viewed with great awe these

natural celestial phenomena), attest the veracity of dates, at least

for two thousand six hundred years from the present day.

There was an eclipse of the sun on the day sin-maou, i . e . , first

of the tenth moon of the year Yih Chow, which corresponds with

the 6th of September, B.C. 778 . }

It is thus noticed in Chinese books :

" During the conjunction of the tenth moon with the sun,

The first day of the Cycle called Sin- maou,

There was something which devoured the sun ;

It was a very bad omen.

The moon we behold shone not ;

The sun we now see was dark,

And the poor people here below

Were in a sad, a deplorable condition .

The sun and moon (thus) announce great calamities,

When they accomplish not their revolutions," &c.

Among the lower classes of Chinese, the prevailing opinion

with regard to an eclipse is, that an animal, a monster of the frog

kind, having one leg and two fore paws, swallows the sun or moon ;

in consequence of which the priests in the temples, the people in

the streets, and the officers at the public courts, keep up an inces

ant beating of drums . As near the time of the commencement of

the eclipse as can be ascertained, each one sounds his drum as

loudly as he possibly can, in order to affright the frog, and cause

it to cast forth the luminary which it has seized . The noise of the

drums continues until the eclipse is over. Eclipses are generally

regarded with dread by the Chinese, and they present offerings to

the sun when he is thus obscured, believing some national calamity

to be portended. On the 7th day of 7th moon (7th of August),

unmarried females offer wine, flowers, and cosmetics to two of the

stars of the milky way.

The following record of eclipses is taken from the Chinese

Chronology of Gaubil, and found to correspond with the calcula

tions of European astronomers :—

B.C. B.C. B.C.

17 July . . 709 3 February* . 626 | 10 June • 531

: 10 October . 695 28 April . 612 9 April . 518

27 May . .. 669 20 September 601 14 November 511

10 November . 668 9 May 575 22 July • 495

19 August . 655 19 June . 549 19 April 481

The first eclipse of the moon on record in European books, was

observed at Babylon .

This eclipse is supposed by Volney to have been the same which was predicted

by Thales. Herodotus states this eclipse put a stop to the conflict between the

Lydians and Medes, under Cyaxarcs.

202 THE CHOW DYNASTY, B.C. 946.

To proceed with a record of the Chow Dynasty :--

B.C. 946 to 873. One of the successors of Mung-Wang, Heaou

Wang, conferred on one of his grooms, as a reward for his skill in

horsemanship, the principality of Shen - se, which, at a subsequent

period, overthrew the Chow Dynasty, and founded that of Tsin ,

better known as Tsin-Che Hwangte, who built the Great Wall of

China.

B.C. 873. The next sovereign on record is Le-Wang, " Cruel

and Tyrannical King ; " his cruelty, rapacity, and depravity, ren

dered him odious to his subjects ; some of whom lampooned his

actions in prose and verse. To stop their censure, he forbade his

subjects, on pain of death, to discuss his actions. To evade this

tyranny, the writers veiled their satire in allegory, exhibiting the

melancholy state of the empire, sunk in misery and discontent,

overrun with robbers and extortioners, thus, " there was a

tender and flexible mulberry-tree, which once over-shadowed a vast

space with its spreading branches . Its leaves are now dropping

sear and withered to the ground, and those who rejoiced beneath

its shade, spent with fatigue, can no longer find repose there."

B.C. 873. Le-Wang tried sorcery to discover his dissatisfied

subjects , and determined to put to death all whom the diviners.

named . Chaou -Kung, one of his ministers , warned him against ¿

adopting this method , as follows :-" so far from attempting to ex

tinguish the voice of the nation , you should give it free scope . It is

madness to think of stopping a torrent ; on the contrary , we must

deepen the channel , remove impediments , and open fresh sluices

for the water. So that when the discontent of your people acquires

暑 a dangerous volume , you should give it vent. The true policy of

government is to allow poets to sing , historians to write, ministers

to give advice, and the people to utter their sentiments : a govern ""

ment derives its best instruction from the tongues of the people.

Nothing better than this has been said in the middle of the nine

teenth century of the Christian era.

B.C. 846. Le-Wang persevered in braving the brim full torrent

of indignation of his people, and at last it broke out into open

violence . His palace was attacked, but he escaped . The enraged

mob demanded his child, and after a fruitless remonstrance of his

chief minister, Chaou-Kung, with the rebels, he surrendered his

own child, as that of the heir, who was instantly killed .

The Emperor ended his life after an exile of fourteen years ; a

}' regency was appointed : the faithful minister exerted himself to

quiet the people, and governed the country with zeal and ability.

B.C. 827. On the death of Le -Wang, his son was placed on the

throne, and called Seuen- Wang, " Proclaimed King ;" his reign

F was only seven years, but was stated to be a glorious one as re

garded internal peace . With the tributary tribes on the north and

south of his empire he had many contests.

INCURSIONS OF THE TARTARS, B.C. 781 . 203

B.C. 781. Yew- Wang, the " Retired King," was indolent, ex

travagant, and fond of pleasure ; he augmented the taxes, exhausted

the resources of the empire on a damsel whom he had taken, and

discarded his own wife, who obtained an asylum from the Prince

of Shin , who , with the aid of the northern Tartars, resented the

injury done to his family.

The Tartars, on this as on a subsequent occasion, showed more

energy than the Chinese. They took the Emperor prisoner, killed

him and his concubine, ravaged the country, and obtained great

booty.

The vassal princes became alarmed at the power of the Tartars,

roused their energies, and it was only by threats that their auxiliaries

were prevailed on to retire ; the princes of Shin , Chin, Tsin, and

Wei, having combined to expel them.

B.C. 776. The lawful heir of Yew- Wang was proclaimed Em

peror, under the title of Ping- Wang, " Pacific King ;" but the re

cords of this sovereign, and his successors in the dynasty, exhibit

a great extent of anarchy, crime, rebellion, and sensuality.

The united vassals, who placed Yew-Wang on the throne, and

successfully drove out the dangerous Tartars, obtained various

favours for their services .

↓ B.C. 747. The number of independent principalities in the em

pire at this date was twenty-one. Some of the vassal princes, who

were virtually independent, became dissatisfied, and renounced

their allegiance. The King of Tse seized a great part of Shantung ; t

Tsoo took Hoo- Kwang and Kiang- se ; and Tsin had quiet posses

sion of the large province of Shen- se, now containing an area of

154,000 square miles .

It may here be noted that one of the chiefs who expelled the

Tartars, was the Prince or King of Tsin.

Claude Visdelan, a learned Jesuit, states , " that the family of

the kings of Tsin was illustrious by its nobility and power. It exG

isted in great splendour more than 1000 years, and was only in

ferior to the royal dignity. Feitsz, a prince of this family, had

conferred upon him the sovereignty of the city Tsin Chow in mesne

tenure (en titre d' arriere fief) , with the title of sub-tributary

king .

About 122 years after this (B.c. 770) , Siangwan, petit roi of

‫لو‬ Tsin Chow, was created king in full tenure, without limitation .

The same Emperor abandoning Singan-foo, the capital of his em

pire, for his seat in Lohyang (Honan), made himself master of the

province of Shen- se . Though his fortune changed, he did not

change his title, retaining that of the city of Tsin Chou . The

kingdom of Tsin became celebrated , and being the place of the

first arrival of the people of the western countries, they gave this

name to all China.

B.C. 722, —was the forty-ninth year of Ping- wang's sovereignty,

204 THE SHO0 - KING OF CONFUCIUS . }

and Yin-kung, the Prince of Loo, began to reign. The history of

China, called Shoo-king, said to be written by Confucius, is dis

continued with this reign .

Confucius commenced a history, which is called Chun-tsew,

" Spring and Autumn." This history is said to be very authentic,

and comprehends historical details of the various states into

which the empire was divided .

The last chapter in the Shoo -king is devoted to an event which is

said to have occurred in 624 B.C. Muh-kung, Prince of Tsin , in

Shen-se, and the Prince of Tsin, in Shan-se, contended for power ;

the latter was victorious. Muh- kung dying in a few years, upwards

of 150 persons were compelled to kill themselves at the prince's

funeral, in order to attend him in the other world . This has

always been a Tartar and Scythian custom .

B.C. 719 to 618. The six successors of Ping- wang, who occupy

this epoch, had very disturbed reigns . The dissensions of the

several princes with each other gave rise to perpetual wars ; and

the constant inroads of the Tartars caused the reigning Emperor,

Hwan-wang, to die of grief and mortification .

B.C. 650. Hwang-kung, the Prince of Tse, became the most

powerful of all the princes, and was, by mutual consent, chosen

chief of their assemblies . Public affairs were well administered ;

1 arts, sciences, and commerce flourished, and men of talent were

encouraged at his splendid court.

B.C. 675 . Hwuy-wang was no sooner placed on the throne,

f

than a faction was formed against him, and his capital taken from

| him . The tributary princes came to his aid ; the capital was re

taken, after dreadful slaughter.

B.C. 645 . This Emperor intended that his youngest son should

succeed him , but the princes in an assembly settled that his eldest

son should reign . Seang-wang was declared emperor , but his

brother, Shoo -tae, intrigued against him, and successfully drove

him from the court by the aid of the Tartars . After some time ,

peace was proclaimed , and Shoo -tae retired to a distant place .

In 637, the reigning Emperor found it necessary to call in the

Tartars, to defend his capital against his vassals . He subsequently

married a Tartar princess, who proved faithless, and too intimate

with his brother. 4

Shoo -tae again incited the Tartars to revenge the insult (their

ruling passion) ; they drove Seang-wang from the throne, and

proclaimed Shoo -tae Emperor, who made the degraded Empress

his wife.

IM The most powerful of the vassal princes, Tsin, drove the Tartars

to their own territory, took Shoo -tae prisoner, put him to death,

and placed his brother again on the throne, who reigned until 617.

B.C. 618 to 606. Two Emperors reigned in this period, King

wang and Kwang- wang, who were well disposed towards their sub

BIRTH OF CONFUCIUS , B.C. 551. * 20

jects, but were thwarted in every measure by uncontrollable vassals,

so that their authority was only nominal.

B.C. 606. Ting-wang was chosen Emperor ; eleven of the vassal

princes combined with the Prince of Chao as their chief, to

endeavour to produce some tranquillity, the empire being torn and

distracted by the clashing of their separate interests . The history

of China is, in fact, nothing but a continued narrative of intrigues

and wars of the several principalities, most of which kept large

standing armies, who were employed killing each other, whilst the

common enemy (Tartars) plundered the poor people. It would be

only a waste of space to further narrate the latter years of the

Chow dynasty, as it would not be a history of a monarchy, but a

harrowing detail of crimes that far surpass anything on record.

In the midst of these scenes (B.c. 551 ) , Confucius was born ; and

his doctrines, which partake largely of inspiration and abound in

virtuous precepts, were well calculated to mould a tractable people,

and to ensure, so far as anything short of Christianity can secure,

the peace and happiness of a nation . In this reign was born

Laou-tsze, the founder of the Taou sect, that is, the " sect of rea

son. "

B.C. 606. The remarks of M. Remusat on the mythological his

tory of this prince of imposters, are to the following effect : he

says, " the biography of Laou- tsze is a tissue of absurdities, not

even of his own age, which have no connexion with the doctrine

in his book ; his followers, subsequent to the introduction of

Budhism into China, probably adopted the idea of incarnation

from India, and the pretended reappearances of the philosopher at

various periods, only mark the rise and declension of his principles ;

which were sometimes openly professed, and at other times perse

cuted ."

The learned professor saw striking analogies between Laou-tsze

and Pythagoras (B.c. 540) .

An interview is said to have taken place between Laou-tsze and

Confucius in the year 517 B.C. The former was 87 years old, and

the latter 35 ; Laou-tsze reproached Confucius with vanity and

worldly-mindedness, as exhibited by the pompous style in which

he travelled, and the number of his followers . " The wise man

loves obscurity ; so far from courting employments, he shuns

them he studies the times ; if they be favourable, he speaks ; if

corrupt, he yields to the storm . He who is truly virtuous, makes

no parade of his virtue ; he does not proclaim to all the world that

he is a sage . This is all I have to say to you : make the best of it

در‬Confucius said of Laou-tsze that " he knew the habits

you can.'

of birds, beasts, and fishes, and how to take them ; but as to the

dragon, he could not understand how it could raise itself in the

heavens . He had seen Laou-tsze, who resembled the dragon . " *

* The Chinese consider the dragon as a type of the cclestial genii.

206 NUMEROUS WARS AND INTRIGUES .

522 B.C. According to the native history " Chun-tsew" (said to

be written by Confucius, ) there is nothing recorded at this period,

but wars and intrigues of the numerous petty states into which the

empire was divided . The principal fiefs, at this time, were fifteen ;

the chief were called Tsin, Shuh, Pa, Wei, Kin, Yen, Kwo, Tsoo,

Wei, (the second,) Sung, Tse, Loo, Woo, and Yue .

Some of these petty principalities extended beyond the Yang

tzekang, but none of them reached the " Sea of the South ."

B.C. 519. On the death of King Wang, he left the throne to

his youngest son Chaou ; but his title was disputed by the eldest,

Mong, and each sought aid from their vassals ; the eldest was put

out of the way privately, after much loss of blood by the partisans

of each .

Mong's party proclaimed (Kae) his full brother, and was well

supported by the Prince of Tsin . After various contests, Kae was

victorious, and was crowned under the title of King Wang, and

soon caused Chaou's death.

B.C. 472. The Prince of Yue despoiled the Prince of Woo, of

his large territories, by which means he demanded the chieftainship

of all the vassals, and even subjected the hitherto powerful Prince

of Tsin to submission .

B.C. 440. The Emperor Ching-ting- Wang left three sons ; the

eldest was killed by the youngest brother, who was very soon after

I murdered by another brother ; the third brother became Emperor

Kaou - Wang.

B.C. 375. At this period the vassal princes became so formidable

that the authority of the Emperor ' Lee-Wang' was disregarded .

The Ching territory was conquered by the Prince of Han.

B.C. 366. During the reign of " Heen-Wang" the great Prince

of Tsin became the terror of all the other vassals, whose territories

adjoined his the Princes of Wei and Tsoo , therefore fortified their

provinces by great walls .

B.C. 342. The Prince of Tsin was declared chief of the vassals,

and attended court at the head of a large army to pay homage.

B.C. 332. Tsao attacked Yue and deprived him of his posses

sions, and he returned to the " Isles of the Eastern Sea." The

entire province of Che- Keang was subjected by the Prince of

Tsoo, who now assumed the title Wang ' King . ' His example was

followed by Han, Tse, Tsin, and a few others . The Emperor

Heen-Wang is said to have thrown the symbols of his authority into $

a lake, lest some of his vassals should obtain possession of them.

B.C. 317. Nearly all the other vassals conspired against Tsin,

‫و شیده‬

but he was more than a match for them . He obtained victories

over Chaou, Han, Wei, Yen, and Tsoo . He also subjected Sze

Chuen province, and a portion of Hoo - Kwang, from two chiefs, who

were called ' Kings of Shoo .'

(

B.C. 306. Nan- Wang.' During this reign high-wall-building,

to keep out the Tartars, increased ; the Prince of Chaou, (on the

L

GREAT WALL BUILT, B.C. 306. 207

northern frontier) built the great wall between the Hwang-ho and

province of Chih-le, and with the aid of a well- disciplined army, he

was the terror of these invaders . Yeu also drove them out of the

north of Chih -le, and built a great wall from Shan-se to Leaou-tung.

Tsin expelled them from the north of Shen- se, and a great wall

was constructed from Lin taou foo to the Hwang-ho, where this

river enters China.

B.C. 286. The Sung territory was invaded by the King of Tse.

The King of Yeu leagued with others against Tse ; but his death

caused the breaking-up of the confederacy .

B.C. 286. The King of Tsin, " Chaou- Seang" was every day

adding to his vast possessions . His grandson, E-jin, was left as

hostage at the court of Chaou, and the King of Tsin laid siege to

a town belonging to that prince. The Prince of Chaou determined

to kill the hostage : but he was foiled, by the aid of Leu-puh-Wei,

a merchant of Ho- nan, who concealed the hostage E -jin, in his

own house. Leu-puh-Wei had a concubine, with whom E -jin

became too familiar, and her former master gave her up .

B.C. 256. In process of time she was delivered of a son , who

subsequently became the great Emperor Che-hwangte . The mo

ther was declared the lawful wife of Prince E -jin, who was the heir

of the Tsin family .

B.C. 256. A simultaneous attack by order of the nominal Em

peror Nan-Wang' was made against the Prince of Tsin, but the

only vassal that responded to the call was Tse. This was sufficient

indication for 6 Chaou-seang' Tsin, who sent an army into the

imperial territories, and took thirty-five cities and towns .

The Emperor surrendered, and craved his life, but he died

soon after, and left no issue to contend with the usurper.

251. The usurper died and was succeeded by his son Heaou

Wau, who died in a few days after. Thus terminated the Chow

dynasty.

E-jin was proclaimed Emperor " Chwang-seang-Wang " and

his deliverer Leu-puh-wei, was made a prince and prime minister.

B.C. 256. The fourth dynasty was called Tsin, from which the

term Chin or China was probably derived . The first Emperor of

this dynasty obtained dominion over the various kingdoms of

which China was formerly composed. It is very probable that at

this time Tunking, Cochin China, and several other neighbouring

countries, were subdued and annexed to China. This supposition

respecting the origin of the term China is the more probable , from

3

the circumstance that the country was called throughout all ages

Chang-Kwo, i.e. the middle kingdom,' and likewise it had hitherto

taken the name from the reigning dynasty, such as Han, Tang, &c.;

but the victorious arms of this Emperor, having carried with them

his name, the surrounding countries have thus perpetuated and

handed it down to posterity. In the Latin tongue China is written

Sinae ; in the time of Marco Polo (A.D. 1260) the Chinese were

208 TSIN DYNASTY, B.C. 248 .

called Chin or Cin by the Japanese ; and they are so called by the

Siamese and the Cochin Chinese. In the Institutes of Menu

they are called Chinas ; Ptolemy A.D. 150, calls them Sin-ites.

THE TSIN DYNASTY .

B.C. 248. Chwang-seang-Wang, i.e. E-jin was imbued with the

ambition which long had characterised the Tsin family . He

attacked the Princes of Wei, Han and Chaou . To check his suc

cesses, five princes joined their forces to those of Wei, and defeated

the imperial army of 200,000 men. The Emperor died, it is said,

of grief, leaving the throne to his son (though only 13 years old) by

the concubine previously mentioned .

B.C. 246. Tsin- chehwang- te, i.e. Ching- Wang declined the title

of Emperor, chose that of King of Tsin , and made his old friend the

Honan merchant, Prime Minister. The former intimacy between

Leu-puh-Wei, and the empress-mother was now renewed ; and the

better to disguise his criminal intercourse, Leu-puh-wei intro

duced a young man into the court under the pretence that he was

a eunuch.

The empress -mother fell in love with this youth, by whom she

had two children. The grandees investigated the matter ; the }

youth fled , and carried off the imperial seal, and with it levied a

large army. Being devoid of talent for such an enterprise, he

was soon defeated , and, notwithstanding the interference of his

friend the prime minister, he was cut in pieces , with his two

children. Leu-puh-wei was deprived of office , and sent to a distant

part of the empire, where he soon died . The Emperor punished

his guilty mother with such severity, that the literati remonstrated

with him on his unfilial conduct ; but, in consequence of their

temerity, upwards of twenty of the literary nobility were executed .

Notwithstanding this, a noble of the house of Tse, reproached the

Emperor, and so worked on his feelings, as to succeed in causing

the empress to be released from a cruel punishment, and himself

to be raised to a distinguished office.

The Emperor at last met with a man of great ability, named

Le-sze, to whom he confided his long- cherished intention of con

1

solidating the numerous kingdoms into one empire.

B.C. 228. A commencement was made with the states of Chaou

and Yen : Le-sze, by his intrigues, having set them at variance ;

the troops of Yen were defeated by those of Chaou, who took the

Yen territory. The Emperor's aid was sought, and readily

granted ; his army was successful, he re-took the conquered terri

tory, and kept it. In the mean time, the intriguer had set the

two states of Wei and Choo at war respecting their boundaries .

An appeal was made to the Emperor to decide the matter, which

he did by seizing those of the former and annexing them to his

PLAN OF CONSOLIDATING THE EMPIRE. 209

own . He now attacked Chou, who was well supported by the

nobles, and met with a defeat ; but corruption and discord accom

plished his purpose ; Chou was taken and executed, together with

all his family.

B.C. 224. The King of Han, seeing the fate that awaited him,

proposed to become tributary, but that was not the policy of the

Emperor. The King of Han was brought to court, his territory

taken, and, being a man of no energy, was permitted to die a

natural death . The Wei state was the best fortified of all the

others ; the capital, in particular, was well defended : to ensure

success, the river Hwang-ho was made to flow into the city, which

had the desired effect. When the city was taken, the country

soon surrendered, and every branch of the family was murdered .

The Prince of Choo was next on the list, but the imperial troops

were here defeated with great loss . The second army sent against

Choo is said to have amounted to 600,000 men. The difficulty

of feeding such an army caused frequent conflicts with the escort

ing convoys. After many skirmishes, a general engagement took

place, in which the imperial troops were successful .

B.C. 220. The kingdom of Tse had yet to be conquered, and

some other petty statess ; thus, in a few years, China was consoli

dated into a large empire. Á native authority says, " the Tsins

acquired the mastery, not by their virtues or the force of good

government, but by craft, treachery, corruption, and wholesale

murder." All this was done in about twenty- six years .

A proposal was made to the Emperor to erect petty principalities

for the grandees and the royal princes, which he refused by saying

"good government is irreconcileable with a multitude of masters ."

His capital was Shen-se ; everything curious and valuable that be

longed to the vanquished states was conveyed thither, and all the

implements of war were converted into musical instruments, bells,

and statues of the several genii .

The Emperor now turned his attention to a survey of the em

pire, and saw the necessity of making roads for intercommunica

tion, from his travelling through a great portion of the country.

B.C. 215. A prophecy was spread that the dynasty of Tsin

must give way to that of Hoo . This title was supposed to refer

to the Tartars, and the Emperor prepared to subdue them. There

was a large country to the north of Shan-se, Shen-se , and Chih-le,

; called Ta- tan. The inhabitants were known by the names of

Huns, Turks, Mongols, and Tartars . The Chinese have no true

history of these tribes until B.c. 209. Their country is described

by early historians as bounded on the east by the Wo-leang-ho

(Mantchoo Tartary) ; on the south, by the Wall of China ; in Tar

tary it had the countries of Hami and Igaur, as far as the Irtish ;

on the north, its boundaries were the Kalkas and Eleuth empires .

These united tribes were called Heung-noos, and hence the

name of Huns, which signifies in Chinese, " unhappy slaves."

P

210 ORIGIN OF THE HUNS, AND GREAT WALL.

When China was parcelled out into states, the Heung-noos were

very formidable, and often successful in their incursions .

Gibbon says, " the plains of Scythia, i.e. Tartary, in every age

have been inhabited by vagrant tribes of hunters and shepherds,

whose indolence was such as to never cultivate the earth, and }

whose restless spirit disdained the confincment of a sedentary life.

In every age, the Scythians and Tartars have been renowned for

their invincible courage and rapid conquests . The thrones of

Asia have been repeatedly overturned by the shepherds of the

north." He places their country between the mouth of the

Danube and the sea of Japan ; 5,000 miles of longitude, and in

latitude from the Wall of China to Siberia.

After the Heung-noos subjugated the Tartars to the west of

Shen-se, the latter emigrated to the westward, and founded a large

kingdom, called Yue (which is supposed to be Parthia) , north of

the laxartes, extending to the Caspian Sea, also Khorasan and

Backtriana, which an ancient Chinese writer states is contiguous

to Keen-too (Hindu), i.e. India ; whither, he says, many mer

chants in his time (B.c. 100) convey goods from the province of

Sze-chuen.

Che-hwang-te, determined to exterminate the whole race, sent

a large army against the Heung-noos, and routed and slaughtered

many thousands of them . To effectually keep them out, that

extraordinary monument, the Great Wall, was constructed .

row, to give an idea of its extent, says, " the vastness of the mass

may be better appreciated by considering that it is more than

sufficient to surround the circumference of the earth, on two of

its great circles, with two walls each six fect high and two feet

thick ."

The previous history of this Emperor and his minister, strongly

favours the incident narrated in Chinese history, that he ordered

four hundred learned men to be buried alive, and books and annals

to be burned, in order to blot out the knowledge of the past, and

render his own dynasty the most celebrated . This barbarous in

cident is thus recorded.

B.C. 213. At an assembly of the grandees convened by the

1

Emperor, who was seated on his throne, he invited every one pre

-

sent to give a free expression of their sentiments on his govern

ment and policy, without any restraint or reserve ; at the same

time assuring them of his protection, no matter whether it met

their approval or no. The first speaker was most eloquent in his

adulation ; the second, a literary noble, was condemnatory, but

was called to order by the Emperor, who preferred hearing the

opinion of his prime minister, Le-sze, who directed his eloquence

against the literati, ridiculed their notions of antiquity, styled

them fools and rebels who ought to be deprived of that which only

ministered to their pride or their discontent. He proposed that

DESTRUCTION OF LITERATI AND BOOKS . 211

all books, except those on medicine, agriculture, divination , and

astrology, and, also, that the annals of the reigning family, be

destroyed within forty days. This presumption was overruled by

} an all-wise Providence, by the subsequent discovery of some books

of Confucius, in repairing an old house ; and the attempt to per

petuate his race failed, by the demise of his son in less than two

years after his own death, through which circumstance the govern

ment passed into other hands, and the dynasty was changed for

that of Han, by which name the Chinese wish to distinguish them

selves from the Tartars .

It is not improbable that China would have been Christianized,

but for the despotism that ruled the empire. The malcontents

were becoming so numerous that an example was made in the

capital, by causing upwards of 400 of the most distinguished of

the Confucian school (who were prepared for Christianity) to be

put to a cruel death . The Emperor did not even spare his eldest

son, Foo-soo, who, for daring to remonstrate with him against this

cruel act, was banished . To blot out effectually all remembrance

of the past, new characters were brought into use by Le-sze , which

were declared the only legal form. It is probable that these new

characters were an improvement on the former rude pictures or

symbols, and it is not unlikely were similar to the Egyptian hiero

glyphics. Some have said that the present Chinese characters arc

all resolvable into the Arabic numerals, viz .: three single strokes ;

two strokes united ; two across, &c. This would suggest an early

f intercourse between the Chinese and the Arabians, or descendants

of Ishmael.

B.C. 211. It should be recollected that the biographers of this

prince were more or less prejudiced against his rule. If he were

not one of the most wicked, he was one of the greatest their coun

try ever produced . His ambition was probably prompted by a re

gard for the welfare of his subjects. He rescued China from a

wretched state of anarchy, and much enlarged its extent. Inde

I pendent of the Great Wall, he constructed a road upwards of 600

miles long, in which hills were divided, valleys filled up, marshes

drained, and trees planted on each side of this road throughout its

whole extent. Upwards of 800,000 persons were employed to

1 complete his gorgeous palaces, and beautify his capital at Heen

yong. His character, in several respects, was like that of Na

i poleon ; he never disclosed what he intended to do, or where he

should reside, and generally kept moving about-to dissipate, it

was said, his gloomy reflections.

In one of his journeys in Shan -tung he was taken ill , saw his

approaching end , sent for his discarded son , Foo - Soo ; but before

the courier departed he died, in the thirty- seventh year of his

reign, and fiftieth of his age. B.C. 210.

The fame of Che-Hwangte extended throughout Asia ; the gran

P 2

212 FREE POLICY OF CHE- HWANG - TE .

deur of China was every where renowned ; for he literally per

mitted freedom of intercourse , and during his reign there was an

extensive traffic with India, the Eastern Islands, & c.

His death was concealed from his son, and a conspiracy was

entered into between Chaou-kaou, an eunuch, who held the seal of

the empire, and was the criminal judge . His object was to secure F

the throne to the second son, Hoo -hae.

The grandees were introduced to the bed-room of the Emperor

as if he was alive, and an edict was produced , appointing Hoo - hae

as his successor. The other two sons of the Emperor were soon

put out of the way, and Hoo - hae was proclaimed, Ur-she-hwang-te.

B.C. 210 to 202. The new Emperor was cruel and debauched,

and left all his affairs to the management of the eunuchs and Le

sze, who influenced the Emperor to kill the most illustrious nobles

in the empire.

Some of the nobles revolted, and the eunuchs despatched an

army against them. The person sent to head the army, was pre

vailed on by his officers to rebel against his sovereign, and was

ultimately declared King of Choo. The nobles followed the ex 1

ample, and all the old titles were restored, such as Choou , Wei,

Yen, and Tse. Lew-pang, the chief of a town called Pey, was

hailed as the Prince of Pey, and became an officer under Heong

Leang, general of the King of Choo .

B.C. 208. The ruling cunuch, hearing that his companion Le

sze intended to join the grandees, in laying before the Emperor

the true state of affairs, represented to his Majesty that Le- sze

was in concert with the rebels, and had been promised a kingdom

for himself. He was tried by a jury composed of eunuchs, con

demned, and cut in pieces, with many others .

The eunuch Chaou-kaou was made prime minister, and seeing

the state of the empire, he determined to depose his sovereign .

To do this, he procured a number of troops to surround the palace

at night, and represented them as the rebel army, knowing that

the Emperor would destroy himself rather than fall into the hands

of the enemy ; this stratagem succeeded as he expected it .

The eunuch raised Tze-ying, a son of Foo- soo, to the throne.

This prince was well aware of the dreadful character he had to

deal with, and a few days after he was crowned, feigned illness. 1

The eunuch attending him alone, the Emperor stabbed him ; a cirM

cumstance which excited universal joy .

Two generals now aspired to the imperial throne, Heang-tse and 1

Lew-pang ; the latter reached the capital first, and the Emperor,

having no means of resisting, surrendered his crown and seal of

authority. On the arrival of the other general, his disappointment

knew no bounds, he murdered all before him, and burned the

great city, (Heen-yan) , which the late Emperor was thirty years

beautifying. He then retured to the eastward.

B.C. 204. The King of Choo was proclaimed Emperor by the

HAN DYNASTY, B.C. 202 . 213

General Heang-tse, under the title of E- te, taking a title for himT

self, which he called Pa-wang . The empire was now divided into

several kingdoms : Lew-pang was King of Han . Heang-tse be

came odious to every one, several battles took place, but ultimately

Heang- tse was defeated, and become his own executioner at the

close of the year B.C. 203. Thus terminated the Tsin Dynasty.

THE HAN DYNASTY, FROM B.C. 202 To a.d. 255 .

Lew -pang, the captain of a band of robbers, with the aid of the

Prince of Tsoo, declared himself Emperor, under the name Kaou

tsoo . He was the grandsire of many Emperors, and possessed a

daring and jealous disposition . His policy was to conciliate the

Chinese, and, for this end, he patronized the Confucians, and re

stored the scattered sages . He murdered every living branch of

the last dynasty, (the last scion was Tsze-ying) , and caused their

bones to be disinterred and burnt. His death took place B.c. 195 ,

leaving for his successor a child of tender years .

His mother became regent, and aided by experienced ministers,

ruled with a firm hand ; her son dying before he reached the throne,

she kept possession . Her ambition and cruelty knew no bounds ;

and had not a fit of sickness carried her off, she must have met

with an untimely death . She was the first female who ever ruled

the Chinese.

B.C. 180. Wan-te, a descendant of Lew-pang , was chosen suc

cessor, lived in peace, redressed many grievances , and was the first

who gave a distinctive name to his reign , which has been ever since

followed up.

Wan -te died 157 B.C. , leaving a good character be

hind him, which had been a novelty in China for many centuries .

Under his reign the Chinese invented paper .

B.C. 157. His successor, King-te, murdered a young prince,

whose father fomented a rebellion to revenge his son's death, but

was defeated by the imperial forces. Between earthquakes and

locusts, this was a most calamitous reign for the people. King-te

died B.c. 141 .

B.C. 141 . Woo -te, the next Emperor , was early called to con

tend against the old enemies , the Huns or Tartars ; intrigues , tri

butes , and alliances , all failed ; arms were then tried, and a tem

J porary victory was gained over them . In this reign commenced

a violent struggle for supremacy between the founder of Taouism

(Laou-tsze), and the disciples of Confucius . This Emperor's cha

racter was both cruel and superstitious . He reigned fifty-four

years.

B.C. 86. Chaou- te, the son of the last Emperor, ascended the

throne at seven years of age, but died B.c. 74 ; the same scenes of

bloodshed were witnessed in this short reign between the cast and

west Tartars, who attacked the frontier provinces .

214 CHINESE AND ROMAN EMPIRES MEET .

B.C. 74. Chaou-te's uncle succeeded him, but was dethroned by

the nobles .

B.C. 73. Suen-te was the greatest patron of literature that

China had seen for many years. He subjected the Huns, and

ruled without interruption to the Caspian, by the aid of an able

prime minister, Ho -kwong. A plot was set on foot by his own

daughter to murder him and all his ministers, which was timely

discovered.

About this period the Roman and Chinese Empires gradually

approached each other, and they appear to have coalesced during

the Han Dynasty for the subjugation of the Parthians, who were

attacked by the Romans on the west, while the Chinese despatched

a general from the east to the Caspian, which he refused to cross,

hearing the passage would occupy from five to twelve months. He

was punished for his cowardice.

B.C. 48. Yuen- te reigned sixteen years, during which time he

devoted his time to promoting ancient literature. Famine, and

a fresh war with the Tartars, rendered all his efforts to improve

the condition of the people futile .

B.C. 32. Ching- te, son of the last Emperor, was called to the

throne ; but bent on devoting himself solely to libertinism and dis

sipation, he entrusted all power to his maternal uncles. He died

suddenly, and was succeeded by his nephew.

Notwithstanding his own dissipation , he thus remonstrates with

his subjects, " We see nothing now but extravagance ; my officers

build great mansions, make extensive gardens and vast lakes, and

entertain in idleness a crowd of slaves in their chariots, dresses,

marriages, funerals, and in everything, their expenditure is ex

cessive .'>>

B.C. 8. Gae-te, a man of good understanding, was unable to

carry out his good intentions, through a faction that surrounded

his court. He died the year Our Saviour was born .

Gae-te mourned over the disorders arising from extravagance.

in feasts, dress, vain ornaments, and from " the passion for the

tender and effeminate music of the kingdom of Chin and Wei,"

which he states has inspired libertinism . He consequently banished }

music from the palace except that which was required for religious

ceremonies, and for the instruments used in war.

A.D. Ping-te, (styled the " Prince ofPeace," which was a remark

able title to have been given at the commencement of the Chris

tian Era) , the grandson of Yuen- te, was the lawful heir to the

throne, although only nine years of age. The regency was usurped

by an ambitious noble, Wang-mank, whose object was to ascend

the throne, and so change the dynasty. After a dreadful struggle

he was killed .

A.D. 25. Kwang- woo- te was forced by his soldiers to take the

throne, and his first act was to declare a general amnesty. He

collected about him a most vigorous government ; restored order

" TERMINATION OF THE HAN DYNASTY. 215

and humbled the Huns. He prosecuted a long war with Cochin

China, and never ceased until he penetrated to Cambodia. He

died after a successful reign of thirty-two years.

A.D. 58. Ming-te, a son of the last Emperor, sent an embassy

to Hindostan, to import a foreign religion , in the form of Budhism ,

• which soon spread all over the empire. The Emperor was a patron

of learning, but his efforts to benefit the empire were greatly frus

trated by continual wars with the Tartars, who spread devastation

along the western frontiers. He reigned 18 years .

A.D. 73. Chang-te . This reign is celebrated for a great victory

over the Tartars, who were driven into the interior of their country

2000 le. (Chinese miles .) In this reign lived a celebrated authoress,

Pankoo ; her chief merit was in assigning to her own species, the

most inferior duties . To this strange doctrine must be attributed

the degradation of the female sex to the present day. After

Chang-te's death, boys, girls, and women reigned, and the greatest

distress and confusion prevailed .

A.D. 220. Three claimants now aspired to the throne, Tsaou-pe,

Chaou-le, and the Prince of Woo, who had hitherto ruled over a

great portion of southern China. The confused state of the em

pire may be imagined ; natural calamities were numerous, and no

one in authority cared for the distresses of the people. How-te,

the lawful Emperor, in a fit of despair, abdicated the throne in

favor of the Prince of Wei, and against the wish of his son, who

killed himself and his whole family, A.D. 263. With this tragedy,

the Han Dynasty ceased .

The Chinese still pride themselves on their being the " Sons of

Han," whose dynasty they consider the most glorious . Great

efforts were made for the encouragement of literature, and the

officers of government were chosen from among the literati .

The Tartars were bribed to quietude by giving their chiefs the

daughters of the Han rulers in marriage. During the continu

ance of the Han dynasty, the several Emperors had conquered

many remote regions, with the view of bringing them under the

transforming influence of their empire. Yet it was not until the

reign of Woo-te, (A.D. 265) that the south of China became subject

to or incorporated with the empire. A practice was then adopted

¡ which is continued to this day, viz. : -purchasing the loyalty of

their semi-barbarous subjects . In a memorial from a minister to

the Emperor Wan-te,* he says " behold a monstrous fact ;

although the Emperor is the head of the empire, and the barba

rians on the frontiers, but the inferior extremities, or fect, yet the

Tartars in our day offer us perpetual insult, and to evade them

large sums in silver or goods are paid them every year. To demand

this kind of tribute is to assume the character of masters ; to pay

it is to reduce ourselves to the condition of subjects- the feet

at top, the head at bottom- What a shameful derangement !"

* State papers collected by Kang-he, a copy ofwhich is in the Royal Library ofPatis

216 CIVILIZATION DURING HAN DYNASTY .

We have an evidence of the state of civilization during the Han

Dynasty as contrasted with a previous period, in a memorial from a

minister under Woo- te, which describes the hypocrisy, dissimulation,

knavery, and intemperance of this period. The Hans were the

first who imposed a tax on the sale of wines . He contrasts the

period with that of Wan-te, ( B.c. 179) " whose nether garment

was of leather, a common strap served to hold his sword ; his seat

was a common mat ; his house had no rich or handsome furniture ;

his only ornaments were his wisdom and his virtue .” “ Now" (said

the memorialist) " your palace is a city ; your women are covered

with diamonds and jewels ; your horses are richly harnessed ; your

dogs have rich collars, and even to the vessels of wood and clay, all

are covered with ornaments : you have cast balls of great size, your

drums emulate thunder, to say nothing of your dramas, concerts,

and dances." There must also then have been great wealth in the

M

empire, for under the reign of Hwang- te (A.D. 190,) a prime minis

ter named Tung- cho directed all public affairs ; was master over

the princes, and even over the Emperor himself. He compelled all

who approached him to bend the knee under pain of death, the

slightest murmur to his will was visited with the penalty of decapi

tation, under his own eye. At last the Emperor summoned courage

to sign the death-warrant of Tung-cho, and he was privately des

patched. The annals state there were great rejoicings at his fall .

There are said to have been found in his coffers more than

30,000 lbs . weight of gold, 90,000 lbs . weight of silver and pearls,

and jewels beyond count.

The Han Dynasty is so celebrated in Chinese history, that to

this day " a son of Han" is identified with everything that is

great and glorious and he must be still a hero.

That distinguished scholar, Remusat, says that the Chinese at

this period (see Embassies) began to have political relations and a

regular communication with the countries of the west. It was

under Woo-te that the Chinese Ambassador, Chang-keen, on reach

ing Ta-wan and Ta-hae, found that the inhabitants had pre

viously heard of the power and wealth of China, and to culti

vate a better acquaintance they facilitated the envoy's progress

to Sogdiana. The countries that he entered into friendly relation

with were Ta-wan (Shash) ; Ta-yue-che (Transaxiana) ; Kang-keu

(Sogdiana) Ta-hea (Bactriana.) The Ambassador brought detailed

accounts of six other kingdoms that he had heard of on his route,

amongst which is a country he called Shin-too (Hindus) . He

also reported that the people of Sze- Chuen province had intercourse

and traded with Bactriana across the Tibetian mountains .

Between the periods, B.c. 86 to 48, the government of China

took a most active part in the disputes of the Princes of Tartary .

They protected their vassal the King of Shen-shen, whose terri

tory was situate to the W. of Lake Lop ; to the S. of Tartary,

their jurisdiction extended to Khoten and Yarkand .

J

EVENTS DURING THE HAN DYNASTY . 217

B.C. 59. The Chinese government had political agents styled

commanders, in Pe-seu, Kean- she and Soo- che, and a Chinese go

vernor-general controlled Sogdiana and several other countries to

the west, although not united to China.

B.C. 6. Western Tartary was divided into fifty-five states ,

the respective princes of which were vassals of the empire .

A.D. 75. The Chinese conquests extended to the E. and S. as

well as the W. having subjected Corea, Cochin-China, and the

island of Hai-nan . After the conquest of Corea by the Emperor

Woo -te, intercourse between China and Japan is said to have com

(

menced . The Chinese historian Ma-twan-lin' thus writes, "the

territorial expansion exhausted the resources of the nation, for

the sake of aggrandizement which yielded no advantage.”

A.D. 107. All the states of Tartary revolted .

A.D. 166 to 240. According to Colonel Burney, the conquests of

China were carried to the banks of the Irrawaddi. Ta-guang, at

that time the seat of the Burmah Empire, is said to have been

destroyed by the Tartars and Chinese. In the Samhu Purana, a

person called Manja Ghok is said to have led a colony into Nepal

from China. The maximum population under the Chows is given at

13,704,920 men, excluding females and children ; the custom was to

note those only at 15 and 60 years of age, there being at that

period no capitation tax. The told population is put down at nearly

22,000,000 ; " the empire" comprehended little more than one half

of China as now laid down . The south of China was inhabited by

hordes of savages ; and Che-keang, Foo -kien, Keang-si, and Kwang

tung, in Woo-te's reign were covered with forests, and the moun

tains were infested with wild beasts . According to native authors,

the free population under the Hans, was about 83 millions.

The civil wars which followed the division of the empire into

three states under the latter Hans, must have considerably reduced

the population .

DATE OF CENSUS . KINGDOM. FAMILIES . INDIVIDUALS.

A.D. 220 Wei 663,000 4,432,880

? ‫در‬ 220 Shuh 200,000 900,000

91 240 Woo . 520,000 2,300,000

1,363,000 7,632,000

During this period there were several epidemical diseases, but

the disorganized state of the country by what were called the

" yellow caps," and the swarms of robbers, that for years lived on

the industrious classes, frequently suspended agriculture, and

caused extensive emigration . Ma-twan-lin says, " the fields were

covered with human skeletons, and great numbers of people were

killed ."

218 ARTS AND SCIENCES , B.C.

The improvements in arts and sciences under the Han Dynasty,

are said to have been paper, pencils, and ink ; - sculpture, painting,

and bell-casting : bridge- building and pagodas denote the existing

knowledge of architecture. One of their ancient bridges, or as

they call them " flying bridges," still exists in Shen-se province ;

it stretches 400 feet from one mountain to another, over a chasm }

500 feet deep . These bridges are said to be wide enough for four

horsemen to ride abreast, and the sides are well protected against

accidents. Necessity compelled a Chinese general to invent them,

to enable his troops to travel.

Wan-te interdicted the use of gold and silver plates ; silk was

common to all classes, and was chiefly made by females. Wan-te

made his empress work at her needle as an example to all his sub

jects. As to agriculture, King-te says, " wherefore should so

much attention be paid to sculpture, and vain ornaments which

only injure agriculture ? I plough the ground myself every year,

and the Empress rears silk-worms . I aspire above all things to

make agriculture appreciated ." In abundant seasons the govern

ment became the purchasers, and when it was scarce they sold

to the people . This plan was soon abused ; and the state traf

ficked to the general injury of the public . The system is still

maintained, and great abuses practised .

A remonstrance was addressed to Ching -te on the great expendi

ture of the Royal Mausolea . The Mausoleum of Chehwang-te was

thus described : " above the edifice rose like a mountain ; its height

Ka

was 500 feet, and it was half a league in circuit . It was so capa

cious within, that you might walk about at your ease as in a

saloon. Around were lamps and flambeaux fed with human fat .'

On one side was a tank of mercury, in which swam birds of gold

and silver ; on the other side were rich furniture, arms, and costly

jewels." All the wealth contained in this edifice was carried

off in the civil wars, when those places in general were plundered,

avarice overcoming the strong prejudice against disturbing the

dead.

The state slaves under the Hans are said to have numbered

100,000, and at some periods amounted to as many as 300,000. 1

The expense of supporting them became sometimes so great that 1

they were consequently enfranchised . Under Wan-te, frequent

It was

mention is met with of presents being made of slaves .

made lawful for parents to sell their children, to prevent the inhuSt

man practice of infanticide. Woo-te prevented masters from

killing their slaves at will. Gae-te limited the number of the

slaves attached to the high officers . Kwang- woo assumed the power

of enfranchising private slaves by edict, A.D. 27, in which he de

clared every female free who should be purchased by any individual

to be his wife. Domestic slavery is treated of by Sir George

Staunton as a mild species of servitude.

The following remarkable document, taken from the ancient state

COLLEGE ADDRESS TO STUDENTS , B.C. 219

papers collected by the Emperor Kanghe, in 1715, shews that how

ever distracted the state of the empire, literature was sedulously

cultivated . The address is said to have been delivered to 700

students at the college of Pan-yang. " You enter this place of

learning in order that you may be taught to speak with propriety,

to write correctly, and above all, how to live well. You come here

ta lay the foundation of virtue, to qualify yourselves for being use

ful to the state ; in a word, to acquire true wisdom. You must be

forewarned that at first these studies have nothing agreeable or

attractive in them ; on the contrary they may be repulsive to you.

But in time you will imbibe a relish for them; different exercises will

succeed each other ; you will gradually improve, and become fond of

that study which daily increases the amount of your knowledge.

You will make discoveries yourselves, and will be eager to prosecute

them ; your minds will expand ; your hearts will dilate ; you will

feel the intrinsic worth of wisdom, and haste in the pursuit of it,

which surpasses every other, and yields more real enjoyment than

all other pleasures combined . You will be astonished to find

everything changed, almost without knowing how ; and the tinge

which study imparts to the mind and heart is more permanent

than any other dye ; for if properly taken, it retains for ever the

beauty of its tints ."

THE TSIN DYNASTY, A.D. 264 To 420.

The founder of this Dynasty was Sze-ma-yen, originally only a

ruler over the Tsin principality ; but with an ambitious eye he

watched the proceedings of the three last Emperors, saw them

wasting their strength, and, embracing the firstopportunity, to

the astonishment of every one, proclaimed himself Emperor in his

own province, Honan. Having seen the cause of the destruction

of the last dynasty, he banished all the partisans of the Han and

Wei from court ; and endeavoured to unite the empire under

one head. After living a most sensual life, with, it is recorded ,

5,000 females in his harem, he died A.D. 290 .

A.D. 291. Hwuy-te, who was very young when called to the Ľ

¡

throne, left the government to his wife, who not only employed

people to murder her enemies, but actually perpetrated many cold

blooded murders with her own hands. The Huns again visited

J China, and committed great devastation. The Emperor died in

307. A.D.

A.D. 307. Hwae- te, a well- disposed prince, endeavoured to re

store order, but the King of Han proclaimed himself Emperor,

killed the young heir, took Hwae-te prisoner, and made him

attend at his table as a servant. Of all the tyrants and relentless

monsters that ever existed in China, Hwac-te surpassed them all .

The next prince who should have reigned was Ming-te, but he was

murdered.

220 TSIN AND SUNG DYNASTIES .

A.D. 317. Sze-ma-juy, or Yuen-te, a distant branch of the Tsin

family, escaped the slaughter, and after the death of the King of

Han, was unanimously called to the throne ; but bloodshed and

misery ensued, to increase which, the Tartars joined different sides,

and engaged in the general plunder- their favorite work. Children

1

were called to the throne, and when grown up, were disposed of in

a private way. Others were kept concealed, and ignorant of what

was occurring . One ofthem, Gan-te, had a general, named Lew-yu ,

who completely overthrew a numerous tribe of Tartars, which had

disturbed the whole empire. Lew-yu murdered nearly all the

imperial family, except Kung-te, who very soon abdicated the

throne, by which means this dynasty was terminated.

SUNG DYNASTY, A.D. 420 тo 479 .

Lew-yu, or Woo - te, poisoned the last Emperor, Kung-te, and

now reigned in his stead ; his birth was humble ; he possessed

some talent, but his cruel disposition knew no bounds. The

Tartars had made successful settlements in the north and west of

China, and founded separate kingdoms for their chiefs . Under

Wan-te, Budhism became the most fruitful source of annoyance to

the government, and the votaries of this degrading doctrine were

cruelly persecuted . Wan-te was killed by his own son, whose

brother succeeded to the throne, under the name of Heaou-woo - te .

This prince commenced well, but ended like all the rest ; and there

is no other event in the remainder of the dynasty but cold-

blooded murders of the most horrible description. Of numerous

lawful claimants to the throne, only one (Ming-te) died a natural

death. There were eight reigning Emperors of this dynasty,

and six of them were cruel monsters . One of their chief gene

rals, Seaou Taouching, usurped the throne. He first obtained

the principality of Tse, and set aside every branch of the Sung

race, A.D. 477.

During the sway of this dynasty, China was a scene of incessant

contests, between foreign invaders and rebellious subjects, strug }

gling with each other for the divisions of an empire which had

been consolidated by the Tsins and Hans.

Independent of the Tartars, there were more than 100 tribes

of Western Keangs, i.e. Tibetians, dispersed along the banks of

the Yangtzekiang and Hwang-ho rivers. Chinese historians dis

criminate between these tribes ; some were settled and others

roving.

In this short space of time, the Tartars founded sixteen inde

pendent kingdoms in China, according to Mailla's translation of

native history.

TSE, LEANG, AND CHIN DYNASTIES . 221

TSE DYNASTY , A.D. 480 тo 502 .

Seaou-taou-ching, the founder of this Dynasty, took the name of

Kaou-te, and kept his court at Nanking. Native historians com

prise all the dynasties from Sung to Suy under the name of Nan

pih-chaou, i.e. southern and northern ; as there existed, for 200

years, two independent empires in China, the North and South ;

one Tartar, and the other Chinese.

This Emperor promised well for the peace and prosperity of the

empire ; was a man of vigorous mind, and although not a disciple

of Confucius, he possessed great practical wisdom for governing.

He died in A.D. 482.

Woo-te, a son of the last Emperor, was very deficient of the

abilities possessed by his father. Neglecting the government, he

became an enthusiast in the doctrines of Budhism, so that super

stition reigned triumphant amongst court and people . Two con

tending philosophers graced this reign ; one for the mortality of

the soul, and the other for the immortality of the body : materialism

in all its pernicious forms was established . The Emperor died

A.D. 493 .

A.D. 494. A grandson of the last Emperor was the lawful heir,

but the throne was usurped by Seaou- lun, the prime minister, who

took the name Ming-te. The northern Emperor waged war against

the usurper, but the natural death of both defender and usurper

prevented a struggle. His third son, Paou-keuen, inherited the

throne, A.D. 499 , but was dethroned by one of his generals,

Seaou-yen, who took the name of Leang, and established a new

dynasty by that title.

LEANG DYNASTY, FROM 502 TO 557 A.D.

Leang-woo- te renewed the war with the northern empire, which

then was established in the province of Honan, and was governed

by a most extraordinary woman, Mung-she, who headed her army

in most of the bloody contests. Leang-woo -te withdrew from the

contest, being unable to obtain a victory ; and devoted the re

mainder of his life to Budhism. Haw-king, one of his generals,

usurped the throne, but spared the Emperor's life, but he soon

died, a miserable outcast . The lawful heir was killed by the

usurper. The people forced Yuen-te to the throne, but the

general outmanoeuvred them all, and founded a new dynasty

(Chin) .

CHIN DYNASTY, FROM 557 To 589 A.D.

A.D. 557 to 589. Chin-pa- Seen, an usurper, only lived two years,

and was succeeded by his son, Wan-te, who had abilities, and was

222 SUY AND TANG DYNASTIES .

likewise disposed to relieve the people from oppressive taxation .

He died in 566 : his successors, Pe-tsung, Chin-heu, Haw-te,

all reigned for short periods, and wholly gave themselves up to sen

suality.

The Suy state at this period became powerful, and its ruler,

Yang-keen, was an ambitious man ; he resolved to unite both the

empires (which had been divided from 420 to 589 A.D., by the

Yangtzekang river, ) to his sway. This he easily accomplished,

and became the founder of the Suy Dynasty A.D. 589 .

SUY DYNASTY , FROM 590 TO 618 A.D.

Yang-keen, or Kaou-tsoo , now governed the two kingdoms under

his own crown, and this gave a shock to the Tartars. To reconcile

them, he bestowed a princess on one of their chiefs, which had the

desired effect. The King of Corea refusing to pay tribute, was

very soon humbled . This Emperor paid great attention to litera ¿

ture. Domestic discord of a revolting kind hastened his death

in 604.

His son, Yang-te, succeeded him, by murdering the lawful heir ;

he was also murdered himself, and the crown was usurped by one

of his generals , Le-yuen, who changed the dynasty to the Tang,

A.D. 618.

TANG DYNASTY, FROM 619 a.D.

Le-yuen, or Kaou-tsoo, an usurper, was descended from a dis

tinguished family, and his military talents were of the first order ;

he encouraged learning, and was a determined enemy of the Bud

hist and Taou sects . In the second year of his reign, the western

provinces were attacked by the Turks, but the Emperor was a

good politician as well as general ; his policy made this horde of

barbarians turn their attention to the western world, and thus

saved China from their dreadful yoke. During six years ' reign he

subjugated the whole empire, and resigned in favour of his son,

after nine years' reign.

A.D. 627 to 640. Tae- tsung had fought many of his father's

battles, and was, therefore, a warlike Emperor. His memory to

the present day is revered by the Chinese ; his maxims are found

in modern printed books, and his impartial administration is

recorded as a good example to posterity. He conquered Tur

fan, expelled the Tibetians, and extended the frontiers of his

empire to the borders of Persia. From a translation of a stone

monument discovered in the province of Shen - se, in 1625 , with

Syriac characters on it referring to this period, it is conjectured

that some Nestorian Christians were favoured by this Emperor .

The monument had a cross on it, and an abstract of the Christian

law. It will hereafter be more fully described .

REBELLIONS, MURDERS, AND INFAMY. 223

I

The successor to Tae-tsung, being a scholar, great expectations

were anticipated from his reign ; but, unfortunately for the em

pire, the harem ruled , with the aid of the eunuchs, over the Em

< peror, and two of his successors .

Chung-stung ascended the throne, A.D. 684, but the empire may

be said to have been governed by his mother, represented as a most

cruel monster. The eunuchs now controlled all the affairs of the

government, the Emperor's authority being nominal. It would be

difficult to make any distinction between all the Emperors that

disgraced this dynasty ; imbecility was their prevailing character .

Heen-stung was a vile monster ; Chaou-tsung endeavouring to free

himself from the eunuchs, called to his aid a band of robbers, who

successfully carried his intention into effect, but dethroned the

Emperor in 903 .

The chief of the robbers put Chaou- suen- te on the throne, and

subscquently he usurped it himself, and founded a dynasty called

How Leang, and either banished or killed every branch of the Tang

dynasty.

THE HOW LEANG DYNASTY, FROM 907 TO 923 a.d.

The robber and founder of this Dynasty, with all his followers,

contrived to reign sixteen years ; the history of which surpassed,

if possible, all others, in the usual train of murders, rebellions, ab

dications, infamy, cruelty, and imbecility. The Tartars made themJ

selves masters of a large portion of China, settled in Leaou-tung,

and established an independent empire. The usurper was mur

dered by his son, who in turn was killed by his own brother, and

he was attacked and dethroned, A.D. 923, by a descendant of Le

ke-kung, who ascended the throne, and founded the How Tang

dynasty.

THE HOW TANG DYNASTY, FROM 924 тo 936 A.D.

Chwang-too, the founder, was in the last dynasty an able general ;

¿ but as soon as he obtained the throne, his licentious and cruel

disposition was exhibited . His subjects were reduced to starva

tion, while he hoarded up uncounted wealth ; his avarice knew no

bounds . Several rebellions broke out during his reign ; he was

killed in battle by an arrow.

A.D. 926. Ming-tsung was an adopted son of the last Emperor,

and a Tartar by birth. He successfully fought against his own

countrymen, greatly reduced the influence of the nobles, and for

nine years paid strict attention to the social wants of his subjects.

The lawful heir was dethroned by his son-in-law, She-king- tong ;

the troops joined the usurper. The Emperor, seeing no hope of

successful resistance, destroyed all the insignia of royalty, killed his

empress, all his children, and then himself. A.D. 936 .

224 STRUGGLES WITH THE TARTARS .

1L

THE HOW TSIN DYNASTY, FROM 936 TO 946 AD .

i

She-king-tong, the usurper, rewarded the Tartars for aiding him

to ascend the throne, by ceding the province of Chih-le, and a large

annual tribute . His son, Chuh-te, succeeded him, A.D. 943, and

was killed while opposing the Tartars. His general usurped the }

throne, calling it the How-han dynasty.

HOW HAN DYNASTY , FROM 947 TO 950 A.D.

Le-che-yuen, the general in the last dynasty and founder of this,

kept the Tartars at bay for the short period of his reign. His son,

Yin-te, was no sooner on the throne, than the western provinces of

the empire rose in rebellion . The Emperor was slain on his way

to the scene of action . His brother, Lew -pin, was compelled to

yield the throne to one of the generals, Kwo -wei, who as usual

founded a new dynasty .

HOW CHOW DYNASTY, FROM 951 TO 960 A.D.

The general, Kwo - wei, only reigned three years ; but the throne

was at last honoured by a just and able prince, She-tsung. His at

tention was first turned to education , which had been long on the

wane. He is also reported to have destroyed the idols , or converted

them into cash. He was so enamoured of agriculture as to have

a plough placed in a conspicuous place in the palace . He waged

war against the prince of Han, but was unable to keep the wily

Tartars within bounds . His son Kung- te was a minor, and was

placed under a prime minister, Chaou-kwang-yin, who by universal

consent was called to the throne himself, and thus became father

of the celebrated Sung Dynasty.

THE SUNG DYNASTY, FROM 960 TO 1279 a.d.

Chaou-kwang-yin, the fortunate soldier, had talents for military

exploits, and an ambition to govern the whole empire himself ;

some states surrendered quietly ; but the northern Han princes

joined the Tartars ; temporary victories and defeats were nume

rous ; and the blood that was shed, surpassed any thing recorded

in Chinese history . He died in 976 ; his intentions were good,

but all his time was taken up in defending the empire.

A.D. 977. Tae- tsung succeeded his father, and immediately at

tacked the Tartars with an immense army, who were all cut to

pieces. The administration of domestic affairs claiming his atten

POPULATION 800 YEARS AGO . 225

tion, he made peace with the Tartars, and left them quietly to enjoy

Leaou-tung. He died A.D. 997.

Chin-tsung, his successor, finding it impossible to overcome the

Tartars, paid them a large tribute ; turned his attention to agri

culture, and obtained a census of the male population who were

able to pay taxes ; they amounted to 9,995,729, which appears

extraordinary after centuries of carnage. He was a weak, super

stitious monarch, and died of a broken heart, owing to a defeat he

sustained from the Tartars.

A.D. 1023. Ting- tsung, his successor, was a minor ; the ungo

vernable Tartars threatened a rebellion, and obtained an enlarged

tribute of 200,000 taels . He died in 1063, leaving the throne to

his nephew.

Ying-tsung, A.D. 1064 ; Shin-tsung, A.D. 1068 ; and Che-tsung,

A.D. 1086, may be said to have governed by their wives or mothers ;

some of whom displayed talent .

Hwuy-tsung took a new mode of driving the Tartars from Leaou

tung, by entering into treaty with the Kin Tartars, who effectually

performed the service assigned them, and then kept possession

themselves of Leaou-tung, together with Chih-li and Shense pro

vinces, and made the Emperor prisoner in 1125 .

Prin-tsuny's first act was to put his ministers to death, for be

traying his father into the hands of his enemies ; the Tartars, em

boldened by success, took possession of the palace and the province

of Honan, adopting the Chinese name Kin for their reign.

A.D. 1127. Kaoou-tsung, brother to the last Emperor, removed

his court to Hang-choo , the capital of the province of Che-keang

and, failing to disturb the Tartars, tried what effect flattery would

have addressing the Tartars, he called himself Chin, which sig

nifies servant, (the same term is used by Chinese subordinates to

the present day. ) The only effect ofthis act of humility, was the ob

tainment of the dead bodies of the imperial family. The barrier to

further encroachments was the natural one of the Yangtzekang,

to the north of which the Tartars governed.

The subsequent monarchs, Heaou-tsung, A.D. 1162, and Kwang

tsung, A.D. 1189, appear to have been content with their diminished

territory ; but their successor, Ning-tsung, A.D. 1194, invited the

Mongol Tartars to aid him in banishing the Kin race of Tartars,

which was effectually done by their general, Genghis, who retained

possession of all the places recovered, on which was founded the

Yuen or Mongol dynasty. It should be remarked here, that a

number of the Tartars escaped from the Mongol and Chinese pur

suit, and settled in Mantchouria ; their subsequent victory, after an

exile of 400 years, over the Ming Dynasty, A.D. 1644, is well known.

Le-tsung now saw his error ; the Mongols became much more

formidable to the Chinese than the expelled Tartars, and no longer

disguised their intention. Too-tsung, his son, ascended the throne,

A.D. 1265 , and sacrificing his empire at the shrine of pleasure, so

226 DESTRUCTION OF THE SUNG DYNASTY .

disgusted the Chinese nobles, that many of them joined Kublai

khan, who now governed the Tartars . Too-tsung left three sons,

who were all young . The second son, Twan-tsung, made a feeble

resistance, was compelled to take refuge in Foo-keen province ; and

then fled to Canton with a large portion of the grandees , where he

died A.D. 1277. The Mongols sent a fleet in pursuit of the re

maining branches of the Sung Dynasty ; terms of captivity were

tendered to the grandees, who indignantly spurned the proposal .

Loo-sew -foo, a faithful minister of the late dynasty, had charge of

the young Emperor, who preferred death to captivity. The last

branch was destroyed by drowning, his wife and children , with him

self, by which no competitor was left for the Mongols .

THE MONGOLS .

Necessity appears to be the chief cause of these hardy tribes exD

tending their dominion ; having nothing to lose, no homestead to

protect or return to, locust-like they went forth devouring. Not

even possessing geographical knowledge, or the instruments of

war ; nothing, in fact, but their horses, which, like their riders, were

well inured to hardships and privations.

The mind contemplates with astonishment the extent of territory

which became subject to those ruthless rovers : India, Western

Asia, Bukhara, and China.

The Mongol monarch, " Genghis," while a vassal to the court

of Peking, sent an embassy, which, in the most haughty manner,

demanded tribute ; this was too much for " the Son of Heaven ;"

but while deliberations were going on, in A.D. 1212, Genghis'

army crossed the Great Wall, and took possession of two provinces,

Shan-se and Shen-se, which comprise 100,000 square miles, and

100 cities .

The Sung Dynasty, which was then on the throne of China, made

terms with the invaders ; and the better to insure peace, gave a

princess and an immense dowry . Treaties were no sooner made

than broken, so that Genghis possessed himself of five provinces,

and the command of the Yellow River. At this period his sway

extended from the Caucasus to the sea, and from Tibet to the

Frozen Ocean. The Chinese policy, at this period , in inviting the

Mongols in order to oppose their eastern enemies, the Tartars,

proved a heavy blow to the proud monarch of China. The Mon

gols no sooner defeated the Tartars, than they turned on the Em

peror of China, whom they drove to the south of the Yellow River.

The covetous eye of Ghenghis was next directed to the vast

territory of Mohammed, Sultan of Khorassan (in Persia) , which

he invaded with an army of 700,000 men . The force of the Sultan

is said to have been more than half that amount, but relying too

much on fortifications, he was completely overthrown , and thus

**

GENGHIS . — KUBLAI.

THE MONGOLS.- -GENGHIS 227

Bokhara, Khowarism, Herat, Otrar, Balkh, and Samarcand, to

gether with Kandahar, fell a prey to Genghis .

Previous to his death, A.D. 1227, Genghis was sole master of

central Asia. His dying request to his four sons was to complete

the conquest of China .

The four sons mutually divided their vast possessions, and de

clared Oktai Grand Khan of the Mongols and Tartars . No pro

ceedings were taken to extend their dominion in China, until

Kublia, a grandson of Genghis, was put in possession of the five

northern provinces .

Kublia, being an artful monarch, gained over to his aid the

grandees, and procured European and Arabian engineers, so that

a few years gave him possession of the Chinese Empire, A.D. 1279.

Kuhlia made an unsuccessful attempt on Japan ; but rendered

tributary to his empire, Cochin China, Siam, Bengal, and Tibet.

Under his excellent administration, China never was so prosperous

or happy.

Hulagu, another grandson of Genghis, conquered Persia, and

took possession of the city of Bagdad . The only check the descend

ants of Genghis met in their wide spread devastation, was from

the Mamelukes in Egypt.

A.D. 1235. Oktai, being in full possession of Northern China,

turned his attention towards Europe, and despatched Batu, his

nephew, with an army of 500,000 men, which completely overthrew

the daring Turkomans, the roving tribes of Caucasus and Russia ;

Poland, Silesia, the cities of Lublin and Cracow, also became a

prey to the Mongols . Their next conquest was Hungaria ; they

completely scattered the powerful army of King Bela, taking pos

session of every place northward of the Danube.

In A.D. 1240, Batu had fully prepared a large force to march

against the Turks, but was stayed by the hand of death . Proposals

were made at this time to Barkah, Batu's successor, both by Louis

the Ninth, and Pope Innocent the Fourth, to aid him in the con

templated campaign against the Turks ; their object was very ap

C parent, viz ., to assist the Crusaders . Barkah's attention being sudA

! denly called to Russia, the Crusaders were disappointed .

Unity, the bond of strength, appeared to be the policy adopted

by the two generations that followed Genghis ; jealousy or rival•

ship was unknown ; each, in their separate vast dominions, enjoyed

peace ; and when necessary, they united their forces and interests.

A. D. 1310. Vast as the Mongol Empire had hitherto been, its

decline was now visible ; strife and dissensions split their empires

into new kingdoms ; and the degenerated race of Genghis warmly

embraced Mohammedanism, but pertinaciously kept aloof from the

Turks . About this period, Timour, a native of Samarcand, an

nounced himself as a true descendant of Genghis. His warlike

propensities were early displayed , for at the age of thirteen he dis

tinguished himself in the battle-field , and at thirty-four had imperial

Q 2

228 DECLINE AND FALL OF THE MONGOLS .

authority over Turkestan and Western or Independent Tartary.

Timour, after conquering what might then be called the whole

world in upwards of thirty successful campaigns, and usurping

twenty- seven crowns, like his predecessor Genghis, was stopped in

his ambition by the Egyptians . To perpetuate his victories, he

erected, it is said, a pyramid of 90,000 human skulls at Bagdad . Dur

ing this period nine Mongol Emperors ruled over China. But the

hateful race was at last dethroned, and a native Chinese Emperor

was again enthroned . When Timour heard of the downfall of the

Mongols in China, his rage knew no bounds, and turning his great

army from the shores of the Bosphorus, was fully determined to

wreak his vengance on China ; but death put a stop to his earthly

career in the 70th year of his age. A.D. 1405 .

THE MING DYNASTY A.D. 1368 TO 1644 .

In the year 1368, Hungwu, the first monarch of the Ming Dynasty,

took full possession of the Chinese Empire : from a scullion he rose

to be a monarch, and became one of the best men who sat on the

Chinese throne. He died A.D. 1399, solemnly taking leave of his

ministers , and appointing as his successor his grandson .

Kienwan though only 16 years of age assumed the empire ; his

reign was most unpropitious. The old monarch had given large

provinces to his sons, they were jealous of the young prince being

placed over them, and they immediately began to rebel : one of them

was seized by the ministers of the Emperor and banished ; another

killed himself ; another lost his possessions, and was sentenced to

end his days in exile ; another (the Prince of Yen, ) took up arms

to, as he said, deliver his family from bad ministers, but really to

get possession of the throne ; which he did in 1404, the young Em

peror having been persuaded to escape and turn monk, which he

did . He wandered about for forty years, and afterwards died , un

thought of, in prison.

The reign of the Prince of Yeu-yungloh was most bloody and

revengeful ; murdering all those who supported his predecessor .

He issued an amnesty to the provincial authorities ; they would not

however submit to his government ; this did not stop his proceed

ings, he immediately prepared for hostilities ; removed his court

from Nanking, made Pekin the capital city ; and died in the year

1425, after waging war all his life : before his death he erected a

pyramid, to witness the extent of his conquests . His son Hunghi

who succeeded, published a general amnesty, and died A.D. 1426 .

He was succeeded by his son Siuente, who carried on a war with

the Cochin-Chinese, by which his armies were annihilated . He

was a lover of peace, and a good statesman, and died A.D. 1436,

leaving the throne to his son—

Yingtsung then only eight years of age, whose mother was

MING, OR CHINESE DYNASTY . 229

appointed regent during the minority. A Tartar chief of the

name of Yesien had made several inroads on the Chinese territory ;

Wangchin, the minister, (A.D. 1450) assembled a large army to

chastise him ; but when in the middle ofthe desert, was attacked by

the Tartar chief, defeated, and the young Emperor taken prisoner,

for whom the Tartar chief refused to take any ransom. In this

emergency, the empress dowager placed his brother Kingti on the

throne ; he however refused to retire, when Yesein proposed to

liberate the captive Emperor . Ying-tsun not being ambitious,

retired into private life, and again ascended the throne, on his

brother's death in 1458. He died in the year A.D. 1465 , and was

succeeded by his son

Chingwn, who was reared among women and eunuchs, became a

complete child of the palace, and gave the eunuchs great power,

which caused general dissatisfaction ; he died of grief on account

of the death of his wife, and left the country in a miserable state .

He was succeeded by his son Ching- te, A.D. 1506, then but 15

years of age. Great power was also given by this sovereign to

the eunuchs, who plundered the country ; the people rose in

several rebellions against the government, but were always re

pressed. From a census taken in his reign, China contained 50

million of souls. Ching-te died A.D. 1522, leaving no children,

and was succeeded by his cousin Kiat-sing, whose first act was a

general amnesty for all political offences ; he then gave himself

up to poetry and song, and did nothing for the good of the people.

The Mongols, who had traded on the frontiers in cattle, now broke

into rebellion in consequence of the exactions of the officers ;

their chief Yeuta laid the whole country waste, forced his way to

the very gates of Peking, and compelled the Emperor to permit

them to establish fairs. During this reign there was a continued

petty warfare between the Chinese and the Japanese. Kiat -sing

died after a useless reign of forty years, A.D. 1566, and was suc

ceeded by Lung-king, who did all in his power to settle the tran

quillity of the frontier, which the majority of his ministers opposed :

it was afterwards settled by a commercial treaty. He died in 1572.

Wan-ti, his successor, was only ten years of age at his accession :

during his minority he followed his ministers' advice, and appeared

to promise well . Mathew Ricci obtained access to court in 1583 ,

and presented the Emperor with a repeating watch, who ordered a

tower to be built to keep it safe. The intercourse, commenced

under his predecessor with western nations, now became an object

of solicitude. Through meddling in the affairs of Japan, he drew

himself into several wars, which always ended in the defeat of the

Chinese. These contests lasted for thirty years, and China lost

part of its territory, but gained it again on the death ofthe Japanese

chief Tarkosama, A.D. 1598. Ricci meanwhile persevered in his

mission, and had an edict issued against him by a tribunal at Pekin ,

to the effect that his preaching was of no value, and that he be

230 FALL OF CHINESE OR MING DYNASTY .

sent back again to his country. A few years afterwards, the same

tribunal (the tribunal of rights) praised the skill of the foreigners

in astronomy, and recommended them to be employed in that

department. Another war broke out on the frontier through the

tyranny and robbery of the Chinese on the Tartars, who were a

scattered people ; their chief Tienming, having a few naked savages,

proclaimed himself an Emperor, and to avenge his father's death

swore he would annihilate 200,000 Chinese ; he kept his oath, for he

carried fire and sword to the gates of Pekin ; the Chinese generals,

as usual, flying all ways from him. This destruction and the loss

of his wife broke the Emperor's heart ; he died A.D. 1620. He

was succeeded by his son Kwang-tsung, who exerted himself much

to put the state in order, but died from his exertions in 1621 .

He was succeeded by his son, a diffident youth of sixteen years of

age; the Chinese still continued their oppressions on the Mantchous,

who again resorted to arms . The Emperor did not live to behold

the result ; he died A.D. 1627. His successor, Hwan-tsung was

a great friend of letters , but was not able to meet the coming tem

pest. The Tartar leader Taitsung demanded an unconditional

submission to his arms ; one of the best of the Chinese ministers

was beheaded in the streets as a traitor, for recommending peace.

The Tartar general still advanced, was proclaimed Emperor in 1635 ,

under the name of Tae- tsing, i.e. " great purity." The Chinese

could have still resisted, but for their own feuds ; one of their

chiefs, a cruel monster, ravaged the central province and got posses

sion of the city of Peking, which was opened to him by the eunuchs.

The Emperor when he heard this, cruelly murdered his harem,

only one of his daughters escaping, and then hung himself. There

was found in his girdle a condemnation of himself and a request to

save the people. Thus died the last of the Ming Dynasty, A.D. 1644.

THE TAE -TSING, OR PRESENT TARTAR DYNASTY.

A.D. 1644 TO 1846 .

THE present dynasty of China, are Mantchou Tartars, and are of

the Tongoosian race. Their first connexion with China, was when

the Mongols in 1332 were driven from the throne ; some of their

tribes took refuge in the Mantchou territory, which gave offence to

the Chinese, who by force compelled them to sue for peace, but

permitted them to trade. The origin of the family is unknown, as

the country was destitute of learning. The first attack on China

by the Mantchous was in 1583, by Tae-tsoo, who took the frontier

city Tooloon ; the Chinese consenting to pay 800 oz . of silver

annually. Tae-tsoo subsequently discovered the Chinese govern

ment fomenting a rebellion in his kingdom, and made a vow to

extirpate the Mongol race. A battle was fought between them in

1593, in which the Chinese were defeated . Tae-tsoo declared him

self independent, and proclaimed himself Teen-ming "Heaven's de

PRESENT TARTAR DYNASTY RISE . 231

cree." Previous to marching against the Chinese, Teen-ming drew

up seven articles, charging the Chinese government with oppres

sion , deceit, and bad -faith . He was succeeded by his son Tsung-tih,

who entitled his dynasty Ta-tsing (" great purity" ) and first

brought his troops to the frontiers of Leaoutung, but was confined

to that territory by a brave Chinese general, Woo - san- kwei. A

rebellion at this time breaking out in China, the general concluded

a peace, and invited the Mantchous to aid him in expelling the

robber-chief Le-tsze-ching from China. By the aid of the Mant

chous the rebels were defeated, but they seeing an opportunity of

obtaining the throne of China refused to return home. In the

mean time Tsung-tih died, and his nephew was proclaimed Em

peror, under the name of Shun- che in 1644. At the same time the

mandarins declared a grandson of Ching- stung Emperor at Nanking.

No proof is required of the state of the empire, when a handful

of auxiliary troops possessed themselves of it, without even the

trouble of fighting for such vast dominions . The first act of

the usurpers was to compel the Chinese to adopt their custom of

wearing their hair. In selecting this badge of subjection nothing

could be more galling to the Chinese, as hitherto they never cut

an inch of their hair. The terms were banishment or acquiescence ;

the consequence was a general revolt, in which the Mantchous

were nearly overpowered.

Two princes of the late Ming dynasty, Tang and Yung-lieh,

were declared successively Emperors ; the former was proclaimed

at Canton, and temporarily resisted the invaders in the midland

provinces . But the Chinese were exceedingly deficient in love

of their country or of freedom . Tang was taken prisoner and

beheaded, and Yung-leih being forsaken fled to the King of Ava,

where he organized a force and attempted to take the province of

Kwei-choo, but was killed by the general Woo-san-kwei , the same

man who first introduced the usurpers, by the way of aiding the

Chinese .

Of all the monsters that ever disgraced humanity, Chang-heen

ching was probably the greatest . He was a daring robber by pro

fession, with the command of a powerful army ; he routed the

Tartars from the province of Sze-chuen, and proclaimed himself

Emperor. His ferocious disposition was first vented on the literati

and Budhist priests, whom he invited to a feast ; not one of whom

ever returned alive . His next display was on the news of one of

his generals going over to the Mantchous ; on hearing which, he

murdered every human being belonging to the capital Ching-too .

The males one day, to the number it is said of 600,000 .

The females the second day, to the number of 400,000 . He was

killed by one of his own soldiers . The next enemy the usurpers

had to contend with, and the only one in the empire, was Ching

ching -kung, better known as Coringa, the daring pirate of Formosa.

1650. Coxinga had frequent encounters with the Tartars, and was

232 MING AND TARTAR DYNASTIES CONTEST .

always either victorious, or escaped being taken prisoner . He

occupied the island of Tsung-ming in 1657, at the entrance of

the Yangtzekang river, and took possession of Nanking, by the aid

of a fleet of 800 vessels, which had a formidable appearance on the

great river. The easy manner in which possession was obtained ,

and the hatred of the inhabitants to the Tartars, caused them to neg

lect the fortifications ; they were consequently compelled by the

Tartars to fly to their ships, but not without great slaughter.

1651. Amawang, Regent, dying, his nephew Shun-che, although

young, had derived a great deal of instruction from his tutor, Adam

Schaal, a German jesuit, who was president of the mathematical

board .

All the domestic foes were either killed or bought over, except

the pirate and patriot, Coxinga, whose only strength lay on the

seacoast. Coxinga despairing of success against the Tartars, at

tacked Formosa, and banished the Dutch from that island .

1656. The Russians were the first to send an embassy to the

new dynasty ; but refusing to perform the nine prostrations, were L

sent back without an audience. Shun-che and his ministry were

all for conciliation , and the Emperor not only wrote on the subject

but actually preached out of a pulpit. (See his sermons in another

part of this work, under " Sacred Instructions .)" The Tartar

usurpers having little or no form of religion of their own, adopted that

portion of the Chinese which pays such regard to the dead .

The Emperor was not long on the throne when he made a pilgrim

age to the tombs of the Ming Emperors, and finding them in a

dilapidated state had them beautified at a great expense.

1662. Shun-che died in 1661 , after reigning eleven years, and

was succeeded by his son Kang-he, who was a minor . A regency

was appointed, who failing or fearing to combat the great pirate and

patriot, Coxinga, issued an order requiring all the inhabitants of

the coast to remove to the interior of the country, under pain of

death . This policy did not meet the views of the young prince,

and he claimed the throne, on the death of one of the regents ; the

other he put to a cruel death. The skill, energy, and personal

courage of Kang-he were soon tested . Suspecting the fidelity of

the old general Woo -san, who had sold his former sovereign, he

was ordered to attend his Majesty, (his son being a hostage at

Peking) which he did at the head of a rebel force, assisted by

the Viceroys of Foo-kien and Canton, and the naval forces of

the pirate ; at the same time the north was invaded by a Mongol

prince. In this emergency, Kang-he displayed abilities of no or

dinary kind ; he attacked the Mongol prince himself, and routed

him effectually ; dissension was soon in the other camps, so that

they became an easy prey, one after the other. His attention was

next directed to check the chief of the Eleuths or Kalmuks, who

had for some time been extending his authority over the Kalkas ;

CHARACTER OF EMPEROR KANG - HE . 233

and Kang-he, dreading that he might ultimately become a trouble

ļ some frontier foe, at the head of a large army, not only checked

him, but made the Kalkas tributary to the Chinese Empire, and

thus obtained an ascendancy over Mongolia . The Russians at this

time were encroaching ; Kang-he sent them a treaty (see foreign

intercourse) and accompanied the embassy by a large army, to

enforce its ratification . There only remained the pirate Coxinga

to conquer ; he was aided by the defences the Dutch had left

behind them in Formosa. In 1681 , the pirate prince dying, was suc

ceeded by his son, who quietly surrendered the island to Kang-he,

and received in return a titular distinction . It is worthy of remark

that foreign commerce was strictly prohibited by this Emperor.

But the chief of Canton allowed the Europeans to trade for

his own private benefit. The Emperor being informed of this

violation of his orders, sent the chief a rope made of silk, with

which he hanged himself, together with upwards of one hundred of

his subordinate officers ; thus all danger of revolt was removed

throughout the empire. Kang-he devoted every moment he

i could spare from public business, from the time he reached the

throne, to acquire knowledge, became a thorough mathemati

cian, and now set to work to improve the general government of

the empire. The pruning-knife was first applied to the Hanlin

college ; three-fourths of the members, not being able to answer

his majesty in some questions, were expelled . Kang-he was a

thinking man, and decidedly the best, if not the only, scholar in

his dominions ; his dissertations on government under the name

of " Sacred Instructions," are full of sound sense. He was the

only monarch of the dynasty that visited all the provinces, (north

of the Yangtzekang) examined most minutely into the administra

tion of affairs, and carried with him a commissariat to supply his

large train that the people should be at no expense . He had

the geographical position of all considerable places ascertained ;

caused all the provinces to be surveyed by Europeans ; published

a dictionary of the Chinese language, and lest his own language

should become obsolete, had also one prepared in the Mantchou :

in every way he encouraged learning. His love of music was

intense, and the death of his favorite musician (a European)

caused great grief in the palace . His whole life was an arduous

struggle to benefit his subjects .

1709. Kang-he discovered a plot between his two sons to

obtain possession of the throne, which caused him a severe fit of

illness ; being given over by the state physicians, recourse was had

to the Jesuits , who had cured him of the ague some years pre

viously ; on this occasion they were equally successful.

1721. Kang-he was now sixty years on the throne : rejoicings

became general all over the empire ; more than human honours

were offered to him by mandarins and parasites ; and the same

234 CONSOLIDATION OF TARTAR GOVERNMENT.

year saw the Eleuths destroyed by his generals, and Tibet made

tributary to China. He died the following year, from the effects ;

of a cold, having previously appointed his fourth son his successor .

No prince ever ascended the throne of China with greater

prospects of a happy reign than Yung-ching. Being ignorant of

the value of science, and jealous of some of the imperial family

who had embraced Christianity, his first act was to banish all the

missionaries, who had become very numerous in every province ;

only a few were allowed to remain in Peking, whose services could

not be dispensed with .

These orders against Christianity were the signal for the man

darins to vent their long- smothered hatred against Europeans ;

extortion and cruelty were, therefore, perpetrated with impunity.

This reign was free from any domestic troubles of a political

nature ; but the calamities of dearth and want were more numerous

that had been known for the same space of time in China . An

earthquake occurred in 1730, in the province of Chih-le, which did

great injury to Peking.

The reign of Yung- ching lasted thirteen years : two acts dis

grace it, notwithstanding his excellent published works on charity

and benevolence (see " Sacred Instructions" ), viz .: severe cruelty to

his thirteen brothers, and the extirpation of Christianity. He died

in 1736 .

1736. Keen-lung, the eldest illegitimate son of the late Em

peror, was unexpectedly called to the throne. He became popular

by declaring a general amnesty, and restoring all the relatives of

the last Emperor to their liberty ; but their paternal property

being confiscated, their temporal position was not much improved

by a state allowance of thirteen shillings sterling per month, with

a portion of rice.

Keen-lung was not long on the throne when the Eleuths and

Kalkas, who had long disturbed the peace of the empire, and ,

although repeatedly conquered , were a powerful nation still, could

not agree in dividing their territory, and solicited Keen -lung as a

mediator ; this office he readily accepted, by sending a powerful

1

army, which totally extirpated the Kalmucks, and annexed their

territory (Ele) to China, in 1756.

The Mohammedans who inhabited Little Bukhara, were next

attacked by Keen-lung's merciless troops, -cut to pieces, -a part of

their territory joined to the province of Kansuh, and the remainder

made a dependency, constituting the eight Mohammedan cities .

January, 1767. This year an excuse was made to attack the

territories of the King of Ava, but very few of the invading sol

diers ever returned . The amount of the Chinese army on this

occasion is stated to have been 250,000 foot and 25,000 horse ;

the chief part of which was sent against Bamoo . In November

of the same year, Keen-lung sent an " invincible " army to take

vengeance, consisting of 60,000 horse and 600,000 foot, under the

C

AGGRANDISEMENT AND CRUELTY OF KEENTUNG . 235

command of his son-in-law, Myeng. After two years' unsuccessful

fighting, and the Chinese army being reduced to one-fourth, terms

of peace were proposed, and accepted by the Burmese generals,

without consulting their king, who, on their return, were disgraced

for permitting a Chinaman to return alive (See " Foreign Intercourse

with Birmah ”) .

After the taste of the Emperor for foreign conquests had been

satiated, rebellion and civil war engaged his attention, but it was

no sooner suppressed in one province than it broke out in another .

His character, after sixty years reign, was always marked with the

greatest cruelty to his enemies, and generals who returned un

successful : aggrandizement of the empire was his ruling passion .

He abdicated in favour of his son Kea-king.

1796. Kea-king was not well seated on the throne, when rebel

lion broke out in several provinces, and being a weak-minded

prince, and wholly given up to licentiousness, he adopted the

method of quelling them by spending large sums of money in

bribery, and promoting the leaders to offices of trust. His peace

! was also disturbed, and he narrowly escaped with his life, by an

organized mutiny of his own kindred .

During the first ten years of his reign, all law and order were set

at defiance by a band of pirates, who carried destruction along the

whole coast. The aid of the Portuguese government was solicited ,

but to no useful purpose. A treaty of peace was entered into,

therefore, with the pirates ; their chiefs were promoted as captains

in the imperial navy, and a grand entertainment was given in

Canton to celebrate the peace.

The persecution of the Christians was carried on with unabated

zeal until his death. In 1813 he was very near falling a sacrifice

to the enmity of some members of his own family, and was saved

by the courage displayed by his son, the present Emperor. His

life and reign is blank, as no just, noble, or generous action can

be discovered ; he himself was the patron of bribery and corrup

tion , which flourished in full vigour in every part of his vast

dominions . There was not a year which he reigned, but disturb

ances of a serious nature broke out in one or other of the pro

vinces, none of which were put down by the strong hand of the

law ; his successor has, in consequence, more or less resorted to

the same mode of obtaining bloodless victories . He died in 1820 .

The present Emperor of China, Taouk-wang, " Reason's glory,"

was born on the tenth of the eighth moon , 1781 , and, consequently,

is now in his sixty-sixth year. He succeeded his father, Kea-king,

in August, 1821. An extract from the first document issued by

his majesty may illustrate his government.

" The Chamber of Ministers (Nuy-ko) has received with due

respect the following imperial edict.

" From the late Emperor, who has now gone the great journey,

I received the utmost possible kindness and care ; and from him

236 TAOU- KWANG- PRESENT EMPEROR .

I derived my being ; his gracious kindness was infinite, like that

of the glorious heavens above . This year he was to solace with

his presence Lwang-yang, in Tartary, and I, the Emperor, followed

in his train. The weather being hot, he was taken ill on his journey, 1

and I, the Emperor, beat the ground with my head, and called on

heaven to bring him back-but in vain. During the twenty-five

years of his reign he suppressed rebellion, and gave tranquillity to

millions of common people . The dragon on horseback has as

cended and become a guest on high. All creatures endued with

blood and breath mourn with sincere and grateful feelings ; but

how much more deeply do I, the Emperor, feel. I received his late

majesty's last will, commanding that the funeral mourning should

be the same as usual.'" ""

A second proclamation was issued as follows : " My sacred and

indulgent father had, in the year that he began to rule alone,

silently settled that the divine utensil (the throne) should devolve

on my contemptible person . I, knowing the feebleness of my

virtue, at first felt afraid I should not be competent to the office ;

but on reflecting that the sages, my ancestors, have left to posterity

their plans ; that his late majesty has laid the duty on me-and

heaven's throne should not be long vacant- I have done violence

to my feelings, and forced myself to intermit a while my heartfelt

grief, that I may with reverence obey the unalterable decree ; and

on the twenty- seventh eighth moon (3d October, ) I purpose de

voutly to announce the event to heaven, to earth, to my ancestors,

and to the gods of the land and the grain , and shall then sit

down on the imperial throne ; let the next year be the first of

Taoukwang ."

Dr. Morrison says the title is rendered as follows : Taou is

" eternal reason ," the Chinese use it for a good government, where

reason, not passion, is predominant ; Kwang means light, lustre,

glory, illustrious, &c.: so the title of the present Emperor may be

rendered, " Reason's Glory," or " Reason Illustrious."

The present Emperor distinguished himself in the eighteenth

year of his father's reign, when a plot was formed to destroy the

monarch and subvert the government. He killed with his own

hands two rebels who were scaling the palace -walls . The acts of

the present Emperor have hitherto been passive, and he evidently

endeavours to accommodate himself to circumstances . Whatever

energy he possessed was very soon called into action by national

calamities, and an effort on the part of the Mohammedans in Tur

kestan to throw off their allegiance. The Emperor despatched his

prime minister, Chang-ling, at the head of an immense body of

troops ; and the same instruments that his father and grandfather

so successfully brought into the field of battle, viz .: silver and gold,

suppressed the insurrection .

The Emperor is fond of retirement, and takes little or nothing

of the cares of state upon himself.

CALAMITIES OF PRESENT REIGN . 237

In reviewing the dynasties for several centuries, in no one

reign has there been chronicled so many calamities and open

insurrections (in almost every province of China Proper) as under

the present sovereign . The numerous secret societies, particularly

the one called the " Triad," whose avowed object is the overthrow

of the present dynasty, are a continual source of anxiety to the

Emperor.

The rebellion which broke out in Formosa, in 1832, was occa

sioned by the oppression of the local authorities. The number of

troops slain, together with the mandarins, was very great ; its sup

pression was said to be accomplished in the usual way.

A rebellion on the eastward of Canton was carried on for several

years, and was suppressed by bribes .

The Emperor inherits his father's well -known hostility to

foreigners ; and his first act was to expel an European missionary

who assisted at the astronomical board, although for more than

200 years, two or more Europeans were attached to that tribunal.

From all accounts, these constant changes of dynasties and fre

quent revolutions, have caused great deterioration in every respect

in China .

Le Compte, who travelled over a great portion of the empire as

an officer of the government, and was an eye-witness to the scenes

he describes, states, that avarice, ambition, and pleasure go a great

way in their transactions. He asserts that they cozen and cheat

in traffic ; injustice reigns in sovereign courts ; the desire of getting

torments them continually, and makes them discover a thousand

ways of gaining . They are dexterous, laborious, and curious to

find out the inventions and contrivances of other nations, and very

apt to imitate them . These vices and faults are the inevitable

consequences in any country of a long career of official oppression

and public tyranny. Le Compte observes, that, " in olden times,

the Chinese were far more sincere, honest, and less corrupted, than

at present ; they were the wisest people of the universe : their

moral principles, their political rules, and their maxims of good

policy afford a marked distinction between the Chinese and other

men. For 2000 years after their origin as a nation, the Chinese

had the knowledge of the true God, and practised the most pure

morality ."

The previous pages and the facts for subsequent examination ,

show how lamentably this vast empire has degenerated .

In the preceding details two facts are manifested : first, that the

vast territory called China, has been an almost uninterrupted

scene of contests, bloodshed, fraud, and struggles for mastery,

either within the country, or from the nations on its borders ;

hence China has no claim to be viewed as a peaceful ancient

empire, held intact for many centuries under a "paternal " series

of lawfully succeeding rulers, who, by their seclusion from the

western nations, maintained, as was alleged, uninterrupted peace,

}

238 NO JUSTIFICATION FOR EXCLUSION .

and established general prosperity. The second is a corollary from

the first, namely, that there is nothing whatever in the past history

of China to justify the nations of western Europe in permitting the

present Tartar chiefs (usurpers of 200 years standing) to continue

their arbitrary system of exclusion ; a system adopted from selfish

principles, lest their own ill-gotten power should be shaken ; which

has not even for its avowed object the benefit of the millions over

whom they harshly and despotically rule, and whom they would be

unable to protect against any naval force, with which even Portugal

might wage war against China ; indeed, a single frigate might

ravage the whole coast of this immense empire .

CHAPTER VIII.

EARLY INTERCOURSE BETWEEN CHINA AND

FOREIGN COUNTRIES .

ONE of the points which it is desirable to investigate, relates

to the idea that the Chinese have always been secluded from other

portions of mankind, and that this seclusion has been the result

of a studied policy. An examination of the following statements

will decide the question . It is very probable, that some of the

wandering companies of the Ten Tribes of Israel who lived under

Hoshea, whose dispersion and captivity occurred B.C. 742 (chap .

xvii., 2 Kings) found their way into China, in conformity with

the decree , " The Lord shall scatter thee among all nations,

from one end of the earth even unto the other." (Deut. xxviii . 64. )

If this be true, it will account for the partial resemblance of

the Chinese moral maxims and customs to those of sacred Scrip

ture . The Jews, wherever they settled, doubtless inculcated

the law of God, and " called it to mind among the nations

whither the Lord their God had driven them.” [Deut. xxx. 1. ]

As Salmanassar removed the Israelites into Media, B.C. 721 ,

there are strong reasons for believing that many of them in the

process of time emigrated and settled in Bactria and Cara Cathia

(Chinese Tartary) . Their sacred learning mingled with idolatry,

(for which crime they were scattered) 2 Kings, chap . xvii. 12,

and Paganism probably formed some of the doctrines of the

Scythians, who are said to have laid the foundation of the Chi

CONFUCIUS PREDICTS THE MESSIAH . 239

nese empire, and as they only came to China a few generations

before the birth of Confucius (their only correct historian and sage)

he may have been indebted to the Jews solely for his primary

instructions. and founded his prophecies on those recorded by the

Hebrews. In his Shoo-king, after his appealing to " Shang-te"

the supreme ruler, he treats of the terrestrial paradise, its rivers,

waters of immortality, fall of the angels and of man, and the

appearance at that moment of Mercy ; also of the sabbath, con

fusion of tongues, the manna in the wilderness, the holy one

in the west, who was incomprehensible and one with the Tien

(Heaven) ; that the world cannot know the Tien except by the

holy one, who only can offer a sacrifice acceptable to Shang-te,

the " supreme sovereign" : that the nations are waiting for him

like plants for a refreshing shower. The Tien is the holy one

invisible, and the holy one is the Tien made visible and teaching

men. [ Higgins, Anacalypsis .] Grosier states that the Chinese

Jews who visited him declared that they honoured. Confucius as

a great lawgiver, and they asserted that the number of Jews

who departed from Egypt was sixty thousand . Grosier adds

that the Jews were noticed in China B.c. 206 ; they may have

been there long previous in great numbers, and inculcated their

habits . The few Chinese customs with which we are acquainted

present a striking similarity to those of the Jews ; in their nu

merous ceremonies,-new moons, and the number of their civil

courts, their few capital punishments, life for life ; their patriar

chal government ; tithes, and night watches (Judges vii . 19)

eating the sacrificed offerings and making merry (Exodus xxix . ) :

phylactaries worked into their garments, and worn on their fore

head and left arms . (The Chinese edicts are so carried to this day . )

The Jewish High Priest wore eight garments and a girdle ; could

not marry a widow or divorced woman ; entered into the Sanctum

Sanctorum once a year, was priest and lawgiver, and could alone

pray for the people : so also with the Chinese.

In the year 536, B.C., and seventy years after the Jews had been

driven eastward from their own country, King Cyrus published an

edict throughout his empire, which then included all the kingdoms

of the earth, declaring that all the people of the God of Heaven

might return to the land of their fathers. Josephus says that

many thousands of them continued to prefer the east for their

residence .

The successor of Cyrus, Cambyses, was adverse to the return of

the Jews, and disputes arose between them and the Persians . An

appeal was made to their new king, and Ahasuerus commanded the

edict of Cyrus to be brought from Ecbatana, and to be proclaimed

anew from Ethiopia to India ; from this Josephus, and Orasius, with

other Christian writers, founded their belief that the Jews were

scattered throughout the east.

In the library of the King of the French, there is a narrative of

240 JEWS EARLY IN CHINA .

travels in India and China, by two Mohammedans, who visited

those countries in the years A.D. 850 and 877. An extract from

this interesting narrative on Canton proves the existence of many

Jews in China at the period.

In detailing the particulars of a siege at Canfu (Canton) , the

writer states, that " besides the Chinese who were massacred upon

this occasion, there perished 120,000 Mohammedans, Jews, Chris

tians, and Parsees, who were there on account of traffic. The

number of the professors of those four religions who thus perished

is exactly known, because the Chinese are extremely nice in the

account they keep of them."

The apparent vestiges of Judaism found in Tartary and China,

led Manasseh, who is admitted to have been one of the most

learned Jewish doctors, to adopt an opinion, that a part of the Ten

Tribes settled in Tartary .

Basnage maintains, " that the Ten Tribes retired to the East

Indies and China." He further states, " that the Jews were ac

quainted with these countries in the time of Solomon ; as this

prince formed an alliance with the King of Tyre, and they sent

their fleets to Ophir to obtain gold, ivory, and frankincense. [ See

1 Kings, chap . ix., 26 verse ; chap . x.; 2nd Chronicles, chap . ix. 22.]

Whether " Ophir " was on the peninsula of Malacca, contiguous

to the China Sea, or at Sofala, on the east coast of Africa, is doubt

ful . I visited Sofala in Her Majesty's vessels " Levan and Barra

couta " in 1824 ; and Malacca, in 1844, in Her Majesty's steamer,

66

Spiteful ; " my opinion is in favour of Malacca being the true

Ophir. There is a large mountain so named, contiguous to the

coast at Malacca, and it abounds in gold . In sailing close along

the shore at night, the air was perfumed as if with spices and frank

incense. The whole country teems with rich and rare products .

Sofala, on the contrary, is a low, swampy territory ; no mountain

is visible ; gold- dust is certainly obtained there, brought from the

interior, but there are no spices, frankincense, or myrrh. Its lati

tude prohibits the growth of those articles, while Malacca is spe

cially adapted for them. The transition of the Jews from Malacca,

up the coast, to China, was an easy matter : indeed, the Chinese

themselves visited the Red Sea and Persian Gulph.

About the year A.D. 1150, the Rabbi Benjamin of Tudela,

visited several eastern countries, for the express purpose of ascer

taining the residence of the lost tribes . The rabbi found some of

his brethren in Samarcand, China, and Tibet ; in the first city he

found 50,000 Israelites.

Peristal, an Italian Jew, who lived about two centuries ago,

asserts that the Jews were at one time numerous and powerful in

India and China, in the silk trade.

Marco Polo, who held a high office in China, in the 12th cen

tury, makes frequent mention of the Jews and Christians.

The Roman Catholic Missionaries, in the 17th century, discovered

EARLY JEWS IN CHINA . 241

a synagogue of Jews, at Kaifung-foo, in the province of Honan .

Father Gazani took a copy of the inscriptions which were written

on large tablets of marble in the synagogue. These Jews informed

him that there was a Bible at Peking in the temple . ( See chapter

ii ., page 70, of this work .)

All the information gleaned on the subject, may be seen in the

18th volume of the " Lettres Edificantes et Curieuses ."

The above statement is corroborated by the Rev. W. C. Milne,

in a letter from Ningpo in 1843 ; he says, " a Mohammedan priest,

who visited me, brought with him a follower of the prophet. This

stranger gave me very distinct information of a class of religionists

in Kaifung-foo , his native province. He says, ' they refrain from

eating the sinew which shrank, which is upon the hollow of the

thigh,' (Gen. chap . xxxii . , v. 32) , and they do not touch the blood

of animals. He recognised the Hebrew letters as those used in

their Sacred Writings . See Grozier's China, Tom . iv.

The learned Manasseh believed that the prophecy of Isaiah

(chap . xlix., v . 12) , clearly refers to this emigration of the dispersed

tribes, and he applied the words of Isaiah, "the people shall return

from the country of the Siniens," to Sinim . He further observes ,

that it is not surprising that the Ten Tribes should pass from

Assyria into Tartary or China, when the distance was so short from

the former to the latter countries .

The land of Sinim is thus referred to in the Bible

(C

Behold, these shall come from far • and lo ! these from the north

and from the west ; and these from the land of Sinim ."-Isaiah ,

chap. xlix. , v . 12.

In the Latin language, China is written Sinae and Sinenses,

which approach as nearly to the Hebrew word Sinim, as the nature

of the Latin tongue allows . Marco Polo states that the Japanese

in his time (1276 A.D. ) , called them " Cin," or Chin ; and by this

name are they called to this day by the Siamese and Cochin

Chinese. In the Armenian history, A.D. 450, China is called Tsenia,

and is said to be the land of silks . Ptolemy, A.D. 150, calls them

Sinitis : Aristotle heard of them through Alexander, by the name .

A Thinae .

Kathay, Cathay, and Kitai, was an appellation given to a tribe

of Tartars, who were in possession of the northern division of China.

from A.D. 917 to 1126, they extended their conquests westward of

Cashgar. This tribe was driven out of China by another Tartar

tribe called Kin, and the Kin were attacked by the Mongols under

Genghis Khan, (A.D. 1209) .

In the most ancient Persian and Arabian records, the Chinese

are called Jin, Chin, and Sin ; it is probable that these names are

derived from the great family of Tsin, the first that consolidated

and governed all China.

The Arabian mariners thus describe Thiana (China.)

" Merchants from Arabia met others on the W. coast of India,

R

242 ARABIAN AND GREEK KNOWLEDGE OF CHINA .

who came from the E. coast ; those on the E. coast traded to a

country farther east, called the Golden Chersonesis, there was

another voyage still eastward which terminated at Thiana, and

Thiana was bounded by the ocean."

The Macedonians were the first who brought the name Thina to

Europe. Cosmos heard of the Chinese in Ceylon through Sopatrus,

and he calls them Tzinistae. This title approaches Chinese as

nearly as it can be expressed in Greek letters . The first notice of

Thina (China) by the Greeks is the alleged treatise of Aristotle,

De Mundo .

The map of Eratasthenes (B.c. 250) as recorded by Strabo, con

tained Thina at the extremity of the world, and bounded by the

ocean ; it was placed in the parallel of Rhodes, in lat. 30° N.

This parallel passes through the present dominions of China, and

probably relates to the then capital.

' Seres in Greek signifies worms,' hence the name of the nation

from which silk came. Sinae was for this reason called Seres by

the Greeks .

Periplus states that the raw material and the fabric were

conveyed by land through Bactria, to Berguza, i.e. Guzerat, and

by the Ganges to Limurike.

Dionysius, who translated the works of Eratasthenes, thus de

scribes the silk as prepared by the Seres . The " flower" referred

to may be that of the cotton shrub, which was certainly known in

China B.C. 200.

"Nor flocks, nor herds, the distant Seres tends ;

But from the flowers that in the desert bloom,

Tinctured with every varying hue, they cull

The glossy down, and card it for the loom ."

Virgil supposed that the Seres carded their silk from leaves ; and

it will be seen at page 88, that a sort of silk is collected from leaves

and trees, as deposited by an insect like a spider. Dr. Robertson

observes that the Greeks very early imitated, and endeavoured

to surpass, the sovereigns of Asia in magnificence ; and as silk

was then prized above all other luxuries, and China being the

only country then known to possess it, the position occupied by

the Persians gave them an advantage over the merchants from the

Arabian gulf, which they turned to their advantage, in all the

marts of India, to which silk was brought by sea from the east .

The caravans that supplied the Greeks with silk, had to travel by

land to China, and pass through the northern provinces of Persia :

so that Constantinople was entirely dependent on a rival power,

for an article which ministered to their pride and luxury.

Arian A.D. 136 after describing an island in the Indian Ocean,

says : ' still further on, towards the north, beyond the sea

which bounds the country of the Sinae, is the great city Thinae,

in the interior ; from which raw and manufactured silks are

brought to Barygaza by way of Bactria and the Ganges. Its

ita

ROMAN KNOWLEDGE OF CHINA . 243

territories are said to extend to the remote sides of the Pontus and

the Caspian sea. On the frontiers of Thinae, an annual fair is

} held for the Sesatae (Tartars).

Silk, which for several centuries was sold weight for weight

with gold, became a great favourite with the Romans, but com

mercial intercourse was so frequently interrupted by the Parthians,

(whose sway extended from the Caspian to that part of Tartary

which borders on China) that a negotiation was set on foot by

the Roman Emperor to establish a more secure trade .

M. Remusat, quoting from a Chinese writer, says : "the Kings of

great Tsin ( Roman empire) were always desirous of forming relations

with the Chinese ; but the people ofA- se, who bartered their goods for

those of the great Tsin, always took care to conceal the route and

prevent a communication between the two empires, which did not

take place till the reign of Hwan-te (A.D. 166) when the king of great

Tsin, named An-tun (Antoninus) sent an embassy by Tonquin. Their

cloths are better dyed and finer than those made to the east of the

sea ; they wished for the silk of the middle kingdom, . which is

the reason of their keeping up a trade with the A-se, and other

neighbouring people . "} This native account coincides in every

respect with the writings of the western historians .

There appear to have been several points of similitude between

the ancient Romans and the Chinese . Bayer and Paravey observe

that the Chinese letters consisted of nine simple character, five of

which were plain lines, and the other four were two or three joined

together ; which corresponds to the description of the Roman nu

merals . The Irish Ogham is undoubtedly the Scandinavian or

Saxon Rune, and they are all identical with the Chinese.

John Hoskins, Vice-President of the Royal Society, in 1686,

shews that the Abacus was the same among the earliest Romans and

Chinese, and exhibits drawings of each ; one stroke, or line, to

make one, and a cross to count ten, X, and so on till one hundred .

The Roman stove found in Chester, is similar to those in use in

China at the present day (see page 96) .

The Armenian history and geography designates China under

the title of Zenia, which was characterized by the production of silk,

the opulence of the natives, and by their love of peace above all

the other nations of the earth .

B.C. 25. In the reign of Wao -te, the Chinese had penetrated

into all the kingdoms of western Tartary, exeept Ke-pin (Samar

cand), which had hitherto treated every proposal to become tribu

tary to China with contempt. During the previous reign the

rulers of Samarcand tendered allegiance to the Chinese, but their

sincerity was doubted. A deputation arrived this year ( B.c. 25 ) ,

with the same profession of attachment, but some secret motive

influenced the government of China to refuse the proffer made,

under the pretence that they did not wish to augment their distant

dependencies .

Ptolemy (A.D. 137 ) states, that merchants from India, who were

R 2

1

244 INTERCOURSE WITH CENTRAL ASIA .

joined by Greeks from Cilicia, assembled for trade with the Seres

(Chinese), at a place called " the Stone Tower." From this tower

to the capital of the Seres was a journey of seven months .

The Greeks and Romans, in prosecuting a trade with China,

must have traversed a great portion of the extensive countries to

the east of the Caspian sea.

Ptolemy gives a description of these inland and remote regions

of Asia. The most distant part of the East to which his geographi

cal knowledge extended , he calls " Sera Metropolis," which bears

the same position with Kan-cheou, a city in the province of

Shen-se, and which is the most westerly province in China Proper.

He places it in longitude 117° 15′ . In this province reigned

the Tsin Dynasty . His knowledge was not confined to the cara

van road, as he writes concerning various nations towards the

north, which, according to the position he gives them, points them

out as parts of the great plains of Tartary, extending beyond Lassa

and Tibet. The latitudes are fixed with such precision that he

probably visited the places described .

Intercourse must have been early established between the

Chinese and the regions of Central Asia.

B.C. 127. In the reign of Han-wao-te, Cha-keen was sent to

render assistance to a people called Yue- che (west of China) . After

a long journey, he arrived at Ta-wan (Sogdiana), and from thence

passed into Transoxiana , where he resided more than one year.

The report of his travels is as follows : Ta-wen is about 10,000

le W. of Shen -se, to the N.E. lies Oo - sun ; to the E., Khoten ;

the kingdom of Ta-hea is to the S.W. of Ta-wan. He saw at Ta-hea,

cloths and other things similar to the productions of China, and

they told him they came from the kingdom of Shintoo (India) .

Shintoo is some thousand le S.E. of Ta-hae . There are three

routes to Ta-hae ; one by the country of the Keangs ; the second

more to the north ; the third, which is the shortest and best , is

through the country of Shoo . *

A.D. 94. The Emperor Ho-te sent a general called Pan-chaou ,

to the shores of the Caspian Sea. In the former reigns of Ming

and Chang, this general had extended the empire very much : he

restored Cashgar to its former alliance, and conquered eight other

kingdoms . He, at this period, passed the Snowy Mountains (N. of

Cashgar) , subdued the Kings of Yue-che and Koo - che (Bish- balikh) ,

and, by the submission of the states of Little Buchara, he was

enabled to reach the shores of the " Sea of the North " (Caspian) ;

from whence he sent the spoils of fifty kingdoms to the imperial

court . His intention was to have gone across the sea to the king

dom of Ta-tsin (Roman empire) , with which the Chinese had become

acquainted by their commercial transactions with it through Per

sia and Tartary. The information gained on this occasion is fully

* The Tung- keen Kang- muh, by Mailla, vol. iii.

SAINT THOMAS THE APOSTLE IN CHINA . 245

detailed in Chinese history . He speaks of Min-ke, Taw-le, and

A-se (said to be Bokhara or Buchara) .

The intercourse that existed between China and various nations,

previous and subsequent to the Christian era, naturally leads to

the conclusion that the " land of Sinim ” was visited by Christian

missionaries at an early period ; and an examination of the whole

state of China leads to the conclusion that the inculcation of the

divine precepts of our Redeemer, shortly after their adoption in

the west, has probably been the means of preserving China from

falling into barbarism, human sacrifices, &c., as was the case with

all the surrounding nations that did not become converts to

Mahomedanism .

The Rev. Mr. Medhurst has shown it is a well ascertained fact,

that St. Thomas the Apostle preached the Christian faith in India ;

and Assemannus tells us that he passed over to a country on the

east of India, where he preached the gospel, and founded a church

in the city of Cambala (Peking) ; after which he returned to

Malabar. This is confirmed by the Chaldean ritual, which pro

vides an office or ceremony for the celebration of St. Thomas,

which says, that " by him the Persians, Hindoos, and Chinese were

converted to the Christian faith." The early chronicles of China

state that their conquests extend as far as Ta-tsin, which signifies

Arabia and Judea ; the date likewise corresponds with the close of

the first century of this era .

It was not only by land that the Chinese carried on intercourse

with distant countries ; their early knowledge of the compass was

conveyed to Europe, and used by the navigators of the western

world.

Homer, speaking of the Phœacians, as to their extraordinary

skill in maritime affairs, makes Alcinous give to the shipping of

his island the same common character with Argos, and the ships

Phrixus, in the following lines :

" No pilot's aid Phoacian's vessels need,

Themselves, instinct with sense, securely speed ;

ļ Endued with wondrous skill, untaught they share,

The purpose and the will of those they bear ;

To fertile realms and distant climates go,

And where each realm and city lies they know ;

Swiftly they fly, and through the pathless sea,

Though wrapt in clouds and darkness, find their way.”

ODYSEY, L. viii .

It has been shewn in the previous chapter (page 194), that the

Chinese claimed a knowledge of the mariners' compass at a very

early period.

The travels of a Chinese named Fo-Hian, in the fourth century,

translated by MM . Remusat and Klaproth, show that navigation

was then carried on throughout the east, and that intercourse sub

sisted between China and India. Fo- Hian , with several com→

246 MARITIME VOYAGES OF CHINESE .

panions, set out on his travels, A.D. 319, from Chang-an, in the

province of Shen-se, and returned to Nanking, A.D. 414, being

absent fifteen years . His narrative is chiefly occupied with

details of Budhism ; and having found a town, he calls To-mo-li-ti, '

a part of the Bay of Bengal, in which his religion flourished, he

remained there two years transcribing manuscripts .

Fo-Hian states that he embarked from this place, with a large

number of merchants, in a ship that would carry 200 people, and

arrived at Sinhala (Ceylon) in fourteen days, the wind being

favourable.

He embarked from Ceylon in a merchant vessel of large dimen

sions, and well provisioned, for a long voyage across the Indian

Ocean, and after a passage of ninety days arrived in Java. Having

remained there for five months, he set sail for China ; and, at the

end of sixty days, being short of water, the vessel bore up for the

promontory of Lao, which is situated in the province of Shan-tung,

and bears the same name to this day.

This is not only confirmatory of intercourse, in a commercial

point of view, but disproves the assertion of those who state that

the Hindoos were never navigators . Fo- Hian found many Hindoos

at Java .

M. De Guignes says, (C nous trouvons dans les annales Chi

naises des vii. et viii . siècles , une route par mer depuis la Chine

jusqu' a l'embouchure de l'Euphrate . Les vaisseaux partaient de

Canton, ou les Arabes avaient un comptair très considérable ; cette

route est très bien suivie jusqu'a l'île de Ceylon ; le temps que

l'on emploie pour aller d' un lieu a' l'autre est indiqué ; Ceylon

dit on, est situé au midi du Tien-teo meridional, c'est à dire de

l'Inde ; de-là en suivant la côte occidentale on passait devant le

pays de Molai ou de Malabar, ensuite vers le nord ou est on

cotayait dix petits rayaumes , qui conduisoient aux frontiers occiS

dentales du pays des Brahmes et Menu ." Littera xxxii .

It may here be noted as a reason for the subsequent decadence

of the Chinese in maritime commerce, that their distant navigation

was materially checked, as was also that of other eastern nations,

by the lawless and buccaneering conduct of the Portuguese, who,

when paramount in the Indian Seas, were regardless of whom they

plundered .

The Chinese government, at a very early period, were well aware

of the piratical propensities of the Dutch and Portuguese. The

former were asked at one time, when the embassy visited Peking,

had they " any land to live on ?"

The Arabian traveller Ebn Wuahab (A.D. 877) points out the

road taken at that time, in the voyage from Bussora to Canton ; he

gives an account of the several islands he met with, and of their

productions, and speaks of the manners and customs of the

Chinese . He arrived at the capital of China with presents, and

had an audience with the Emperor, who seemed to know all the

sovereigns of the oriental countries, such as the Emperor of Constan

1

I

MARITIME ARABIAN INTERCOURSE . 247

tinople, and the Khaliff of Bagdad. In the Mediterranean on the

coast of Syria, this traveller found the wreck of an Arabian vessel ;

the construction announced that it was of Siraph, in the gulph of

Persia. He states, that all vessels built at Siraph, were put together

in a particular way, without nails, which distinguished them from

all other vessels . This Arabian marks the course the Chinese

vessels steered from Canton to Bussora ; they went from China

to Ceylon, doubled Cape Comorin, ran down the coast of Malabar,

passed the mouths of the Indus, and from thence to Siraph . The

Chinese were well acquainted with the Euphrates. From Bussora .

the merchandize was dispersed among the Mohammedan countries ,

and to the coast of Africa.

The account given by two Arabian merchants, who traded to

China, A.D. 850 and 877, is as follows : the first traveller (A.D. 850)

states, that the port of Canfoo was the principal resort of all the

ships and goods of the Arabs, who then traded with China. That

Canfoo (Kwanchoo-foo, i.e. Canton) is a large city built on a

great river. The extortions of the Chinese authorities on the

Arabian merchants, and the delay of their ships, is a subject of com

plaint. The charges amounted to thirty per cent. on the value of

each commodity. Arabian merchants wishing to travel through

the interior of China, were required to procure two passports, one

from the governor, and the other from the lieutenant. The Ara

bians highly approved of this system, as a protection for many of

their countrymen , who then traded with the interior of China, as

these passports are registered throughout the whole frontier posts .

And by this means, any but the proper owner is prevented being

in possession of the property, as a most minute description is set.

forth ; so that, should death overtake the traveller, his property is

carefully restored to his heirs. The Emperor of China appointed a

Mohammedan judge over those of that religion, who then resided

in Canton . The merchants of Irak, who then visited Canton, have

reported favourably of his general conduct and decisions, as in

every respect conformable to the Koran. The last Arabian, who

visited China in 877 A.D. gives an account of a revolution that took

ĭ

place about this period, in the city of Canfoo , (Canton ) on which

occasion , there were massacred, one hundred and twenty thousand

Christians, Jews, Mohammedans, and Parsees, who were quietly

attending their business. The writer states, that their grievances

increased, so that all the Arabian merchants returned in crowds to

Siraph and Oman.

The Arabs appear to have maintained and cultivated an extensive

intercourse with China, from an early period .

A.D. 708, in the reign of Walid, an embassy was sent to China

with valuable presents ; viâ Cashgar.

A.D. 635. The Chinese annals state, that during the reign of

Taitsung, the second Emperor of the Tang dynasty, there came am

bassadors from foreign nations . There arrived at the capital of

China, Singan-foo, a man of exalted virtue, named Olapun. The

248 CHRISTIAN INTERCOURSE IN THE COUNTRY .

Emperor graciously received this stranger, examined the na

ture of the new religion, (Scriptures ;) found that Olapun was

thoroughly acquainted with truth and uprightness , and gave him a

special command to make it known . The following year this de

cree was issued , " Truth hath not an unchanging name, nor are

holy men confined to one unchanging form . In every place

true doctrine has been given, and with reiterated instructions,

the crowd of the living have been blessed . From the distant

region of Ta-tsin,* (Arabia probably) the greatly virtuous Olapun

has brought the scriptures and the pictures , to offer them to our

high court. If the intent of this doctrine be examined , it is pro

found, excellent, and pure. If its noble origin be considered, it

produces that which is important . Its phraseology is without

superfluous words . It holds the truth, but rejects that which is

needless . It is benefical in all affairs and profitable to the people,

and should therefore pervade the empire . Let the officers erect a

temple for the religion of Ta-tsin in the capital, and appoint twenty

one ministers for its oversight .'‫در‬

The discovery of a Syrian monument, commemorating the pro

gress of Christianity in China, which was erected A.D. 718 , is a

remarkable fact, in corroboration of the foregoing statement. This

monument was discovered by some Chinese workmen, A.D. 1625 ,

near the city of Singan , the capital of the province of Shense, which

was at a remote period the capital of the empire . This city is sit

uated on the river Wei, in lat. 34° 16′ N. The monument is

described as a slab of marble, about ten feet long, and five broad ;

it was covered with earth, but was instantly shown to the authorities,

and at this period , there were numerous Christian missionaries in

China, who had an opportunity of examining it, together with

Natives and Pagans. On one side of it is the Chinese inscription,

in twenty- eight lines, twenty- six characters in each line, besides a

heading, in nine characters ; the Syrian is on the right side, com

prised in seventeen characters, (see translation . ) The nine Chinese

characters, at the top of this monument, read thus ; a " Tablet

recording the introduction of the religion of the Ta-tsin country

into China. "— (Ta-tsin, or Arabia and Judea. ) It commences with

stating the existence of the living and true God , —the Creation of

the World,-the fall of man, -and the mission of Jesus Christ .

The miraculous birth and excellent teaching of the Saviour, are

briefly described . His Ascension is spoken of; the institution of

baptism , mentioned ; and the cross declared to be effectual for

the salvation of all mankind . The latter part of the inscription

states, that in the reign of Tang-tae-tsung, A.D. 636, a Christian

teacher came from Ta-tsin, (supposed to be Arabia) to China ;

where the Emperor, after examining his doctrines, published an

edict, authorising the preaching of Christianity among the people ,

* Ta- tsin- " great purity."

NESTORIAN, ROMISH , AND ARMENIAN INTERCOURSE . 249

A.D. 782. The Emperor Suh-tsung founded several Christian

churches ; and to perpetuate his deeds, this tablet was erected .

Ĭ

In A.D. 780, Timothy, the Nestorian patriarch, sent Subchal

Jesus forth as a missionary, who is said to have laboured with

great success in China and in Tartary. The Nestorian Christians

: appear to have held intercourse with, and to have been, more or

less prosperous in China, from the 7th to the 13th century, -some

dada.

say, to the 16th century, when they were overcome by the

Romanists. But a discussion on this subject is reserved for an

7 examination of the prospects of christianizing China, which will

close this work.

A.D. 1246. Innocent IV. was the first Pope who conceived the

idea of sending missionaries , under the title of ambassadors, to the

Tartar conquerors . Two Franciscan monks formed this embassy,

and their object was to obtain aid from the Tartars to wrest the

holy sepulchre from the infidels ; but their shabby appearance

(being bare-footed), and refusing to pay homage to " Heaven's

Son," and their not bringing any presents, caused their dismissal,

with a letter to the Pope, telling him that " the Great Khan held

rightful sway over the whole earth.”

A.D. 1254. Haitho, king of Armenia, visited the Emperor of

China, in order to obtain a reduction of the amount of tribute

which the Mongols compelled him to pay ; his visit was short, so

that he had not much opportunity of seeing the country. The in

habitants he represents as most pompous and haughty.

A.D. 1288. Nicholas IV . sent John De Monte Corvino to China

to convert the Emperor to the religion of Rome. The chief obsta

cle he met with was the Nestorians, who were very numerous ; but

by great perseverance he built a church at Cambalu (Peking) , bap

tized 6,000 person, and translated the Psalms and New Testament

into the Mongolian language. He states that caravans arrived

from India and the shores of the Caspian, annually at the capital

of China. The whole of Bokhara was at this time under the

I Mongol government.

Oderic, a friar, visited China about this period , and without any

difficulty travelled over a great portion of the empire, and from

thence passed through Tibet. Here, he says, he was shocked at

the custom which was prevalent of children eating the flesh of

their deceased parents .

The intercourse carried on by the Jesuits, in the 17th century,

will be examined when discussing the rise, progress, and decline of

Romanism in China.

A.D. 1330. Ibn Batuta, a native ofTangiers, was sent to China from

the court of Delhi . He states that on his arrival at Calicut, on the

Malabar coast, he found fifteen Chinese junks at anchor. Some of

these junks had on board 600 sailors, and 400 soldiers . These

vessels were worked by oars, and the superior officers had their

wires and families with them, who lived in houses built on deck .

250 SIMILARITY BETWEEN PERUVIANS AND CHINESE .

This envoy was surprised at the good order which reigned in

China. Paper money was in general use, and the number and

wealth of the Mohammedan merchants he met with, far exceeded 1

his expectations. He returned via Sumatra.

Marco Polo, in describing Koulam, now considered to be An

jengo, in (Tamul language it signifies tank or pool,) at his time a

large city in India ; says, it is the residence of many Christians

and Jews. He remarks that the heat of the climate is very great,

yet merchants visit it from various parts of the world, such as the

kingdom of China and Arabia, attracted by the great profits they

obtain upon the merchandize brought there and taken away. It

it now, however, a rare thing to see a Chinese vessel to the west

ward of the straits of Malacca and Sunda ; although it is certain

that in a remote period, the Chinese did, reciprocally with the

Arabians, trade not only to the Peninsula of India, but also to the

Persian Gulf.

The authority of Edrisi, who wrote about the 12th century, (A.D.

1156 ,) is direct to the purpose :

" Ex ipsa, " he says of a port in Yemen, " solvuntur navigia

Sindae, Indiae, et Sinarum, et ad ipsam deferuntur vasa Sinica ."

(Geographia, page 25.)

Edrisi further says, " Muskat, the ancient capital of Oman , was

visited every year by great numbers of merchant-ships ; and was

annually much frequented by ships from Sin," (China.)

There are probabilities that the Chinese also penetrated the

Continent of America. The Peruvian annals state, that about the

year 1100 or 1150 A.D. , Manco Capac, with his wife and sister,

Mama Ocella, appeared as strangers on the banks of the Titiaca,

and announced themselves as " children of the sun," sent by their

beneficent parent to reclaim them from savage life. Manco in

structed the men in agriculture, and Mama taught the women to

spin and weave. This might be rejected as a fable, if there were

not a similarity in the institutions of the Peruvians and of the

Chinese . The first injunction strictly enjoined was to " love one

another." The preference was given to useful arts over warlike in-

struments : their literary men ranked highest as poets and philo L

sophers. ་

The Emperor was considered the father of his people ; whose

progenitor descended from Heaven . He was high-priest as well as

temporal prince. There was an annual ploughing match, in which

the Incas took part. Irrigation, together with various composts

for manure, characterized Peruvian husbandry. The taxes paid

in kind, were maize, rice, silk, cotton, &c. Roads were constructed

for general purposes, and houses of entertainment erected on them .

Humboldt remarks on their mode of architecture as precisely simi

lar, and all of one model. The Peruvians were celebrated for their

coarse pottery.

In their dramas and spectacles ; their suspension bridges made of

INTERCOURSE BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA. 251

ropes, and chains made of twisted osiers ; rafts with a mast and sail

p made of mats ; knotted cords for calculating time ; monasteries and

nunneries, there is a remarkable coincidence, demonstrative , at

least, of intercourse between the Peruvians and the Chinese .

As the subject is not confined to mere antiquarian intcrest, but

may help to indicate our future policy, some more detail will be

useful.

INTERCOURSE BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA.

B C. 126. The first authentic record of intercourse between

India and China, was during the reign of the Emperor Wante,

who sent an envoy to Tchang-kiao, with a retinue of 100 men, to

visit the western countries, such as Khorassan and Meru- al- nahar.

This envoy procured information about Persia ; and seeing rich

articles of trade from India, his curiosity prompted him to visit

ƒ that country .

That there was a constant commercial intercourse between India,

Ceylon, and China, about the beginning of the Christian era, is

fully proved by Pliny, (lib . 60, cap . ccxx.) The same passage

establishes the fact of a regular intercourse between the Roman

and Chinese merchants.

The above passage is thus translated by Salmasius :-" A certain

King of Ceylon sent four ambassadors to the Emperor Claudius,"

(this emperor ascended the throne, A.D. 44) .

" The chief of this embassy (Rachias) being asked if he knew the

Seres (Chinese), answered that the Seres lived beyond the Hai

miada, or Snow Mountains ; with regard to Ceylon, that the Seres

were often seen, or visited by his countrymen, and were well known

to them through a commercial intercourse ; that his father had been

there, and whenever caravans from Ceylon (and probably also from

India) went there, the Seres came part of the way to meet them in

a friendly manner ; which it seems was not the case with the

caravans from the west, consisting of Roman merchants."

Thus we see that the inhabitants of Ceylon traded to China, at

the commencement of our era, and it was by land that the inter

course was carried on . There can be no doubt that they went first

by sea to the country of Magad'ha, the name given by the Chinese

}

to all India. This kingdom of Magad'ha, in Anu- Gangam, is the

province of South Bahar, called by the Chinese Makiato, the Arabs

Mabid, or the Gangetic provinces, where Buddha was born , and his

religion flourished.

The traders from Ceylon, on arriving at Magad❜ha, joined

the caravans of that country, and went to China, through what

Ptolemy calls the great route from Palebothra to China.

It was by means of this commercial intercourse, that Budhism

was introduced into China in A.D. 65 ; and from that era we may

date the constant and regular intercourse between Magad'ha and

:

252 ROUTE BETWEEN INDIA AND CHINA.

China ; until the extirpation of the religion of Buddha, and the

invasion of the Mussulmans .

A.D. 159. The King of Tientso (India) , sent an embassy by sea

to China, with many rare presents to the Emperor.

[The Chinese call India, Shinto and Tientso . ]

A.D. 408. Yuegnai, King of Kiaple (or the Ganges) , sent ambas

sadors to China.

A.D. 473 . The King of Poali (Magad'ha), sent ambassadors to

China.

A.D. 641. The Indian king of the countries belonging to the

great Mogul, and included in the Mo-kiato, or Magad'ha empire,

sent an embassy to China.

A.D. 642 . Kaou -tsung, Emperor of China, sent an embassy in

return to Houlomien . This Emperor had previously reduced all

India under his yoke.

A.D. 647. The Emperor of Magad'ha sent a second embassy to

China, and likewise the King of Nipolu (Nipal) .

A.D. 648. Kaou-tsung, Emperor of China, sent an embassy to

the King of Magad'ha ; but in the mean time Houlomien died,

and a civil war was raging .

Ptolemy states that there were two roads by which the inhabit

ants of India and China communicated with each other ; one road

led to Bactira, and the other to Palibothra . Merchandise was

conveyed first to the west, through Balkh to Palibothra, and from

the latter carried down the Ganges, and by sea to Limyrica.

From the metropolis of China, Ptolemy states there was a road

leading to Cattigara, in the country of Cambodia, in a south- west

direction .

With regard to the track, from the country of the Magad'ha,

and Palibothra, to China ; -from Cabul there was a road leading

through the mountains, north of the Punjab, which met another

from Jahora, in the same country, at a place called Aris, in the

mountains. These two roads are frequented to this day, and meet

at a place called the Eyes of Mansarowar, where there are three

lakes . Magasthenes gives the distance from the Indus to Pali

bothra as 20,000 stadia ( 1,476 British miles) .

On the authority of Chinese history, it appears that there was

constant intercourse between the kingdom of Magad'ha and

China, and the trade to an island and kingdom called Founan,

to the eastward of Siam, during the third and fourth centuries .

This was probably a Malay kingdom.

The Mohammedan travellers who visited China in the ninth

century, and whose correct description of the country is not disputed,

thus write : "the kings of Mabed send every year ambassadors and

presents to the Emperor of China, who in return sends ambassadors.

to them. Their country is of great extent, and when the ambas

sadors from Mabed enter China, they are carefully watched, and

never once allowed to survey the country, for fear they should form

MOORISH INTERCOURSE WITH CHINA . 253

designs of conquering it, because they are parted from China only

by mountains and rocks ; which would be no difficult task ."

Father Semedo, giving a description of China, in A.D. 1610 ,

states, that " in the province of Xemsi, (now called Kangsoo) there

is much merchandise, for it hath two cities in the borders thereof,

Gauchew and Suchaw toward the west, from whence come numer

ous caravans, of above a thousand in company, from several nations ;

but for the most part Moors. With these caravans come ambas

sadors, which the princes of the Moors send to the king of China,

making every three years a small embassy, and every five years a

great one. These foreign caravans remain in the above cities ,

trafficking there with their merchandise. The embassy in the

mean time depart to the Emperor with the presents from the five

kings, viz . The kings of Rume, Arabia, Cabol, Samarkan , ( Samarat

cand) and Turfon ; the first four know nothing of this embassy, but

the fifth king names the ambassadors, and the merchants make up

the presents between themselves ; they remain three months at

the Emperor's expense."

It is probable that there is no inconsiderable trade still carried

on with Central Asia from the western frontiers of China.

INTERCOURSE BETWEEN PERSIA AND CHINA .

Sir William Jones translated an account of embassies and letters

that passed between the Emperor of China and Shahrokh, the son

of Timur. One of the annals of the Hidjerah, (year 811 , ) commenc

ing 26th of May, 1408, A.D., runs as follows : ---

" When the king (i.e. Shah Rokh Mirza) returned from his expe

dition to Scistan, ambassadors, who had been sent by the Emperor

of China, to condole with him on the death of his father, arrived

with a variety of presents, and represented what they had to say on

the part of their monarch. The king after showing them many

favours and civilities, gave them dismission .

A.D. 1412. " Ambassadors from the Emperor of China and

Machin , and all those countries , arrived at Herat . His majesty

gave orders that the city and bazaars should be decorated , and that

the merchants should adorn their shops with all possible art and

elegance . The lords of the court also went to meet and welcome

them. It was a time of rejoicing and gaiety. After which his

majesty ascended the throne , and bestowed upon the chief of his

lords and the ambassadors , the happiness of kissing his hand. The

latter, after offering him their presents, delivered their message

and the Emperor's letter ."

The following is a copy of the letter of the Emperor of China to

Shahrokh ; it is in the usual arrogant style of a superior to an in

ferior :

'The great Emperor, Day-ming, sends this letter to the country

of Samarcan , to Shahrokh Bahadur .

254 INTERCOURSE BETWEEN PERSIA AND CHINA .

" As we consider that the most high God has created all things

in heaven and earth, to the end that all his creatures may be happy,

and that it is in consequence of his sovereign decree, that we are

become lord of theface of the earth, we therefore endeavour to exer

cise rule in obedience to his commands, and for this reason we

nake no partial distinctions between those that are near, and those

that are afar off, but regard them all with an eye of equal bene

volence . We have heard before this that thou art a wise and ex

cellent prince, highly distinguished above others, that thou art

obedient to the commands of the most high God, that thou art a

father to thy people and to thy troops, and art good and beneficent

towards all ; which has given us much satisfaction . But it was

with singular pleasure that when we sent an embassy with Kimkhas

and Torkos, and a dress, thou didst pay all due honour to our com

mands, and didst make a proper display of the favour thou hadst

received, insomuch that small and great rejoiced at it. Thou didst

also forthwith dispatch an ambassador to do us homage, and to

present us the rarities, horses, and manufactures of that country :

so that with the strictest regard to truth we can declare, that we

have deemed thee worthy of praise and distinction .

" The government of the Monguls was some time ago extinct,

but thy father Timur Fuma was obedient to the commands of the

most high God, and did homage to our great Emperor Tay-zuy,

nor did he omit to send ambassadors with presents . He (the Em

peror) for that reason granted protection to the men of that country,

and enriched them all. We have now seen that thou art a worthy

follower of thy father, in his noble spirit, and in his measures ; we

have therefore sent an embassy with congratulations and a dress,

and Kimkhas and Tarkos, and that the truth may be known . We

shall hereafter send persons whose office it will be to go and return

successively, in order to keep open a free communication, that mer

chants may traffic and carry on their business to their wish . This

is what we make known to thee."

Another letter was sent with the presents, and contained a par

ticular account of them ; besides, it served as a pass, which was to 1

remain with the ambassadors . Each was written in the Persian

language and character, as well as in the Turkish, the Mogul, and 1

the Chinese characters .

The embassy was most hospitably entertained, and one in return

was sent to China, with a letter, in Arabic and in Persian ; Shah

rokh being most anxious that the Emperor of China should regu

late his conduct by the law of the Koran .

A.D. 1417. The Emperor of China again sent ambassadors to

his Majesty, attended by three hundred horse ; the embassy con

veyed an abundance of rarities and presents, and a letter from the

Emperor of China with acknowledgments for past favours . The

chief point in this letter particularly insisted on, was that both

parties should strive to remove all constraint arising from distance

CHINA SOUGHT FREE INTERCOURSE . 255

of place, that the subjects and merchants of both kingdoms might

enjoy a free and unrestrained intercourse with each other. The am

bassadors were handsomely entertained, and as on all former occa

sions, received their dismission , when the king sent Ardasher

Tavachy, back with them to China.

About the end of Ramzan ( Oct. , 1419 , A.D. ) the ambassadors

Bimachin and jan-machin arrived at Herat, from China, with pre

sents and a letter for the king as follows :

" The great Emperor Day-Ming sends this letter to Sultan

Shahrokh. The Most High has made you knowing, and wise, and

perfect. Your majesty is of an enlightened mind, skilful, accom 1

plished, and judicious, and superior to all the Islamites . The wes

tern country, which is the seat of Islamism, has been famous for

producing wise and good men ; but none have been superior to

your majesty. We send your Majesty some presents, which are of

little value, only as tokens of our affection and regard.

" Henceforth, we hope that ambassadors and merchants, shall be

always passing and repassing between us without interruption, to the

end that our subjects may live in plenty, ease, and security. This is

what we have thought proper to write to you."

It is obvious from the foregoing that the Chinese government

sent out embassies with a view to the preservation of friendly and

commercial intercourse with distant states .

The letter from Shah Rokh , King of Herat, to the Emperor of

China, A.D. 1408, has been translated from the Arabic, -thus :

" There is no God but God, and Mohammed is his Apostle .

Mohammed, the Apostle of God, hath said, as long as ever there

C

shall remain a people of mine, that are steady in keeping the com

mandments of God, the man that persecutes them shall not prosper,

nor shall their enemy prevail against them, until the day of judg

ment. When the most high God proposed to create Adam, and his

race, he said, ' I have been a treasure concealed, but I choose now

to be known, -I therefore create human beings, that I may be

known.' It is then evident, from hence, that the wisdom of the

supreme Being, whose power is glorious, and whose word is sub

Į

lime, in the creation of the human species, was this-that the

knowledge of him, and of the true faith, might shine forth , and be

1

propagated . For this purpose . also, he sent his Apostle to direct

men in the way, and teach them the true religion, that it might be

exalted above all others, and the rites concerning clean and un

clean might be known . And he granted us the sublime and

miraculous Koran, to silence the unbelievers, and cut short their

tongues. The most high God, therefore, constrains us, by his past.

mercies and present bounties, to labour for the establishment of

the rules of his righteous and indispensable law ; and commands

us, under a sense of thankfulness to him, to administer justice aud

mercy to our subjects, in all cases, agreeably to the code and pre

cepts of Mustafa. He requires us also to found mosques, colleges,

A

256 ALEXANDER THE GREAT AND THE CHINESE EMPEROR .

almshouses, and places of worship, in all parts of our dominions,

that the study of the laws, and the moral practices, which is the

result of those studies, may not be discontinued . Seeing then

that the permanence of temporal prosperity, and of dominion in thisį

lower world, depends on an adherence to truth and goodness, and

on the extirpation of heathenism and infidelity from the earth, with

a view to future retribution, I cherish the hope that your Majesty,

and the nobles of your realm , will unite with us in these matters,

and join us in establishing the sacred law. I trust, also, that your

Majesty will continue to send hither ambassadors, and express

messengers, and will strengthen the foundation of affection and

friendship, by keeping open a free communication between the [ two

empires ; that travellers and merchants may pass to and fro, un

molested, our subjects may be refreshed with the fruits of this

commerce . Peace be to him that follows the right path, for God is

ever gracious to them that serve him ."

A remarkable interview took place between the Emperor of China

and Alexander the Great, an account of which has been translated

from a Persian work by the late Sir John Malcolm .

After Alexander had made war against Paor or Porus , and slain

him, he marched against theEmperor of China. That monarch did

not consider himself equal to the conflict, and went in disguise to

the Grecian camp. He was discovered , and brought to Alexander,

who asked him how he could act in such a manner. The Emperor

replied : " I was anxious to see you, and your army ; I could have

no fear on my own account, as I knew I was not an object of dread

to Alexander ; besides, if he were to slay me , my subjects would in

stantly raise another king to the throne. But of this I can have

no fear, as I am satisfied Alexander can never be displeased with

an action that shows a solicitude to obtain his friendship."

The conqueror was completely overcome by this truly Chinese

flattery, and concluded a treaty by which China was spared on con

dition of paying tribute. The Emperor returned to his capital to

make preparations for the entertainment of his great ally ; and the

third day he returned with an army, the dust of which announced

its great numbers, which made Alexander prepare his force for

battle. When both lines were opposite, the Emperor of China,

with his ministers and nobles, alighted and went towards the

Grecian Prince , who asked him why he had broken faith . " I

wished," said the Emperor, " to show the number of my army,

that you might be satisfied I made peace from other motives than

an inability to make war. It was from consulting the stars, that I

have been led to submit . The Heavens aid you, and I war not

with them ."

Alexander was so gratified , that he released the Emperor from

paying tribute, as he was too wise , too pious, and too great a

prince ; he was perfectly satisfied to have his friendship .

The Emperor took his leave, and sent a present of jewels , gold,

CHRONOLOGY OF FOREIGN INTERCOUrse. 257

and beautiful ladies, to the conqueror. [From a Persian work

called Zeenut-ul Tuarikh. ]

We have no account of the extent of trade carried on between

Persia and China ; nor when the intercourse ceased . The mer

chandise brought from the kingdom of Magor, and the city of

Lahore, A.D. 1603, to China, consisted of salt, ammoniac, azure,

fine linen, carpets, knives, &c. ; but the chief article was the stone

called Yaca, (Jade) much prized in China, for making ornaments .

The return cargo was porcelain, musk, rubies, raw-silk, silk - stuffs ,

rhubarb, &c. The presents from Persia mentioned, consisted of 1333

Italian pounds' weight of Yaca, 340 horses, 300 small -pointed dia

monds, twelve catties of fine azure ; 600 knives, and as many files.

The presents from the Emperor of China consisted of two pieces

of cloth of gold for each horse ; thirty pieces of yellow silk, thirty

pounds of cha, (tea, ) ten of musk, and thirty pounds of silver. The

value of the Persian presents was estimated at 7000 crowns .

Those of the Chinese were valued by the Saracen merchants at

50,000.

CHRONOLOGY OF FOREIGN INTERCOURSE .

The accompanying record of foreign intercourse, and of foreign

missions to and from China, will prove that it is our own fault

China is not now open to a free intercourse with Europe .

B.C. 1000. Foreign embassies to China from eight " barbarous"

nations of India ; the nearest was ten days', and the most remote,

about six months' journey . Extracts from Chinese translations

state that the Japanese traded about this time to China.

B.C. 984. The Emperor Muh-wang, paid a visit to Mount

Kwan lun, to see a western prince, called See-wang-moo . (See

page 199, on Dynasties.)

B.C. 141. The Emperor Woo-te, sent embassies to foreign

countries to trade, from which they brought gems, pearls , gold, &c.

B.C. 121 . Wante sent an embassy and retinue of 100 persons to

visit the western countries .

‫ک‬ B.C. 100. The Chinese chronicles record embassies from Japan,

as they allege, with " tribute, " i . e . presents .

A.D. 159. The King of India sent an embassy to China, with

rare presents .

A.D. 166. A Roman embassy, from Marcus Antoninus to

China .

A.D. 176. India and other nations came to China by the

southern sea, with " tribute ." Canton was at this period the

emporium for foreigners.

A.D. 265. A Roman embassy to China.

A.D. 285. Emperor Woo-te sent an ambassador to Lan-yu ,

Prince of Ta-wan, (between the Oxus and Taxartes, E. of Samar

cand) , and conferred the title of king on him.

$

258 EMBASSIES TO AND FROM CHINA.

A.D. 287. Envoys received from the Roman provinces, W. of

Persia, called great Tsin.

A.D. 408 . The King of Kiaple, (the Ganges,) sent an embassy

to China.

A.D. 473 . The King of Pala, (Magad'ha,) sent ambassadors to

China.

A.D. 600. During the Suy dynasty, ambassadors were sent to

the surrounding nations. Japan and China exchanged embassies ,

regularly.

A.D. 641 . The Indian King, under the Mogul, sent an embassy

to China.

A.D. 642. Kaou-tsung, Emperor of China, sent an embassy to

Houlomin . This Emperor had reduced all India to his sway,

A.D. 647. The King of Magadha, and the King of Nipalu,

(Nipal,) sent embassies to China.

A.D. 648. Kaou-tsung, Emperor of China, sent an embassy in

return to Magadha ; but in the meantime, Houlomin died, and a

civil war raged in his dominions.

A.D. 795. A memorial to the Emperor of China, states, that

the foreign trading ships had deserted Canton ; and now went to

Cochin-China ; the memorial states, that a tenth of the value was

the amount of the duty charged . The Emperor's answer is, that

the jewel must have been spoiled in its case ; meaning thereby, that

extortion had been used.

A D. 1246. An embassy from the Pope, viâ Russia, ill received .

A.D. 1253. An embassy from Louis the IX . (called St. Louis) .

Violent polemical discussions with the Mahommedans and Nesto

rians, caused this embassy to be dismissed, with this answer, " God

hath given the scriptures to the Christians : That holy book does not

permit them to vilify each other ; nor for the sake of gain, to

abandon the paths ofjustice : Go and practice its precepts."

The Popes continued to keep up the intercourse by missions,

which were begun by Pope Innocent.

A.D. 1260. Two Venetian nobles, named Polo, visited China,

with a cargo of merchandise ; they were well received by the Em

peror, Khublia- khan, who proposed sending back with them, an

ambassador to the Pope, to induce His Holiness to send him Christ

ian instructors . The ambassador died on the journey.

A.D. 1261 . The great Khan sent embassies to Louis the IX . ,

James of Arragon , Charles of Sicily , and other Christian princes ,

inviting them to join his forces .

A.D. 1276. The two Venetians, (Polo) returned to China, and

were well received . They brought letters from Gregory X. The

son, young Marco Polo, became the confidant of the Emperor, for

seventeen years, in various offices of trust. The father and uncle

had some difficulty to get away from court. At length , the Khan

sent them back by sea. Ambassadors from the Khan to the

Pope travelled with them.

}

1

FREE TRADE FOR FOREIGNERS IN CHINA, A.D. 1356. 259

A.D. 1279. Letter sent from Kublia Khan, to the Emperor of

Japan.

A.D. 1286. Embassy sent from China to Japan .

A.D. 1300. The Emperor, Yuen, sent an embassy to Japan,

which was joined by an envoy, from the King of Carea, but no

landing could be effected . This Emperor, and his successor, sent

eight different embassies and envoys, some of them military expe

ditions in disguise, but they were all unsuccessful .

A.D. 1323. Ibn Batuta, a pilgrim , left Tangiers about this

time, and travelled over a great portion of Asia . On his arrival at

Alexandria, Batuta visited a pious Imaum, who dispatched him on

a mission to China, where he was well received, and was astonished

at the good order and industry of the people of China.

Paper money was in general use, in the way of trade.

In all the large towns he found Mohammedans, who were

wealthy merchants, and had their own officers and laws .

A.D. 1356. The provinces of Foo - keen, Canton, Che-keang,

and Chinchew, were opened to foreign ships ; and an additional

officer appointed to Chinchew. All other ports were opened, on

giving a bond as security against smuggling ; the commanders

were furnished with arms to defend themselves . An edict was

issued, naming the articles to be bought from foreigners with money;

and adding that any Chinese that would cheat foreigners, should

be severely punished .

A.D. 1370. Embassy from the Ming dynasty. Between India

A.D. 1376 . Embassy from Hung-wo . and China.

A.D. 1400. Several reciprocal embassies.

A.D. 1400. It was decreed by the Chinese, that foreign nations

should bring " tribute" every three years ; the regulations were

strict, and 120 houses were built, and set apart for the sole use

of the foreigners .

A.D. 1419. An ambassador was sent from China to Japan, to

purchase some rarities ; he was badly treated, and narrowly es

caped with his life.

A.D. 1420. An embassy, from Shah Rokh Mirza, from Herat,

through Balkh and Samarcand ; this embassy being joined by

others , on their journey , the whole number amounted to upwards

of 800 persons , the greatest portion of whom were merchants .

They were well and hospitably treated .

A.D. 1420. An embassy sent from Yung-loo .

A.D. 1518. An embassy from Portugal obtained permission to

settle at Sancian ; subsequently treated with the Chinese for Macao.

A.D. 1539. The Japanese sent an ambassador to Ning-po, to

conclude a treaty of peace and commerce .

A.D. 1602. The Emperor of China sent an embassy to Manilla ,

to ascertain the truth of a report which had reached him, that the

port of Cavite was formed of gold .

s 2

260 ALL CHINESE PORTS OPEN TO ALL NATIONS, A.D. 1686 .

A.D. 1604. Another embassy from China to the Spanish au

thorities, to know why 20,000 Chinese had been slain or banished

from Manilla ; the embassy was satisfied, and trade resumed its

usual course .

A.D. 1624. The Dutch gained a settlement on the island of

Formosa, where the Chinese traded with them extensively .

A.D. 1625. The Emperor (Tien-ki) ; and government called to

their aid the Christian missionaries, and a number of Portuguese,

in repelling the Tartars ; their knowledge of artillery, and generous

aid succeeded in driving away the enemy, who was within seven

leagues of Peking. The generals on this occasion were Christians .

The mother of the Emperor, his chief wife, and his eldest son re

ceived the rite of Christian baptism, together with twenty ladies.

of rank at the court. The Chinese Empress was baptized Helena

and the other royal Christians sent a learned missionary, Michael

Baym, (a Pole) to Pope Alexander, to render obedience to the

court of Rome.

A.D. 1656. An embassy from the Dutch East India Company,

endeavoured to obtain a monopoly of trade, without success ; they

were permitted to return with " tribute," every eight years . The

embassy arrived at Peking, 17th July, 1656, and remained there

ninety-one days .

A.D. 1661. An embassy from Holland, to the Viceroy of Foo

keen province ; who presented them with a great variety of gifts

ADD

in return , and silver plates with their names engraved thereon,

VARANKAN

which served as passes .

ST HE

A.D. 1666-67 . A treaty between Holland and China, with per

mission to trade at Canton, Singchew, Hoksieu, Ningpo, and

Hanksew, without limitation of goods, time, or number of ships.

Stores and convenient dwelling-places were erected . The

embassy arrived at Peking, 29th June, 1667, and remained there

forty-six days.

A.D. 1689 . A treaty between China and Russia, by which the

latter was granted permission to send a caravan of merchandise,

every year, to Peking ; and permission for a certain number of

Russians to reside there.

A.D. 1686. By an edict of the Emperor Kanghe, all the ports

of China were opened, to every nation who chose to visit them for

trade ; they were all closed again in 1709 .

A.D. 1692. The Emperor Kanghe, issued an edict tolerating

the Christian religion . This was in consequence of the great per

secution that the missionaries were subject to from the Mandarins ;

the report of the Board of Rites was most favourable to the cha

racter of all the Christians, then resident in China. The report

states that the empire was indebted to them for the many and

sincere efforts, which they had rendered during the civil and

foreign wars. Moreover, that the Europeans are tranquil ; that

L

1

¦

1

EMBASSIES BETWEEN RUSSIA AND CHINA . 261

they do not excite troubles in the provinces. Besides their doc

trine has nothing in common with the false and dangerous sects of

the empire, and their maxims do not lead people to sedition .

About this period the Emperor Kan-ghi was given over by the

Chinese physicians as incurable ; the Emperor sent for his great

favorite Gerbillon, the Jesuit, who cured the Emperor with quinine .

The Emperor, after his recovery, assigned the missionaries splendid

apartments in the first enclosure in the palace, and had a church

built within the palace, which was adorned by the Jesuit artists,

and opened with great ceremony, in March, 1702.

A.D. 1692-3 . Everard Isbrand Ides was sent on an embassy

from Russia to Peking. After having delivered the Czar's cre

dentials, the ambassador was invited to eat with the Emperor, and

to drink a cup of Tartarian wine, which was handed him by the

Emperor. The embassy arrived at Peking, 5th November, 1692,

and remained there 106 days.

A.D. 1712. An embassy was sent from Peking to A-yu-kee, Khan

of the Tourgouth Tartars, situated on the banks of the Volga, to

the north of the Caspian (it was sent in return for one from the

Tourgouth Tartars, which had reached China the preceding year) .

The instructions given to the Chinese embassy on this occasion are

curious and interesting. If any untoward circumstance should

lead the mission to Moscow, minute answers were given to the

embassy to every enquiry that was expected to be asked relating

to the government of China. " If asked what the Chinese esteem

most ; reply, fidelity, filial piety, charity, justice, and sincerity, are

esteemed above all other things : that on these principles we

govern this great empire, and likewise ourselves . If the Russians

speak to you about fire-arms, and solicit aid from me of that de

scription, state, that being on a mission to the Tourgouth Tartars,

you could not broach that question. Again, the Russians are a

vain people ; they will display several things they possess : on such

occasions neither express admiration nor contempt. But, of all

things, pay close attention to the manners of the inhabitants of

Russia ; its natural and artificial productions ; its geography, and

the general appearance of the country." Having been three years.

engaged on the mission, the embassy returned to Peking, escorted

by the Russian guard, and the troops of A-yu-kee.

A.D. 1715. The Czar, Peter the First, sent Laurence Lange as

envoy to Kanghi, Emperor of China, who received him with un

usual attention ; dispensed with most of the ceremonies that are

usually required, and called them his children ; at the same time

strict watch was kept, and a sentinel placed on the door . The

Emperor sent back with this embassy, two Chinese and two Tartar

lords as ambassadors to Russia.

A.D. 1720. This embassy from Peter the Great consisted of

upwards of 100 persons ; nothing could exceed the attention and

hospitality with which the embassy was treated . The Emperor

1

262 RUSSIAN MISSION ESTABLISHED AT PEKIN.

himself wrote a letter to Peter the Great, the only instance of such

condescension on record . The secretary to this embassy remained

in Peking, as a kind of agent to Peter the Great . The embassy

arrived at Peking, 18th November, 1720, and remained there 114

days.

A.D. 1721. A legation from the Pope to the Emperor Kanghi,

to obtain his aid in settling a difference of opinion that existed

between the Christians residing in China, as to the Pope's infalli

bility. The embassy remained at Peking ninety- one days.

A.D. 1728. A treaty entered into between Catherine the First,

Empress of Russia, and China . According to this treaty, the

Russian mission, composed of six priests and four lay members,

fixed its abode at Peking. A church was built by the aid of the

Chinese government ; and the Russians were permitted to worship

their God according to the rites of their religion . The mission

residing at Peking is changed for another set of priests and stu

dents every ten years to the present day.

A.D. 1754. An embassy from Portugal to China ; it was chiefly

conducted by the Roman Catholic Bishop and Priests of Macao .

Two mandarins of high rank, -one a German Jesuit, the other a

Tartar, were sent from Peking, to escort this embassy from Canton

to Peking. Strange to say, the real object of this embassy was

never well understood . But a reduction of a few hundred pounds

sterling was conceded to the Portuguese annually in Macao . They

left Canton in February, and returned in November. The embassy

remained at Peking thirty-nine days.

A.D. 1787. Embassy from China to the King of Ava ; well re

ceived, and returned with another embassy from the King of Ava to

the Emperor of China.

A.D. 1790 . Embassy from the Emperor of China to the King of

Ava.

A.D. 1792. Lord Macartney was appointed ambassador to China

by the British government and the East India Company. Hitherto

Great Britain had been obliged to trade with China under the

most disadvantageous circumstances . Fair competition was

destroyed by the unjust and oppressive exactions of the Chinese

officials at Canton . It became necessary to ascertain whether the

frequent obstructions to trade arose from the policy of the imperial

government, or were created by the corruption of the provincial

administration, and the object was to obtain a remedy for the

future . The legate who attended the ambassador was a Tartar ;

and the late success of the British arms in India had made an unP

favourable impression on his mind, as it was hinted that the

British had joined the Nepaulese in the war which had just taken

place with the Tartars, on the borders of Thibet . The Emperor of

China sent a letter to the King of England, refusing to make any

alteration in the then existing system, and further stated that the

1

BRITISH EMBASSIES TO CHINA . 263

Russians now only traded at Kiatcha, and had not for many years

come to Peking. Thus terminated the embassy, and all that can

be said, is that the ambassador was received with politeness,

treated with hospitality, watched with vigilance, and dismissed with

civility. Great difficulty was experienced at this time to obtain

permission for the king's ships to anchor at Anson's Bay, in order

to have them convenient to accompany the annual homeward-

bound fleet of merchant vessels . The local authorities would not

permit this publicly, but they did not prevent provisions being

supplied . The necessity of this convoy was fully proved in 1804,

when Sir Nathaniel Dance beat off the French squadron under

Admiral Linois, in the China Seas . The value of the homeward

bound fleet was estimated at upwards of £ 16,000,000 sterling . The

embassy remained at Peking forty- seven days .

A.D. 1795. A Dutch embassy remained thirty-five days at Pe

king.

A.D. 1806. A Russian embassy to Peking .

A.D. 1816. An embassy from the Prince Regent to the Em

peror of China embarked from Spithead, with Lord Amherst as

ambassador, on board His Majesty's ship Alceste, on the 8th

February, 1816. The objects of this embassy were similar to that

of Lord Macartney, but more particularly to point out the many

grievances under which the company were obliged to conduct their

trade, and hoping that the Emperor would sanction some regula

tions that would exempt them from the capricious exactions of the

local authorities . The instructions also hinted, that the time

might probably arrive when coercive measures would be found in

dispensable to protect a trade in which some millions of money

had been embarked . The course of policy pursued by the British

nation in India was fully explained . The embassy arrived at the

mouth of the White River, on the 28th July, but were delayed ,

waiting for the imperial legate, until the 9th August. The dis

cussion on the performance of the Ko-tow (knocking the head nine

times against the ground) commenced, the Chinese insisting that

the last ambassador had performed it. Lord Amherst refused . It

is needless to recite the various consultations and fruitless meet

ings held between the legate and the embassy, together with the

rude behaviour of the various officers of the court. The embassy

were ordered to return home, without an interview. In a letter

from the Emperor to the Prince Regent, was the following : " I

have sent these ambassadors back to their own country, without

punishing them for the high crime they have committed."

A.D. 1822. Embassy from the Emperor of China to the King of

Ava, with some presents, including a white male and female ass,

with bridles and saddles.

A.D. 1823. King of Ava sends embassy to China.

A.D. 1833. Exchanges of embassies between China and Ava.

t

264 CHINESE REGULATIONS FOR FOREIGN EMBASSIES .

The following rules and regulations to be observed by embassies

to the court of Peking, are translated from a Chinese court-docu +

ment, known as the Ta Tsing Hwui tien.

1

" The countries in the four quarters of the world, which send

embassies to China, and pay tribute, are Corea, Loochoo, Laos,

Cochin China, Siam, Sulu, Holland, Burmah, and those of the

Western Ocean ; all other countries have only intercourse and

commerce .

" When tribute -bearers arrive on the frontier, the local officers

must report the same to the Emperor ; and if the Emperor permits

the embassy to proceed, the officer must fix their numbers, grant

them gifts, provide them with what is necessary, (and if any are

sick show them compassionate charity) ; and an escort of officers

and soldiers to protect them.

"The Chinese and foreign merchants are permitted to trade with

each other in such things as they have, regard being had to the

established prohibitions : compassion and charity must be shown

to foreigners who are lost by shipwreck, and they must be sent

away in safety.

"Foreigners of the western countries, who are skilled in arts, or

astronomy, and are willing to go and serve in Peking, must first be

reported by the local officers at the place where they arrive, and

on getting a reply, they may be sent with a safe conductor to the

capital . The following are the countries from which ambassadors

have come with tribute to the court of Peking :—

" Corea. - Its tribute must be sent once in four years : the num

ber of the embassy allowed is, one ambassador, one deputy, a

secretary, three interpreters, and twenty-four men to protect the

tribute. The number of servants and others is not fixed, but the

imperial bounties are only given to thirty of them.

" Loochoo.- This embassy comes by the way of Fookien, twice in

three years. One ambassador, and one deputy ; the number of

interpreters and servants is not fixed .

" Cochin China - This embassy comes once in two years : there

are two or three ambassadors ; the assistants may be from four to

nine ; and the other servants, &c. , may be ten or more. ་

“ Laos. — This embassy comes by way of Yunnan : the period is

once in ten years, and the number composing the embassy cannot

exceed 100 ; and those who go to Peking cannot be more than

twenty.

" Siam.- This comes by Kwantung (Canton), once in three years :

the ambassadors may be two, three, or four ; the number who may

go to Peking cannot exceed twenty-six.

" Sulu. - Comes by way of Canton and Amoy, once in five or more

years ; one ambassador, one deputy, one interpreter ; but the

number of followers is not fixed.

Holland.- The Dutch embassy comes by Canton : it has no fixed

time. It may be composed of one or two ambassadors, one head

L

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Published by James Madden 8 Leadenhall Street London 1847 .

GREAT BRITAIN DECLARED TRIBUTARY TO CHINA . 265

follower, one secretary ; the other followers cannot be more than

100, and those going to Peking cannot exceed twenty.

"Burmah .- Comes by Yunnan, once in ten years : they must not

exceed 100, and those going to Peking cannot exceed 20. "

The countries of the Western Ocean (Europe) , Portugal, Italy,

and England, have no fixed periods, each embassy cannot have

more than three ships, each ship 100 men, and only twenty-two

people are admitted to Peking.

Among the other nations mentioned , are Japan , Acheen, France,

and Sweden ; the reason these countries have not brought " tribute "

are not mentioned . Great Britain first brought " tribute " in the

fifty-eighth year of Kienlung, A.D. 1793, but no reasons for it are

given. The reason assigned why Mr. Cushing, the American am

bassador, in 1844, should not proceed to Peking, was because the

United States had " never sent tribute ."

It is the custom throughout the East, for an inferior always to

tender some present or offering when approaching or visiting a

superior ; and this custom is specially observed in all embassies

from one state to another. The Chinese have artfully turned the

idea to their own glorification, by representing all " presents " as

"tributes," thus assuming a superiority for which there may not

be the slightest foundation . Such is the reason why England is

classed among the states " tributary " to China.

CHAPTER IX .

|

INTERCOURSE BETWEEN CHINA AND JAPAN. DE

SCRIPTION OF JAPAN ; AND ABSTRACT NARRATIVES

1

OF INTERCOURSE BETWEEN JAPAN AND ENGLAND,

PORTUGAL, HOLLAND, RUSSIA, AND AMERICA.

THE whole of the circumstances connected with Japan are so sin

gular and so little understood, that I am induced to give here the

following report on Japan, which was laid before Her Majesty's Go

vernment in the hope of inducing an attempt to open a commer

cial intercourse with a numerous and extraordinary people, whose

country is admirably situated, who enjoy a fine climate, and are

I

capable of carrying on a large trade, not only with Europe, but also

1

266 DESCRIPTION OF JAPANESE ISLANDS .

with China, India, and the eastern hemisphere. Indeed, our re-es

tablishment of friendly relations with Japan, would be of great

importance to our trade with China ; our cheap and rapid navigation

would enable us to become the carriers between the two empires,

and thus facilitate a social intercourse which would doubtless be

mutually advantageous to all engaged in a pursuit so useful to the

inhabitants of the vast regions under consideration .

PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF JAPAN .

The empire of Japan is comprised within 31° and 46° of north

latitude, and 129° and 143° of longitude east from Greenwich.

Japan is a kingdom or empire in itself, insularly separated from

the rest of the world ; it is not unlike great Britain, being divided

and broken by forelands and arms of the sea ; with great bays and

inlets, running deep into the country, forming several islands,

peninsulas, gulfs, and noble harbours.

The empire of Japan is divided into three separate islands, the

largest of which is Niphon . This noble island is in length from

south-west to north- east 1,300 Russian miles, with a breadth vary

ing from 160 to 240 wrests, and running lengthwise from east to

west in a winding form . The island is indented with deep bays

and capacious havens, and has many small adjacent islets. The

English estimation is 700 miles long, by 86 broad, in the form of

an elbow.

Kewsew or Kiusin , the second island in extent, is separated from

the south-western extremity of Niphon, by a narrow channel. The

estimated length of the island is in English measurement, 200

miles long, by 140 broad . It is compassed by a number of islands .

Sikokf is the smallest of the three islands, and is situated south

of Niphon and east of Kewsew, it lies contiguous to the other two

islands ; this island is said to be 200 wrests in length, and nearly

square in form . It is encompassed with an inconceivable number 1

of small islands. The English estimate is ninety miles long, by

fifty broad.

The most remote southern island is Fatsisio , which is eighty

leagues distant from the mainland of Japan. It is considered

almost inaccessible ; it is viewed as a penal settlement for the

grandees. The force of the ocean is most manifest on the south and

south-west coasts, particularly on the island of Kewsew or Kinsin ,

where Nangasaki is situate. In the year 1600 A. D. The Japanese

wrested the two islands of Iki and Tsusseina from the Coreans .

Japan or Nipan signifies the foundation of the sun , being derived

from Ni, fire or sun, and pan, the ground or foundation of a thing.

It is also called Fino-matto, fi the sun, and matto a root.

1

PROVINCES , DEPARTMENTS, AND DISTRICTS OF JAPAN . 267

!

GOVERNMENTAL DIVISIONS OF JAPAN.

I The empire of Japan is divided into eight provinces ; Gakinai,

Takai, Tasan, Fookurooku, Sanin, Sanyo, Nankai, and Saikai .

These are subdivided into sixty- eight departments, which again

consist of 622 districts .

1st. Gakinai province consists of five departments, the whole of

which are considered the domain of the empire, i. e., the Crown

lands . The departments are, Yamasiro, Yamato, Kawatsi, Jelsumi,

and Sidzeu. This province is situated nearly in the centre of the

empire, in the southern part of Niphon ; the length is said to be

180 Russian miles. This province contains the two chief cities of

Japan, Osaka and Myako . The first is situated at the mouth of the

river Yado ; the second is the capital of the empire, and the resi

dence of the Dairi, or ecclesiastical Emperor. Myako is situated

on a branch of the river Yado ; its walls are said to be ten leagues

in circuit.

2nd. Takai, the second province, is situated due west of Gakinai,

and comprises fifteen departments, the whole of the south- eastern

part of Nipan. The city of Jedo is the second capital of the empire,

and is situated on a large plain at the gulf of Jedo in about 36°

north latitude . The Seogun, or Generalissimo of Japan resides

at Jedo, the population of which is estimated at 700,000 ; the city

is traversed by a river.

3rd. Tasan province, is situated north of Takai, and consists of

eight departments . It is the largest and most fruitful province,

and includes the whole of the northern part of Niphon or Nipan .

4th. Fookurooku province, comprehends seven departments, and

is situated to the north-west of Gakinai, and eastward from the

southern part of Tasan .

5th . Sanin includes the northern part of the western extremity

of Niphon, and is divided into eight departments .

6th. Sanyo lies directly south of Sanin, and contains eight de

partments.

7th . Nankai has six departments, which constitute the island of

Sikakf : Awasi , and Kii, two islands situated due east of Sikakf,

form the southern extremity of Niphon.

8th. Suikai province comprehends the whole island of Kewsew,

and is divided into nine departments . Firando and Nangasaki are

situated in this province ; also Buzo, Buzen, Fizen, and Satsumi.

ISLANDS . -A short distance to the north of Niphon, lies the

twenty-second Kurile island of Matsmai, this island is said to be

1,400 Russian miles in circumference. To the north of Matsmai

is the island of Sagalien, but of which only the southerly half

belongs to Japan, and the other half is said to be Chinese.

268 MOUNTAINS AND RIVERS OF JAPAN .

\

About two centuries ago, one of the Japanese princes bought

from the natives of Matsmai, a portion of the south-west coast ; this

was farmed out to merchants and fishermen in portions, to the mu

tual advantage of both. These islands are called Matsmai, Kunis 1

her, Eetooroop, and Sagalem. They may be considered as colonies

of Japan.

When the Russians conquered the northern Kuriles, and thus •

extended their possessions further to the south, the Japanese were

so alarmed lest their fishermen should be disturbed , that they conDa

quered the natives, but gave them many privileges, and did not

interfere in their customs or religion . No fire-arms are permitted

to the natives. Their chiefs are confirmed by the Emperor after

their election by the natives.

When La Perouse visited these seas with his two frigates, the

Japanese had no settlements on Sagalien ; but the Japanese and

Chinese then took nominal possession of the island, to prevent, if

possible, any European coming there.

ASPECT OF JAPAN.

MOUNTAINS . - Japan is a very mountainous and hilly country .

Niphon, the largest island, is traversed in nearly its own length by

a chain of almost uniform elevation ; in many parts the peaks are

covered with perpetual snow. This chain divides the streams which

flow to the south and east, and then fall into the Pacific Ocean ;

from those which pursue a northerly course to the sea of Japan :

the range is generally from north to south . The volcanic chain ,

the first links of which are found in the island of Formosa, extend

through the Loochoo islands , to Japan, and from thence run along

the Kurile Archipelago, probably as far as Kamtschatka.

On the island of Kewsew, south- east from Nangasaki, is a " high

mountain of warm springs," which has several craters . Several of A

the volcanic mountains of Japan possess hot springs . Kampfer

states, that shocks of earthquakes are not more regarded than a 1

hail shower in Europe.

THE RIVERS of Japan are wide and very rapid in their course,

which is occasioned by the steep mountains and rocks. The river 1

A

Ujin, is one quarter of a German mile in breadth, that is one and a

half imperial miles ; its rapidity is such that at low water, although

knee deep, it requires five men to ford or guide a horse safely over.

The men employed here to convey passengers across, are responsi

ble for the lives of those who pass the river. The river Oome is re

ported to have sprung up in one night, in the year B.c. 285. The

river Akagova, is remarkable for the depth of its bed, which is

perpetually varying.

The

CLASSIFICATION OF THE KURILE ISLANDS . 269

THE KURILE ISLANDS .

:

FROM NO . 1 TO 21 , UNDER RUSSIA .

The Kurile Islands . - Under this name are comprised a chain

of islands which lie in the Eastern Ocean, between the south of

Kamtschatka and Japan . The Russians gave them this name from

the smoking volcanoes ; kurile, in the Russian language, signifying

smoke.

The number of these islands that are said to be under contribu

tion to Russia, is twenty-one ; and the sea-room occupied by them

from Lapatka to the island of Matsmai, is about 1,300 Russian

versts (three-fourths of an imperial mile) . These islands were an

nexed to the Russian crown by mariners and fishermen ; the first

was taken possession of in 1713, and the remainder successively,

up to A.D. 1779 .

No. 1. The nearest Kurile island to Kamtschatka is called

Shoumtshu . The channel between Lapatka and this island, is

fifteen versts in breadth . The length of the island from N.E. to

S.W., is fifty versts, and the breadth about thirty . It is a flat

island with moderate ridges of hills, well watered throughout ; has

a lake nearly in the centre, five versts in circuit. It is rich in

minerals . But is chiefly visited for the sea otter and red fox, with

which it abounds ; its salmon is in much request.

No. 2. The second island is called Poromushir ; between which

and the former island is a strait, two versts in breadth . It lies

from N.E. to S.W. , and is twice as large as the first island ; it is

hilly, and well watered ; has no timber, but has valuable mines ; it

produces the red fox, wolves, sea otter, &c.

No. 3. Shirinki ; the distance from the last-named island to

this is computed to be twenty- six versts . It is remarkable for a

bee-hive- shaped mountain of considerable altitude . This island is

nearly as broad as it is long, say about forty versts in circumfer

ence ; it abounds with sea-lions, and various marine animals, which

are carried there by floating ice. The want of a safe anchorage

prevents this island from being much frequented .

No. 4. Makan Kur Assey Island lies sixty versts from the

latter ; and is in length twenty versts, and about ten in breadth .

It is covered with brushwood , is badly watered ; but nourishes the

red fox, and sea beavers ; and a large number of seals are caught

on it.

No. 5. Anakutan Island is situated thirty -five versts' distance

from the latter ; this island is in length 100 versts, and in breadth

about fifteen . Three summits of mountains exhibit themselves ,

which are exhausted craters . The red fox and sea beavers are

numerous .

No. 6. Amakutan Island is not more than six versts from the

latter ; is twenty versts in length, and ten in breadth ; produces

foxes, and its shores abound with sea-lions and otters .

270 RUSSIAN KURILE ISLANds .

No. 7. Syaskutan Island is separated from the latter full fifty

versts, and the current between them most rapid . Its length is

eighty versts, and only about five in breadth . Its productions are

similar to the former island .

No. 8. Ikarma is a volcano island, about twelve versts from the

latter ; and only eight versts in circumference.

No. 9. Tshimkutan Island is thirty versts' distance from the

former ; is round in form , and about fifteen versts in diameter.

The coast is mountainous and rocky .

No. 10. Mussyr Island is thirty-five versts from the ninth

island ; and not more than three versts in diameter. Produces a

large quantity of wild fowl .

No. 11. Rach-koke Island is 120 versts from the last-men

tioned, its length and breadth is about twenty versts . This island

looks like a solitary mountain, shooting upwards from the sea. A

continual burning of this island has filled up thirteen fathoms of

water ; and converted a large place into shoals and banks.

No. 12. Mutova Island is situated forty-five versts from the

former, and is thirty versts long, and twenty-five broad. There

is a volcano mountain to the south, which emits smoke ; to the

north are several rich valleys and habitable plains . 100 of the

inhabitants pay tribute to Russia.

No. 13. Rassegu Island is forty versts' distance from the latter,

and in extent about thirty versts every way. This island has

several lofty mountains, rocky shores, and sandy bays. It is fur

nished with excellent timber, nourishes sea-birds, beavers and

seals .

No. 14. Ussassyr Island lies seventeen versts from the former ;

it is, properly speaking, two islands, lying close together, occu

pying a space of twenty-five versts each way. It abounds with

rocks, cliffs, and hot springs . The productions are similar to the

latter.

No. 15. Keoli Island is situated at a distance of thirty- six

versts from the Island of Ussassyr ; and is thirty versts in

length, and only ten in breadth . This island has three mountains

of considerable altitude . The white and black- bellied red fox, 1

so much esteemed for his skin, is here found in abundance.

No. 16. Semussyr Island is thirty versts' distance from the

latter. The extraordinary length of this island gives it a peculiar 1

appearance to the mariner. Its length is ascertained to be 130

versts, and not more than ten in breadth . Four mountains are

visible on this island , with evident traces of volcanic eruptions

about them . The timber is excellent, and the various animals

in request are numerous . The passage from this to the next

island is upward of 200 versts in extent.

No. 17. Tshirpo Oi, and two other adjacent isles, are estimated,

in length and breadth, about fifteen versts . A volcanic eruption at

1

JAPANESE KURILE ISLANDS . 271

some period has covered these islands with stones, so that they are

utterly useless.

No. 18. Ourup Island is a respectable size , being fully 200 versts

! in length , and twenty in breadth . Its physical aspect is lofty

mountains, and deep glens . On the northern side, lie four small

isles, which produce good timber, and abundance of vegetables .

Streams from the mountains traverse the island and fall into the sea.

This island is considered to be rich in minerals, but is only visited

for the red and white fox, which are very numerous .

No. 19. Etorpoo Island lies thirty versts distance from the fore

going ; and is in extent either way, 300 versts . Several lofty

mountains adorn this island ; forests of noble timber, consisting

of larch , pine, oak, &c . The other productions are black boars,

sables , foxes, fish-otters, salmon, sturgeon, &c. In stormy weather,

whales and dolphins are thrown on the shore. The inhabitants

are the genuine aborigines, or hairy Kuriles ; they congregate into

villages, and pay a nominal tribute to Russia.

No. 20. Kunassyr Island is situated forty versts' distance from

Eterpoo, its estimated length is 150 versts, by about fifty in breadth ,

and is entirely surrounded with mountains and lofty summits ; on

the centre of this island, are large tracts of low land, covered with

good timber. The productions of the southern portion , are a great

variety of vegetables, and fish. A pearl-bearing muscle as large

as a dessert-plate, is found here, and the inhabitants sell large

quantities to Japanese traders : tribute is also paid to Russia in

this article .

No. 21. Tshikota Island is distant seventy versts from the latter

island . Its length is 120 versts, and the breadth about forty . The

features are lofty mountains, fertile plains, and several lakes, which

teem with excellent fish . At the southern extremity are ten petty

isles, which are covered with good timber. The whole of the

Russian islands are said to contain only 1400 inhabitants ; small

pox makes sad ravages .

THE KURILE ISLANDS UNDER JAPAN .-Matsmai :-this island

is called the twenty- second Kurile island, and is the largest of all

the group, and nearest to Japan, being only about twenty-five

versts distant from the Japanese dominions.

On the southern promontory stands the Japanese town of Mats

mai, at the extremity of the island, in latitude 41° 32 north, and

longitude 219° 56′ east, extending along the margin of an open bay.

The Japanese first purchased the privilege of hunting and fish

ing on this island, from the natives, but finally conquered it in A.D.

1652. The Japanese never would have annexed this island to the

principality of Matsmai, until they discovered that the Russians

had taken possession of the northern Kurile, and by that means

extended their power very far south .

The Japanese left the natives to their own choice of religion,

GOLD AND SILVER MINES OF JESSo .

laws, customs, and dress Chiefs are elected by the natives, and

their appointment confirmed in Japan. The island is well guarded, \

1•

at and several förtresses erected; the natives are prevented from carG

rying fire-arms . The productions of this island, particularly fish

and timber, are all exchanged with Japan for summer clothing.

bute is to the prince of Matsmai, who again pays it to

the Emperor

Jesse This island, that perplexed the navigators and geogra

phers of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries to discover, is the

most northern island the Japanese possess out of their own king

dom.desso was conquered by Joritoma, the first secular Emperor

of Japan, who at his death bequeathed it to the prince of Matsmai.

This island lies in 42° of northern latitude, and approaches in

"I,

form to that of an irregular triangle. Its estimated length from

north to south is 300 miles, and very little less in extreme breadth.

Bi

The most southern portion lies in 217° of east longitude . Jesso

is washed on the west by the gulf of Tartary, on the east by the I

Northern Pacific Ocean ; it is divided from Japan by the straits of

Sangar, and separated from Sagahlien island on the north by La

Perouse's Channel . Two promontories, Sugaor and Taajasaki, run

ning far into the sea form a large gulf, which faces Japan, and

reduces the distance from coast to coast between five and six Ger

man miles.

Its whole circumference is indented by deep bays, which form

good harbours. The best known to mariners, is Volcano Bay,

towards the south- east, which is secure and spacious ; Edermo,

likewise, is a harbour well sheltered by the land .

The aspect of the island, particularly the southern portion, is wild

and mountainous . A rugged chain traverses it from north to south.

Active and extinct volcanoes are visible. It is said to possess va

luable mines of gold and silver.

The northern portion of Jesso possesses many advantages over

A the south . Edermo is a most fertile tract, and produces every

thing necessary to support life . The timber-forests consist of larch,

oak, elm, birch, and the scented cypress, &c. Fish is most abun

dant, particularly salmon ; it is supposed that they are driven to

the coast by the whales . Cured fish of several kinds is sent to

Japan in large quantities. Bears are domesticated, and may be

seen roaming about with flocks of deer.

The inhabitants are Japanese emigrants, • and aborigines, which

are called Ainans. The island is called .Mazin, which signifies

hairy, as the natives are literally covered with hair, like monkeys,

according to Captain Sares. They are below the middle size,

strong and swift, of a dark brown complexion, dark eyes, an agreea

ble physiognomy, and remarkable for placidity of disposition .

Their summer- clothing is exchanged for their dried fish . The

small-pox makes sad havoc among them . Number unknown .

The city of Miyako, in the province of Gakinai, the capital of the

,

J.

CITIES OF JEDO AND NANGASAKI . 273

empire, is situated on the river Yodo, in a large and well cultivated

plain. Don Rodrigo visited this city about 200 years since. Its

walls are ten leagues in circuit. The city is celebrated for a mag

nificent temple, containing a bronze idol, the dimensions of which

2 may be estimated, when one man failed to grasp with his two arms

the thumb of the right hand . There were 100,000 workmen em

ployed for years in building this temple. The population is cal

culated at 1,500,000, and it is considered the largest city in the

world. A The city of Jedo , the second capital of the empire, contains

700,000 inhabitants, and is traversed by a considerable river, navi

gable by vessels of morate size. The streets of Jedo are open,

wide, and particular clean , and closed at each end by a gate,

which is guarded by soldiers . The houses are built of wood, and

about two stories high generally.

Nangasaki is situated in 32° 45′ north latitude, and 127° 31 ′ 30″

longitude east of London .

S

The population in 1826 amounted to 26,127, independent of the

military force. Persons in the employment of the Siogun, and

princes, priests, and monks, form , besides, a total of nearly six

thousand souls .

The city and its dependencies contain ninety- two streets ;

11,452 houses ; sixty-two temples and Budhist cloisters, and a

great religious edifice, besides five small chapels for the worship of

Camis .

It is the residence of a governor, who 1. is relieved by his col

league, who represents the city of Jedo every other year ; a super-

intendent of the domains of the Siogun, a commandant, two

mayors, a chamber of money placed over the foreign commerce, and

a college of interpreters for the Dutch, the Chinese, and Coreans .

The city contains two government palaces, those of the princes of

Fizen and Tzikuzen, who furnish alternately the garrison for the

port, the offices of charges d'affaires of the princes of Satsuma,

Tsasima, and some other provinces of Kuisin ; the Dutch factory,

Chinese ditto, a prison for the insane, public magazine, an arsenal,

a Funa-cura, or open yard, for the protection of ships of war, a

botanic garden , several theatres, a vast number of tea houses, and

other places of amusement, which are frequented by crowds of

dancers and musicians .

A brisk commerce is kept up, and great industry displayed ;

there is an extensive porcelain manufactory, and breweries for

making rice beer. The shops are numerous and well supplied ; as

the city is the only link between Japan and foreign countries , it is

constantly visited by merchants, learned men, and idlers from all

parts of the empire, and its portfilled with national vessels .

There are numerous batteries from the islands and shores, to

defend the entrance of the basin . The entrance itself is again de

fended by strong batteries, raised on the two sides, as well as by a

considerable garrison . The passage is 458 metres in its greatest

T

‫کہ‬

App

274 CLIMATE OF JAPAN .

width, and 150 in the most narrow place ; a chain is always kept 1

ready to bar it, if necessary. This disposition was kept a secret ¦

for a long time from the Dutch.

Nangasaki is the most corrupt and least national city of the em

pire. It is described as having suffered by the infection of

Chinese cunning and rapacity, and the coarseness of European

sailors ; and it is further debased by throngs of the craftiest traders

in Japan, who are naturally attracted to the only seat offoreign

commerce. Even the language there is so interlarded with Chinese

as to be well-nigh unintelligible to visitors from Nippon and Sikok .

Fizen principality, in which Nangasaki is situate, is a large promon

tory, with 1,016 islands comprised within its limits . The revenues

of the prince of Fizen are estimated at £357,000 per annum . The

prince of Buzen (where the Dutch embark for Nippon) has

£ 150,000 a year.

Nangasaki is the dearest market for purchasing the manufactures

t

of Japan, although it is a manufacturing town . The country

around it does not produce sufficient provisions to support the in

habitants ; they are chiefly supplied from the neighbouring pro

vinces of Fisen- figo, and the islands of Amakuso and Gotho, which

lie to the north of the town . The land adjoining the town is prin

cipally planted with vegetables, and fruit. The market is well

supplied with edibles of every kind that are in use in Europe ;

venison is abundant and cheap, and endless varieties of fine fish,

particularly crabs and oysters ; saki, or rice beer, is their principal

drink . A noble river runs through the town, the water of which

is excellent.

The climate is declared to be healthy by all the Europeans who

have visited Japan . In winter, the north and north-west winds are

sharp, and bring with them frost, which remains a considerable

time snow is common in winter, even in the southern part of the

empire . The summer heat is relieved by cool and refreshing sea

breezes ; rain falls more or less every month in the year, but most

abundantly in the months of June and July . 1

The greatest degree of heat for one year was, 96° Fahrenheit, in

August ; the severest cold in January, 35°. In summer the

southern sea-breezes are refreshing ; at night and morning the

wind blows from the eastward .

POPULATION, & C.-The number of inhabitants in all the Japanese

Islands is estimated at 30,000,000 to 35,000,000, divided into eight

。 classes.

First, the princes, called dai-mio and sai-mio.

Second, kie-nin, i . e. noblemen ; from this class are selected the

‫د‬.

ministers and great officers of state, governors, &c. They are sub

ject to many restrictions, and compelled to reside for stated periods

at the capital, and keep up an expensive establishment quite

beyond their income, in order to prevent their becoming rich or

powerful.

+

¿

POPULATION AND CLASSIFICATION . 275

Third class are the priests of the three forms of religion tolerated ,

viz.: Sintoo, Budhist, and Confucian .

Fourth, the military, who are the vassals of the nobility, and

hold their lands under tenure to supply a given number of troops

to the Emperor .

Fifth class, amongst these are inferior government officers,

medical men, and all who are entitled to wear one sword and

trousers. One class of men, which answer to the British sur

veyors or valuers, are so highly esteemed that they are permitted

to wear two swords, the same as the nobility .

The sixth class includes wealthy shopkeepers and merchants ; the

most wealthy inhabitants of the empire, but held in great contempt

by the princes and nobles, who, however, are frequently under

many obligations to them in pecuniary matters. The instances

are very rare of any member of this class being permitted to wear

a sword, but under no circumstance are they allowed to wear

trousers .

Seventh class comprises all mechanics, poor shopkeepers , and

artists .

Eighth class consists of labourers and farmers, or more correctly

speaking, the serfs of the nobility.

Tanners, curriers, and every one connected with the leather

trade, are outcasts from all classes ; this is supposed to arise from

their Pythagorian belief, and Sintoo doctrine of defilement by

coming in contact with death . Men of this calling are obliged to

live in villages by themselves ; they are excluded from the popula

tion census, and when occasions require are compelled to act as

executioners .

Appearance of the Japanese. - Marco Polo stated truly, some

centuries ago, that one China-man was the counterpart of another ;

but there is not that uniformity amongst the Japanese . The men,

who are generally exposed to the sun, are a yellowish colour all

over, muscular and well-made, active and free in their motions,

middle size, not corpulent ; perfectly European, with the exception

of the small lengthened Tartar eye-the only resemblance between

them and the Chinese. Thunberg states, that ladies are perfectly

white, with rather large heads and short necks. Their habili

ments have probably been 2000 years without undergoing any

change in shape, and are uniform , from the king to the peasant,

except in materials. Long wide gowns, one, two, or three, accord

ing to the season ; travellers and soldiers wear them short for conS

venience, with a leathern belt round the body. The gown is

rounded about the neck, and displays the bare bosom. Breeches,

like a petticoat, sewed between the legs, and left open at the side

for two- thirds of their length. An over-gown of ceremony . The

silk for fineness, such as worn by the rich, far surpasses anything

known in India or Europe .

T 2

276 CHARACTER AND CUSTOMS OF THE JAPANESE .

Character of the Japanese .- Doctor Ainslie, who was resident

at the Dutch factory in Japan, in 1814, thus states : " The Japa

nese are a nervous, vigorous people, assimilated by their bodily

and mental powers much nearer to Europeans than Asiatics ."

These traits of vigorous intellect may be traced in the greater pro

gress they have made in the arts and sciences than the Chinese,

with whom they consider it a great disgrace to be compared.

The Doctor's testimony agrees with former writers, who say they

have the stillness of the Spaniards, eager of novelty, and warm

in their attachments, open to strangers, and, excepting the restric

tions of their severe sumptuary laws, seem a people inclined to

throw themselves into the hands of any nation of superior intelli

gence . The Japanese, like the Chinese, have a great contempt

and disregard for everything below their own standard of morals .

Thunberg, a German physician, who remained several years in

Japan, pourtrays the natives as frugal, ingenious, sober, just, and

of a friendly disposition ; extremely curious and inquisitive con

cerning the manners and habits of other countries. But they

are distrustful, superstitious, proud, and implacable in their resent

ments ; never forgiving an injury. This spirit of revenge arises.

from pride, and the lofty sense of honour by which they are distin

guished from all other Asiatics . In courtesy and submission to

their superiors, few nations can be compared to them. Highway

robbery is unknown.

Captain Gordon states, " I never was in a country, the inhabit

ants of which conducted themselves with such propriety as Japan ;

not only affable and polite towards us, but invariably so towards

each other."

The Japanese express themselves very strongly against the

Chinese custom of immuring their females . The different classes

of society visit each other as they do in Europe. Doctor Ainslie

was at several entertainments, where ladies did the honors of the

table. He says they are (C a race of people remarkable for frankness

ofmanner and disposition ; for intelligent enquiry and freedom from

prejudice ; they are in an advanced state of civilization, in a climate

where European manufactures are almost a necessary comfort, and

where long use has accustomed them to many of its luxuries ."

Sir S. Raffles reports thus :

" The Japanese appear entirely free from any prejudice that

would stand in the way of a free and unrestricted intercourse with

Europeans ; even their prejudices on the score of religion, of which

such exaggerated accounts are reported by the Dutch, and of

which, as is believed among the Japanese, the Dutch have some

times availed themselves against their rivals in the early trade of

Japan, are moderate and inoffensive."

Ancient and modern unprejudiced travellers, all agree as to the

politeness of every class, rich and poor. On ordinary occasions

A

SIMILITUDE BETWEEN EGYPTIANS AND JAPANESE . 277

of meeting, respect is shewn by bending the knee ; extraordinary

deference is paid by kneeling on one knee and bowing to the

ground. The nobles are saluted by bending the knee until the

fingers touch the ground. When the bowing and bending is over,

the health of their respective families is enquired after, the state of

the weather, &c. The state-prisoner Golownin was highly amused

when his guard was relieved, as compliments were lavished by the

soldiers on each other before they exchanged places.

Doctor Siebold, in comparing the Japanese with the Chinese,

states that the former have never shewn the stiffness of the latter

in repulsing foreign improvements. Even at the present day their

literary men, especially their physicians and naturalists, neglect

no opportunity to instruct themselves in the European sciences,

and study the Dutch language with great assiduity, in order to

perfect their knowledge.

HABITS . Their domestic dwellings are very similar to those of

the Coreans and Chinese ; it does not appear that they are re

stricted in building their houses higher than one story, if their

means will permit, as the natives of China and Corea are. The

houses are built of wood, and whether it is to guard against fire,

or economy, there are no stoves ever seen in them. The floors

are covered with mats, and in the houses of the rich with carpets.

The decorations, of fancy papers and paintings, on the walls, have

a fantastic appearance. From the looking-glass, to the fowl placed

on the dinner-table, generally everything is gilded ; the feet and

neck of the fowl always so.

There is an apparent similitude in the temple- architecture of the

Japanese and Egyptians. The greater portion of the Japanese

temples are in the form of pyramids, some are graduated, and

some otherwise, having a quadrangular basement with a door

approached by steps. Many of them are built, as the Egyptian

temples were, in the form of a cross . The temple of Boorobbo is

pyramidical, having seven stages of ascent cut out of a conical hill,

and crowned by a dome, which is surrounded by a triple circle of

towers. This is supposed to be the model of the Tower of Babel .

The base of this Japanese pyramid comprises nearly the same

number of square feet as the pyramid of Giza, and like it the inte

rior passages and chambers are hewn out of the solid rock . A

great number of Japan hieroglyphics are strictly Egyptian . For

instance, the square, the knot, the orb, circle, semi- circle, the

triple twisted cord, vase, syphon, the trident, the mason's square,

hand-barrow. The common opinion is that the builders of this

temple came from the shores of the Red Sea.

In science , the Japanese are said to cultivate astronomy and

medicine ; original works are published, and likewise translations

from European works, on these branches. With regard to their

researches in medicine, we have proofs, by the introduction of their

system of acupuncture into Europe. The science of astronomy is

278 ASTRONOMY, MECHANISM , AND FINE ARTS .

brought so far to perfection, that they no longer have their calendar

made up in China . They study all the European works that have

been translated into the Dutch language. Their approval of

London-made mathematical instruments, over those made in other 1

L

countries, as frequently expressed by the interpreters to Captain

Krusestern, of the Russian embassy, is proof that they have made

some progress in that science .

They divide the year into twelve moons or lunations, and make

an intercalation of one month in the 3rd, 6th, 9th, 11th, 14th,

17th, and 19th year. They begin the new year with the first new

moon, which appears after the first degree of Aquarius, and the

whole year consists of 354 days . Golawnin states, " that they are

well skilled in trigonometry and civil engineering ; their maps are

very superior to those of the Chinese."

The clock and time-piece mechanism, consists in a horizontal

balance moving upon a pin forward and backward , with a weight

on each side. Their clocks accurately mark the duration of day

and night, by the approach or recession of the weights .

Their almanack, among other things, has a table containing re

markable events, and the number of years that have elapsed since.

they took place ; predictions regarding the weather, winds, and

lucky days, &c. The latter must be strictly observed by every one

who is about to engage in any important undertaking .

Their taste for music extends to every class ; even the coolies,

sailors, and watchmen, stimulate each other to equal exertion by a

sort of song : the latter show their vigilance by beating two sticks,

as a substitute for our rattles, in a similar manner to the watchmen

in China. In working various metals, they surpass all other coun

tries ; especially in the art of blending different metals, in a manner

to resemble the finest enamel ; which is then formed into orna

ments worn about the person, as jewelry is in Europe. Wood

engraving is an ancient art amongst them, but they have recently

obtained a knowledge of engraving upon copper, which they will

probably soon bring to perfection . Golownin, the Russian state

prisoner, being a seafaring man and probably unacquainted with

mechanics, states, that they tormented him with questions, and

perhaps hurt his national pride, by so often referring to London

made astronomical instruments, as superior to those in other

countries .

With regard to the proficiency of the Japanese in what is called

the fine arts, there is a difficulty in ascertaining their position .

The Dutch authorities are not to be relied on in any thing relating

to that country ; and the capability of the Dutch to appreciate

merit, is somewhat questionable. The German physicians who

have resided at the Dutch factory, give the Japanese great credit.

for their unaided attainments. During Dr. Von Siebold's short

residence in Japan, he was enabled to collect such a variety of

GOVERNMENT, EMPEROR, ETC. , OF JAPAN . 279

engravings, and works of art, that the Dutch authorities at the

Hague, gave him a large price for his museum.

Oil painting is not well understood in Japan ; but in water

colours nothing can be natural, from the brilliancy of the tints

imparted .

Prints respecting campaigns, and sea battles, are much prized

by all classes. Their lacker-ware, if an idea could be formed from

the tedious process it undergoes according to Kempfer, ought to

be beautiful . The specimens in the museum at the Hague, are

highly prized by good judges ; and yet they are not first-rate, as

none are allowed to be carried out of the kingdom. Printing and

A

bookselling are carried on to a great extent .

In 1781 a Yedo bookseller published an Encyclopædia (Kun seyo

rui tsui) in 639 volumes, comprehending 1273 divisions .

The work termed Bitsu foo ryak, consists of 1000 volumes, and

is the most extensive undertaking of the kind in Japan.

THE GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN is monarchical and feudal. The

ancient laws entrusted all power and authority to the " Dairi"

(High Priest), Mikado or Emperor.

A.D. 1176. A check was placed over the power of the reigning

Emperors, by nominating a second Emperor or Generalissimo, who

is called the " Seogun ; " his authority extends to all civil and mili

tary affairs of the empire. The " Dairi" or celestial Emperor, is

never consulted on any state affairs, except a declaration of war, or

on negotiations with foreign powers . Even the soldiers who guard

his palace and the royal province of Gokinai, are appointed and paid

by the " Seogun. "

The Seogun is assisted in his administration of the government,

by a council and a senate. The council consists of five members,

all of whom must be reigning princes, and the descendants of the

principal supporters of the usurper Jjegas. Their titles are here

ditary. The council decides all ordinary cases, without the appro

bation of the Seogun . In all cases of importance his consent must

be obtained, and likewise that of the senate, before it becomes

law.

The senate decides all important civil and criminal cases ; and

all others which are of importance must first be examined and de

cided by this body, before they can be sent before the council.

These two branches of the government, form the legislative autho

rity of the whole empire.

According to law, the Seogun must visit the Emperor once in

seven years ; but embassies are frequent to and from each other ;

and it is imperative at the new year, for the Seogun to send to the

Emperor a white crane with a black head, taken with his own hand

in hunting ; no business can release him from this obligation .

The princes are about 200 in number ; they are compelled to

reside every other year in the capital, and to have a number of

280 ADMINISTRATIVE BOARDS AND PRINCIPALITIES .

soldiers in constant readiness to move at the command of the Seo

gun. They have a qualified independence in their respective prin

cipalities .

The public affairs of the empire are administered by seven sepa

rate boards. These are presided over by ministers, the number

attending each tribunal being regulated according to the importance

of the business for deliberation .

The first board takes charge of all taxes, which are generally paid

in kind, and amount to a tithe of the productions. Agriculture

and manufactures, are also under this board. The second tribunal

superintends the navigation and coasting trade, on the rivers ,

canals, and throughout the interior. This board has nothing to

do with the foreign commerce . The third board has charge of all

public buildings, temples, fortresses, &c. The fourth, the police,

is held in very great estimation, both by the nobles and people.

The fifth decides criminal causes, according to the laws existing in

each principality ; but if they are in any way connected with the

state, they are brought under this civil and criminal board . The

sixth, or military board, inquires into the number of troops in each

principality, &c. The seventh, or religious board, is a check on the

ecclesiastical Emperor (Dairi) lest he infringe on the power of the

Seogun.

Formerly there were sixty- eight princes with hereditary princi

palities, but liable to forfeiture in case of treason . These sixty

eight have, from time to time, been subdivided, and portioned out

into upwards of 600 separate administrations, called great and

small principalities, lordships, and imperial cities .

These princes are called kokushi, and are divided into two classes :

first, the dai-mio, who hold their lands direct from the spiritual Em

peror, i.e. Mikado ; the second, sai-mio, who hold from the temporal

Emperor, i.e. Seogun . These two grades govern in their separate

principalities , with only the semblance of sovereignty. The govern

ment of each principality is solely conducted by two officers sent

from the imperial council, called gokaro, with instructions from

the council to guide them in their administration . One of these

officers resides at the capital alternately, through whom the coun

cil issue their instructions ; the family of the absent one must

remain at the capital as a hostage, likewise the wife and family of

the princes ; whose society they only enjoy during their compul

sory residence every six months at Jedo. But on no account can

the family or wife of a reigning prince ever reside with him in his

principality. The consequence is, that the princes frequently re

sign in favour of their sons .

Each principality is obliged to keep a standing army, in propor

tion to the extent of the possessions, and, likewise, to furnish a

certain number of troops to guard the crown lands ; which troops.

are under the control and command of the temporal Emperor, or

Seogun.

PROVINCIAL AND LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN. 281

Nagasaki, the only port for foreigners, was taken from the

Prince of Fizen, in 1634, and converted into an imperial city. The

troops here are numerous, and are supported by the Prince of

} Fizen ; the revenue from the foreign trade being divided between

the governor and the inhabitants of the city.

The Prince of Satzuma is the only one that enjoys any privi

leges . His principality is situated on the southern portion of

Kinsu. He is said to govern the Loochoo Islands, and some other

adjoining ones. The only port to which the Loochoo's can resort

is in his territories : he unhesitatingly destroys any spies sent into

his principality, and no notice is taken of it at Jedo. The same

policy is adopted in the small principalities and lordships ; beside

the security and precaution above mentioned there are a vast

number of secret spies employed, some of whom are taken from

the most humble, and others from the highest rank in life.

I The provinces and towns appropriated for the support of the

imperial palaces, are ruled over by governors sent from the capital.

Each province, or large town, has two governors, who relieve each

other, and leave their families as hostages at the capital.

The government of Nagasaki is the only one with which Euro

peans are acquainted, and it is probable that the same system of

governing is adopted all over the empire .

The governor of Nagasaki has subordinate to him two secre

taries, and an indefinite number of officers, called gobanyosi (over

seeing officers) , each of whom has a separate department, for the

strict regulation of which he is responsible ; under these officers,

are a kind of police who execute the orders of the former. The

following officers are not subject to the governor's authority in any

respect : the treasurer (who is second in rank to the governor) , his

deputy, and the military commandant, who occupy the third rank ;

the three latter are the government officers who are permitted to

have their families with them. The number of spies on the privi

leged officers is unknown, but they are very numerous .

LOCAL GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN.-Nagasaki , one of the imperial

cities of Japan, is governed by three governors ; two being resident,

and acting in concert ; but one presides alternately every three

months the third is resident at the capital, Jedo . These go

vernors, or lords, are called tono-sama ; every two years, the senior

governor is relieved by the third one, who is sent from Jedo. On

his return to Jedo , he must give a written statement of every

transaction that occurred during his government , and , likewise, a

verbal statement . Here he is detained six months before he is

sent to any other station ; previous to retiring, he must leave his

wife and children as hostages for a considerable time . The salary

is 2,000 kokfs of rice, valued about 10,000 taels of silver ; more

than one-half of which he is compelled to spend in presents to the

chiefs and princes about the court. He is also obliged to keep an

establishment and appearance as the representative of royalty.

82 MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENT OF JAPAN,

There are two classes of officers, civil and military, who aid the

governor in his duties ; they are called Daosin and Joricks ; the

former is paid by the governor 50 taels per annum ; the latter, 100

taels : they are nothing better than spies, as none of the nobles

will accept the office .

The Emperor maintains a class of native interpreters (said to be

in number 132) , who understand the Dutch, Portuguese, Ton

quinese, Siamese, and Chinese languages. Kampfer mentions

several others ; and Dr. Ainslie says, English is studied .

There is an imperial guard , who live in huts, that command the

harbour ; they should be 1000 strong, but do not exceed 300 .

There is another guard, called Funohan, that is, ship-guard .

When a foreign vessel arrives, this guard is placed in boats on each

side of the vessel, and, with regular relays of men, never leave

that station until she is departing, when they convoy her out a

considerable distance .

There is another guard of troops, who reside on a hill that com

mands the coast ; it is situated on the south end of the city : twenty

is the stated number ; these are furnished with telescopes, and a

quantity of fire combustibles. If a fleet of ships are seen, a fire is

kindled, in a continuous line on each of the southern mountains,

and, by this means, the news reaches Jedo in twenty-four hours

(300 leagues' distance), which is otherwise a journey of several

weeks . A similar contrivance exists on the coast of China, by

three coloured lights.

The municipal duties of the city are conducted by a mayor, or

yearly warden, called Ninban.

All civil and criminal cases are tried by the imperial tribunal ;

witnesses and counsel are permitted : there is no appeal from their

decision, but the death-warrant must proceed from the council of

state at Jedo .

A head-man (ottoma) is elected by the inhabitants of each street ;

he is confirmed in his appointment by the governor. He has the

power of punishing for trivial crimes . His salary is one-tenth of

the profit from the foreign trade.

House and land owners form themselves into companies of five :

one of the five is elderman, or alderman, and is accountable for the }

good conduct of the other four. Householders are not eligible,

but they are free from taxes .

There is a public notary (fisia) , he is the ottoma's (mayor's)

clerk, and register of births, deaths, &c . He issues passports, &c.

Treasurer (kaku) : every street has its treasurer, his duties are

to disburse the money allowed from the profits of the foreign trade

to each house- owner, &c.

Every street has its messenger, who reports all removals and

changes that take place in his street, &c.

Previous to any of the foreign ships sailing, a muster-roll is

called of the inhabitants, three times, the night before she sails .

t

$

LOCAL AND GENERAL TAXES OF JAPAN. 283

A census is taken in the last month of the year, and a list of all

those able to bear arms sent to the Emperor.

Any person wishing to purchase a house in Nagasaki, must ob

tain the consent of all the inhabitants of the street . There is a

ļ kind of stamp tax of about ten per cent. on the amount laid out ;

six per cent . of which goes to the inhabitants, and the remainder

to a public dinner, to which the new comer is invited .

All street combatants, if not immediately separated , involve their

nearest neighbours in punishment, by causing their being shut up

in their houses for three or six months ; first permitting them to

lay in a store of provisions that will last for the time. No fines

or mulcts are recognised in Japan, lest the rich should violate

the law.

The Japanese are very lightly taxed : householders pay no

taxes, as they are not considered citizens, unless they own the

house or land .

The Emperor's ground-tax or rent is charged according to

frontage (not the area) , and seldom exceeds six mace for every

kin (about two yards) . There is a collection every year for the

Emperor, which is voluntary.

An inquest is held on the body of all persons before they are

interred ; the coroner is the head-man of the company of five,

who must give a certificate that the death occurred from natural

causes .

It is said, that on the second day of the new year, there is an

annual trampling on a brass cross, twelve inches long, represent

ing Christ and the Virgin Mary ; and that six days are employed

in going round the city, as all must trample on the cross .

COMMERCIAL PROSPECTS. —A very extensive and lucrative trade

might be carried on with Japan. Sir Stamford Raffles said, "the

climate, habits of the people, and their freedom from any preju

dices which would obstruct the operation of these natural causes,

would open a vent for numerous articles of European comfort and

luxury. The consumption of woollens and hardware might be

rendered almost unlimited ; they are fond of the finer specimens of

the glass manufacture, and it requires only to bring them ac

quainted with many other products of British industry to obtain

for them a ready introduction ." " To establish a British factory in

Japan, and furnish a population of not less than 25,000,000, with

the manufactures of Great Britain, is in itself a grand national

object."

In June, 1814, English ships were sent by Sir S. Raffles from

Java to Japan, with instructions to open trade . Dr. Ainslie re

ported, that the " commercial objects of the voyage have been ac

complished ; arrangements entered into for securing ultimately the

introduction of the English, and the doing away in a considerable

degree the violent prejudices entertained against the English cha

racter in that quarter, where alone they could be assailed, and

I

284 PRODUCTS AND WANTS OF JAPAN.

among the people whose sentiments on that subject are likely to

gain ground where it is of most importance they should prevail."

Captain Gordon states, as the result of his experience on visiting

Japan in 1818 , that " the Japanese having no sheep , and woollen

clothing being suitable during the winter throughout the whole

empire, which may contain 30,000,000 inhabitants, the demand

for the staple articles would probably equal in quantity, though

not in quality, that of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and

Ireland. With respect to cotton wool, piece goods, indigo, and

sugar, he believed that Bengal would be inadequate to the supply.

The mineral riches of Japan are such as to provide returns more

than sufficient for such immense imports."

Mr. Gordon says, " the nation is fully sensible of the advantages

to be derived from foreign trade, and are desirous of enjoying it."

"A moderately restricted intercourse with Jedo I regarded as the

foundation ."

Among the products of Japan are corn, wheat, silk, hemp ,

copper (of the purest quality) , tea, wax, cinnabar, oil, borax, gam

boge, drugs, dyes, &c .

The articles required , and in use by the Japanese, are stated

to be

1. Woollens of every description . " It is expected that a de

mand for them would be unlimited when once introduced ."— [ Sir

S. Raffles. ] They are partial to primary colours.

2. Hardware : likely to be very extensive .

3. Glass : fond of cut-glass of every description . Window and

plate glass in demand .

4. Carpeting, of different descriptions.

5. Printed cottons, of fine texture and brightest patterns.

6. Ironmongery ; including tools of every description . Iron

chests, tin plates, lead, stoves, door locks, &c.

7. Porcelain, of handsome patterns .

Fire-arms, clocks, watches, &c.- Fire engines.

9. Stationery ; leather, of bright colours .

10. Lace, mock jewellery, &c.

In April, 1841 , the Dutch Government sent presents to the

Emperor of Japan, who accepted them, and returned others of 1

great value ; an interchange which had not taken place for a long

time. Among the presents sent by the Japanese Emperor was a

magnificent set of chess-men made of solid gold, and enriched with

precious gems.

The report made states, " favourable news has arrived ; the Em

peror appears strongly disposed to favour the Dutch." During our

war with China, the usual number of junks was diminished from

China, and the Japanese Government then gave permission to the

Dutch to augment the number and size of their vessels .

The Emperor, as a very flattering testimony of regard to the

English, and as an unusual mark of favour, accepted the whole of

,"

SIR S. RAFFLES' OPINION OF JAPAN. 285

the presents sent by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1814, except the

elephant, which it was found impossible to transmit.

The English mission in 1814 broke the ice ; the interpreters

and others, who are alone the channels of communication, have

* seen that the English are not the violent and intemperate charac

ters they have been represented ; and the reception of the mission,

as far as liberality of sentiment, manner, and conduct, was deci

dedly favourable to the British character.

Sir S. Raffles strongly expressed his opinion on the advisability

and facility of opening an intercourse with Japan ; and on 10th Sept. ,

1815 , addressed the following remarks to a literary society in Java:—

" With regard to Japan, I venture to submit the information as I

received it from Dr. Ainslie .

" In the first place, every information that has been received, tends

to confirm the accuracy of Kempfer's history of that celebrated and

imperial island . The Japanese observe of him , that he is, in his

6

history, the very apostle of their faith,' from whose works alone

they know even their own country. Their first enquiry was for a

copy of Kempfer, and to evince the estimation in which the author

was held by the Japanese, their observation was : "That he had

drawn out their heart from them, and laid it palpitating before us,

with all the movements of their government, and the actions of

their men .' They are represented to be a vigorous nervous peo

‫ایه‬

ple, whose bodily and mental powers assimilate much nearer to

those of Europe, than what is attributed to Asiatics in general.

Their features are masculine and perfectly European, with the ex

ception of the small lengthened Tartar eye, which almost univer

sally prevails, and is the only feature of resemblance between them

KNUÇLALA.

and the Chinese . The complexion is perfectly fair, and indeed

blooming ; the women of the higher classes being equally fair with a

Europeans ." Hier

For a people who have had very few, if any, external aids, the

Japanese cannot but rank high in the scale of civilization . The

traits of a vigorous mind are displayed in their proficiency in the

M sciences, and particularly in metaphysics and judicial astrology .

The arts they practice speak for themselves, and are deservedly

acknowledged to be in a much higher degree of perfection than

among the Chinese, with whom they are so frequently confounded ;

the latter have been stationary, at least as long as we have known

them, whilst the slightest impulse seems sufficient to give deter

mination to the Japan character, which would progressively im

! prove until it attained the same height of civilization with the Eu

ropeans .

Nothing is so offensive to a Japanese, as to be compared in any one

respect with the Chinese, and the only occasion on which Dr.

Ainslie saw the habitual politeness of a Japanese ever surprised

into a burst of passion was, when upon a similitude of the two na

286 JAPANESE DESIRE FOREIGN INTERCOUrse .

tions being unguardedly asserted, the Japanese laid his hand upon

his sword.

The people are said to have a strong inclination to foreign inter

course, notwithstanding the political institution to the contrary ;

and perhaps the energy which characterises the Japanese-character

cannot be better elucidated, than by that extraordinary decision .

which excluded the world from their shores, and confined within

their own limits a people, who had before served as mercenaries

throughout all Polynesia, and traded with all nations . There is by

no means that uniformity among them which is observed in China,

where the impression of the government may be said to have

broken down all individuality, and left one Chinese the counterpart

of another.

The women are not secluded, as in China ; they associate among

themselves, like the ladies of Europe.

During the residence of Dr. Ainslie, frequent invitations and

I

entertainments were given ; on these occasions, and, at one in

particular, a lady from the court of Jedo is represented to have

done the honours of the table, with an ease, elegance, and address,

that would have graced a Parisian .

The dress of a Japanese woman of rank, would cost as much,

probably, as would supply the wardrobe of an European lady for

twenty years.

The Japanese, with an apparent coldness, like the stillness of the

Spanish character, and derived nearly from the same causes

espionage and disunion, dictated by the principles of both govern

ments are represented to be eager for novelty, and warm in their

attachments, open to strangers , and, abating the restrictions of

their political institutions, a people who seem inclined to throw

themselves into the hands of any nation of superior intelligence .

The mistaken idea of the illiberality of the Japanese in religious

matters, was fully proved, and the late mission experienced the

reverse . The story told by the Dutch, of trampling on the cross,

is denied by them, and appears to be untrue . The massacre of

Simvebarba is, by the Japanese, attributed to European (Dutch)

intrigue ; indeed, it is admitted by Kempfer.

The Japanese are not averse to the indulgence of social excess ;

and, on these occasions, give a latitude to their speech which one

would hardly suppose they dared to do in Japan .

During Dr. Ainslie's residence, there arrived a large detach

ment of officers of rank, who had been out making a survey of the

empire nearly four years, of which one-fourth had not been com

pleted .

The opinion of Dr. Ainslie is, that the Japanese are a people

with whom the European world might hold intercourse without

compromise of character ; they are wonderfully inquisitive in all

points of science, and possess a mind curious and anxious to re

ceive information, no matter from whom.

MINERALS AND AGRICULTURE OF JAPAN . 287

The natural productions of Japan are diamonds, amber, iron,

topaz, lead, tin, copper, gold, and silver ; good coal, lime, sulphur,

saltpetre, salt, and various other minerals. Gold is found in seve

ral parts of the empire ; some is washed out of golden sand ; but

the chief part is obtained from ore. Silver is found in the northern

parts of Japan. The Japanese copper is considered the best in the

world ; so, also, is the tin, which is fine and white . Brass is scarce,

and consequently expensive. Iron is abundant and cheap . The

Chinese were large purchasers in Japan of pearls and sea-shells,

as there was no prohibition against fishing for them.

Submarine plants, corals, &c., are found in the Japanese seas,

not inferior to those found on the Spice Islands and Amboyna.

The variety of the vegetable productions of Japan may be said

to be infinite. The forest trees are oak,. walnut, chesnut, maple,

and fir ; also the mulberry, varnish, paper, camphor, and every kind

of fruit-tree, including lemon and orange trees. Hemp and cotton

are cultivated ; also rice, corn, wheat, peas, pulse, potatoes, turnips,

ginseng, ginger, melons, tobacco, and mustard. The agriculture

is followed in every respect after the Chinese method . The laws

and customs of Japan strictly enforce good cultivation ; and the

}

owner leaving his ground uncultivated for more than one year,

forfeits his title to possession .

Buffaloes and oxen are kept for ploughing (not eating) only ;

horses for riding and carriages. Milk and butter are not used .

They have no sheep nor goats, and of swine very few. There are

no asses, mules, camels, nor elephants . Wild and tame fowls, such

as are met with in Europe. The population live on fish and

vegetables almost exclusively.

Cordage and ropes are made from the bark of a wild- nettle,

(Urtica Japonica ) which grows in Japan . When the nettle is

pulled before it attains its full growth, the bark is said to be equal

to Russian flax.

The substitute for soap is the powder of a wild bean, which

is said to answer the purpose admirably.

Lamps and candles are in general use ; the lamp-oil is pressed

from mustard- seed . Their candles are about six inches long, and

one inch thick ; the wick is formed of paper, twisted in a spiral

form ; the oil from which they are made is extracted from the

varnish tree ; they are of a whitish colour when first made, but soon

turn yellow, and become offensive .

In agriculture, the Japanese are not inferior to the Chinese .

The soil in many provinces is naturally sterile, but no labour is

spared ; it is plentifully manured, and the Chinese mode of irriga

tion adopted . The tenure on which it is held, compels them to lay

it under heavy contribution .

The rice produced in Japan is much superior to the Chinese ;

barley and wheat are grown chiefly for feeding cattle.

The Japanese gardeners excel in dwarfing trees, and enlarging

288 ENGLISH WHALERS IN JAPAN .

vegetables. Forest trees are stunted in their growth to three feet

high, and radishes increased to fifty pounds weight ; those from

ten to fifteen pounds are exposed for sale, and are said to be the

ordinary size.

Tea is successfully cultivated in every district, and is the usual

beverage with every class. Green tea raised in Japan , sold in the

London market (30th November, 1841 ) at from nine shillings, to

fifty-eight shillings per pound.

The Japanese wheat which I saw was of excellent quality ; it

sold, at Hong Kong, at 2 dollars per pecul of 133 lbs .

The whale abounds on the Japanese coasts, and in the adjacent

seas, especially on the coasts of Rhumano, around the whole of

Nipon, Tsupima, and Gatto, and at Omuza and Nomo.

Mr. Enderby informs me that the English whale ships now visit

Aniwa Bay, at the extreme point of Sagalien Island or Peninsula ;

the Japanese also visit this bay, in large numbers, to cure fish.

Our whale ships frequently visit the coasts of Japan, but the people }

are prohibited by their government from trading with the strangers .

Mr. Enderby says, that one of the cures adopted by our sailors

for scurvy - namely, burying a man up to his neck in fresh earth,

cannot be resorted to on the coasts of Japan, as the Japanese pro

hibit our people landing ; but the villagers bring off large casks

full of earth for the seamen to be embedded in, and vegetables and

water are freely supplied . Mr. Enderby has heard that some colo

nial whalers from Australia have landed on the coasts of Japan,

plundered the villages and destroyed the temples ; hence, he

thinks, there is alarm and jealousy of our nation.

Mr. King, in his report of the voyage of the " Morrison" ship, to

open, if possible, intercourse with Japan, is also of opinion that an

unfavourable opinion had been formed of the Americans from

the conduct of some American whale-ships on the coast. It is

therefore advantageous, for the Japanese themselves, that these

outrages should be punished and prevented for the future.

Mines. -It is only within the last few centuries, that any of the

natives would venture on a considerable island, yielding sulphur,

because it occasionally smoked. However, one stout-hearted man

ventured, with a guard of 50 others, to slay any demon that might

interrupt their progress ; it is needless to say that none were found.

Now, the Prince of Satzuma farms out the island, (called Sulphur

Island,) for the sulphur alone, for 20 chests of silver per annum .

The Emperor claims two-thirds of the produce of all the mines

he permits to be worked ; the lord of the province one-third .

Large quantities of gold are melted out of its own ore from the

sand of the rivers , where it is found very pure . The best is found

in Sado, a province in the Island of Nipon ; one catty yielded three

taels of gold, ( See " Weights , &c .") The gold mines of Surunga are

very productive . The most productive mines were in Satzuma,

:

GOLD, SILVER, COPPER, TIN, AND PEARLS .- JAPAN . 289

one catty of ore yielded five taels of pure gold . These mines were

closed lest they should be emptied .

Silver is found in the province of Bingo. But the copper of

Suranga is considered the best in the world ; it is beautifully fine,

and charged with gold, which the natives have lately learned to

separate.

The province of Salzuma produces a very pure species of copper,

which is refined and cast into a cylinder form, about a span and a

half long, and as thick as a man's finger ; it is made up in boxes of

one pecul weight, (125lbs. ) and sold to the Dutch for 12 mace the

pecul ; an inferior kind is made into round lumps, and sold at half

the price. Brass is very scarce, and consequently much dearer

than copper. Their tin is of a very pure quality, but little used.

Iron is only found in three provinces, and is rather dearer than

copper, so that the latter is substituted in all domestic utensils,

building junks, houses, and in making tools for husbandry.

1 Agates, not unlike sapphires, are found in several provinces ;

jaspers and cornelians are obtained in the mountains of Tsugar, in

the northern extremities, nearly opposite Jedo. Pearls are found

in a small oyster, (called akaja, ) which are not unlike the Persian

shell ; these pearls are much esteemed by the females of China,

‫ܐ‬

also by the Tonquinese . There is a red earth obtained in some of

K2) 5

the rivers, particularly in places where very little water runs ; it is

called Naphtha, by the natives Abra : when set fire to, it emits

a flame, and answers all the purposes of oil. Coals are abundant

La

in the northern provinces. Siebold, in his journey to Jedo, A.D.

1826, which was in winter, saw coal fires quite common ; and pass

ing a mine where they were working, descended and satisfied him

self both as to quantity and quality ; it is of a bituminous nature,

and is generally converted into charcoal .

The Dutch imports, from Batavia into Japan, are borax, cam

phor, baroos , cloves, cinnamon, coffee, elephants' teeth, lead, iron

bars, glass-ware, looking-glasses, mace, musk, nutmegs, pepper,

mirrors, rattans, quicksilver, raw- silk, saffron, sapan-wood, soft

sugar, sugar-candy, tin, tortoiseshell, unicorn horns, Indian piece

goods, cotton and silk piece goods, and woollen cloth. Their

exports are copper, camphor, silk, lacker-ware, bees -wax, pitch,

wheat, and various articles. Their policy is always to starve a

market, and their intercourse being solely with Batavia, by means

of a monopoly, there is no spirit of enterprise in their trade with

Japan. The internal or coasting traffic of Japan is very active,

and carried on chiefly by water, in boats of 60 tons burthen, and

by land on the backs of horses or oxen . A pedestrian postal esta

blishment exists, as in China, for government letters only.

U

42

!

F

290 GOLD, SILVER, AND COPPER COINS IN JAPAN.

VALUES AND DUTIES ON THE FOREIGN TRADE AT

NANGASAKI .

The Dutch Company pay 15 per cent. on the amount of their

imports into Japan , which is calculated at the price they sell for

in Japan. The chief part of the Dutch cargoes from Batavia are

farmed out to private merchants . These imports must have a

separate manifest, and are charged with an additional duty , by the

Japanese government, of 45 per cent . on all piece goods ; goods

sold by weight pay 70 per cent. The authorities give their reason

for this heavy duty, thus : they say, private traders are at less ex

pense and no risk, compared to the Company, and can consequently

afford to pay more than they. The Chinese are charged 60 per

cent. also, and the reason alleged is the short voyage, and their

not being required to go to court.

Total amount received from the foreign commerce, (called Fan

nagin,)

60 per cent. on 20,000 taels, piece goods, 13,000 taels .

Ditto on Chinese, 600,000 produce 360,000

Rent charged to the Chinese 16,000

Ditto to the Dutch 5,580

Charges on Dutch company's imports 59,000

V Taels 453,580

JAPAN CURRENCY.-The coins of Japan are various, being le

gally of gold, silver, and copper ; accounts are kept in (rio) taels,

(momme) mace, and (bu) candareens, which have the same value as

in China ; the coins are cast, and gold and silver is weighed among

merchants ; the only coins that have a standard value are the im

perial coinage, with the royal coat of arms, a flower and three leaves

of the Kiri or Dryandra upon the face . The elliptical gold coins.

are two, the obang, and the kobang or kopang ; the first is as large

as the palm of the hand , and as thick as an English farthing . The

kobang, value of a tael of gold, and the tenth of an obang is two

inches long, and one inch wide, and should weigh three mace, five

candareens, or 203 grains troy. There is an old coin of this name

but seldom met with, it is thicker and of finer metal. The old

kobang weighs 275 grains troy, 22 carats fine ; the new kobang

weighs 180 grains troy, 16 carats fine ; the old kobang is worth

44s . and 7d. , or 10 rix dollars ; the new kobang is worth 21s . and

3d. or 6 rix dollars . The old Japanese coins are reckoned at

Madras only 87 touch, which is 20 carats, and reduces the old

kobang to 41s. and 1Cd. sterling. Of the smaller coins now in use,

one is called ichi-bu, the Dutch call it golden bean, it is a fourth

part of a kobang, should weigh 8 candareens, it has the imperial

arms and Emperor's reign . Another gold coin is called koisshiu,

and is half the value of the former.

3

BILLS OF EXCHANGE IN JAPAN . 291

The silver money, nandio or nandrio gin, is of three sorts ;

nibu gin is a kobang, the nishiu gin is of a kobang, and

the ichibu gin is of a kobang ; it is a small coin not one inch

1

long by inch broad, and as thick as a rupee. These are stamped

stating their relative value, as two, eight, or sixteen to a tael or

kobang, and are issued from the mint. The itagane, (or metallic

slips) , are made of gold and silver, of an oblong form, and when

passed from hand receive a stamp as evidence of their purity .

The kodama or pellets, like the itagane are stamped ; neither

bear the imperial arms ; if the schuit and itagane be the same

weight of this coin ; and according to Dr. Kelly, 4 oz. 18 dwts .

16 grains troy, and 4 oz . fineness it is worth 25s. and 3d. sterling . +

The coins of inferior metal, such as the Chinese cash, are called

by the Japanese zeni ; the smallest are reckoned as 6800 to a

kobang, and are a base coin . The se-mon zeni , (so called because

it is four times the value of the common sort,) is a good cast coin ,

of brass, and as large as a cent .

Cash are strung on a string, each containing 1000, called Kwan ;

a Kwan is worth 9 mace of silver ; 120 cash a single mace ; it ap

pears cash bears a higher value than in China, though inferior in

weight. The same is the case in Cochin China, although the coin

is still inferior. Bills of exchange seem to be as current in Japan,

as in China. Princes issue notes to circulate in their own prin

cipalities. The weights are the same as in China. The measures

of length and of capacity, are of the same size and proportion as

in China ; the Japanese ri or mile, varies in length ; it is computed

to be two-fifths of a Dutch league ; four Chinese ri are about

equal to one Japanese ri.

The following account of gold in Japan, was taken from a Chinese

book, written in 1708, and translated by Klaproth.

The Japanese chroniclers state, that silver was first presented to

the Emperor A.D. 670 .

The discovery of copper took place 1366 years after the founda

tion of the empire, which agrees with 700 A.D. Copper previous to

this period was imported ; and the fact of the discovery seems

evident by the name of the reign under which it fell, Wa-do,

which in Japanese signifies copper .

Gold was discovered* A.D. 749, heretofore it also was imported .

A.D. 1588. The first obang and kobang were coined, which are

large oblong pieces of gold.

A.D. 1608. The circulation of Chinese copper coin was prohibi

ted, and from this period to 1690 the coinage increased at an exC

tensive rate ; some years it is stated that 7,000,000 ounces of gold

were coined, and 80,000,000 ounces of silver. The increase of

foreign merchants and strangers, was so great in the year 1623 ,

* It is probable that there are extensive gold and silver mines in Japan , which the

skill and energy of Englishmen would soon develope.

U2

292 GOLD AND SILVER EXPORTED FROM JAPAN.

that the government became alarmed ; and confined the trade to

one port, viz . Nangasaki. Notwithstanding the extensive coin

age, the previous metals had become exceedingly scarce . It is

said that large sums of money were taken from the new converts to 1

Christianity, in the hopes of releasing their souls and those of their

ancestors from purgatory .

The following statement of the export of gold and silver from

one port alone, at a period when only the Dutch and Chinese were

permitted intercourse, will give some idea of what it must have

been in former years, when the Portuguese, English, Dutch, and

Chinese, were draining the empire.

From 1646 to 1708, there were exported from Nangasaki

2,397,600 kobangs of gold, valued at £2 4s. 7d .; the same period ,

37,420,900 crowns in silver. From 1663 to 1701 there were

1,114,498,700 pounds in bars of copper. From 1609 to 1662 , the

quantity of copper exported was beyond calculation .

The amount of gold exported from Nangasaki port alone, between

1611 and 1647, and up to 1706, is estimated at 6,192,800 kobangs ;

that of silver for the same period 112,268,700 crowns ; and bars of

pure copper, 2,228,997,500 pounds .

From 1706 to a late period, 2,000,000 kobangs have been coined ;

a third part of which has left the country, and out of one and a

half million crowns coined, not one third remains in the empire .

The following memorial was presented by a Japanese finance

minister, to the government, in the year A.D. 1710 .

"A thousand years ago, gold, silver, and copper, were unknown in

Japan, yet there was no want of necessaries. The earth was fertile,

and this was the best wealth. Gangin was the first Prince who

caused the mines to be diligently worked ; and during his reign, so

great a quantity of gold and silver was extracted from them, as no

one could have formed any conception of ; and since these metals

resemble the bones of the human body, inasmuch as what is

once extracted from the earth is not reproduced, if the mines con

tinue to be thus wrought, in less than a thousand years they will be

exhausted.

" Since these metals were discovered , the heart of man has become

more and more depraved. With the exception of medicines, we

can dispense with every thing that is brought to us from abroad.

The stuff and other things are no real benefit to us . If we squanC

der our treasures in this manner, what shall we subsist upon ?

Let each of Gangin's successors reflect upon this matter, and the

wealth of Japan will last as long as the heavens and the earth ."

It is remarkable that the fear of the " oozing out" of the precious

metals, equally pervades China and Japan, in their intercourse with

foreigners ; but the same idea, to some extent, pervades most of

the nations of Europe.

EMPEROR OF JAPAN RECEIVES WM. ADAMS A.D. 1600. 293

EARLY EUROPEAN INTERCOURSE WITH JAPAN.

William Adams, born at Jellingham , in Kent, engaged himself as

pilot of a fleet which the Dutch India Company were sending out

from Holland in 1598 A.D. In the South Sea the fleet encountered

severe storms, and were driven southward as far as 54°. After

crossing the line, the ships kept company until February, 1600 ;

when, being in latitude 28° N., they were separated by a furious

storm .

A.D. 1600. The 20th April Adams's ship made the coast of

Japan, in latitude 3010. There were only six of the crew (twenty }

four in number) that could work the ship . The ship anchored at

the port of Bingo, the natives offering no resistance. The third

day after their arrival, a Jesuit came on board, and acted as inter

preter. The king of Bingo gave them a house to reside in , and

every attention was paid to the sick crew. The emperor, hearing

of their arrival, sent for Adams, who repaired to his court eighty

leagues distant. The first question asked by the Emperor was as

to the state of Europe with regard to peace or war ; a variety of

other questions were also put, all of which Adams answered to the

apparent satisfaction of the Emperor : however, he was committed

to close custody, but treated with kindness . In three days' time

he was again brought before the Emperor, and asked the reason of

their coming so long a journey ; Adams answering it was to ex

change the commodities of their country with others, and thus

cultivate friendship with all nations, he was again sent to prison

for thirty-nine days, during which time the Spanish and Portu

guese were using their utmost influence to have the crew executed.

But on the forty-first day, the Emperor released Adams, and sent

him to rejoin his crew ; telling the Spanish and Portuguese that

the Dutch as yet had done no harm, either to himself or to any of his

land ; therefore it was contrary to reason and justice to put such

of their nation as had come to Japan to death. If the Spanish

and Dutch were at war, that was no reason why he should slaugh

ter the crew . In the meantime, the Dutch ship had been con

veyed as near as possible to where the Emperor resided, but had

been plundered of her cargo . When this was made known to the

Emperor, he ordered everything to be replaced, but this was found

impossible ; so that a sum of money was made up, amounting to

50,000 rials, and paid into an officer's hands, who was ordered by

his majesty to disburse the same equably for the several necessi

ties of the crew .

The Emperor being about to remove his court to the most east

ern part of his dominions, which was called Quanto, distant from

the latter place (Assaka) 120 leagues, his majesty had the Dutch=)

men and their ship conveyed to Eddo, that is, Jedo, and ordered

two pounds of rice daily, and twelve ducats annually to be paid to

:

294 ADAMS INSTRUCTS THE EMPEROR IN MATHEMATICS .

each man. Adams, by command of the Emperor, built a ship of

eighty tons, which gave great satisfaction, and raised him in such

favour that a yearly allowance of seventy ducats and two pounds

of rice daily were ordered to be paid him- A.D . 1604 .

A.D. 1605. Adams had daily intercourse with the Emperor,

and gav e him less ons in geometry and mathematics . Being now five

years in the island, he asked permissiou to return to see his wife

and children ; and hearing, through the Portuguese, that the

Dutch and English had vessels at Siam , promised to bring each

nation to trade at Japan ; but the Emperor would not part with

him . Seeing no hopes for himself, he asked and obtained per

mission for his captain and crew to depart . He sent several

lett ers by the cap tai n , wit h this sin gul ar sup ers cription , " To

my unknown friends and country ."

A.D. 1609. The Captain was killed at Malacca, and probably

the letters fell into the hands of the Spanish or Portuguese.

Hostilities were at this time going on between the Portuguese and

Dutch at Macao ; the latter sent two ships to intercept some of the

Portuguese traders between Firando and Macao, and missing their

intended prize, anchored in Firando ; Adams introduced them to

the Emperor, who readily entered into terms with them and per

mitted them to send two ships annually.

A.D. 1611. This year a small Dutch ship came to Firando,

laden with lead, elephants' teeth, damask, black taffety, raw silk,

pepper, and cloth ; an excuse was made for not coming the pre

vious year . This year the Emperor rewarded Adams for his

services, by granting him a manor, together with one hundred

slaves or servants to work it.

An extract from Adams's letter at this period states, that the

66

Hollanders have in Japan an Indies of money, so that there is

no need for silver to be sent out from Holland ; for in Japan is

much silver and gold, to serve for the Hollanders to handle whither

they will in the East Indies, which is always provided for their

commodities, which are generally lead, raw silk, damask, black

and red cloths . Such like imports are ready money in Japan."

His letter concludes with a description of Japan. " This island

of Japan lieth in latitude 48° at the north extremity, and 35 °

at the south ; in length 220 English leagues . The people are

good of nature, courteous out of measure, and valiant in war.

Justice is severely executed upon transgressors without partiality.

There is not in the world a land better governed by civil policy.

The people are very superstitious in their religion, being divers in

opinion. If a ship come from England to traffic at Japan, not any

nation should receive a better welcome ;" and this it was in his power

to procure, for which he praises God who hath given him favour with

the Emperor : hence he could boldly promise that his countrymen

should be as welcome and as free in comparison as in the river in

London .

ADAMS INVITES THE ENGLISH TO JAPAN. 295

" Could our English merchants, after settling in Japan, procure

trade with the Chinese, then shall our country make great profit

here, and the Company will not have need to send money out of

England, for in Japan there are gold and silver in abundance , and

therefore by the traffic here they will take in exchange money

enough for their investments in India and China.

" The Hollanders are now (1612 ) settled in Japan , and I

(Adams) have got them that privilege, which the Spaniards could

never obtain since they first came to Japan."

Adams proceeds to say :-" If a ship is sent, let her not come

where the Hollanders are (Firando) for it is a bad place for the sale

of goods ; but let her come for the easterly part of Japan, lying in

latitude 35 °, where the King's and the Emperor's court is. Besides,

should our ships come to Firando, thence to the court is about

230 leagues, a wearisome way . The city of Edo lieth in 36°, and X30

about this easterly part are the best harbours and a clear coast, so Xajen

that there are no shoals nor rocks half a mile from the mainland

it is also good for the sale of merchandise . And comes there a

ship here, I hope the Worshipful Company shall find me to be a

servant of their servants, in such manner as that they shall be

satisfied with my services. If any ship come near the easternmost

part of Japan, let them enquire for me. I am called in the Japan

tongue ' Augin Samma ;' by that name am I known all the sea

coast along. Nor fear to come near the mainland, for you shall

have barks with pilots to carry you where you will."

Adams thus concludes his letter to the agent of the English

factory (Spalding) at Bantam ;-" Had I known that our English

ships had trade in the Indies, I had long ago troubled you with

writing, but the Hollanders kept it most secret from me till the

year 1611 , which was the first news I had of the trading of our

ships in the Indies."

A.D. 1613 , June 12. This day arrived the ship " Clove" from

England, with a letter from King James, and presents for the

Emperor of Japan ; Captain Saris, who was called the Company's

general, and Richard Cock, who was to be superintendent . A

treaty, or charter of privileges, was obtained without the least dif

ficulty, and a factory opened .

ABSTRACT NARRATIVE OF ENGLISH INTERCOURSE

WITH JAPAN.

The English East India Company's introduction to Japan, was

as above shewn by a letter of invitation from William Adams, an

Englishman, a pilot in the Dutch service, who had been wrecked.

on the coast of Japan, and becoming a great favourite at court

was naturally anxious to serve his native country.

A.D. 1612. The East India Company at this time were desirous

296 EMPEROR OF JAPAN TO KING JAMES OF ENGLAND .

to open a communication with China, and thinking this an oppor

tunity that might ultimately facilitate their wishes, sent Captain

Saris in the " Clove," with a letter and presents from King James,

to the Emperor of Japan .

The " Clove" sailed from Bantam, viâ the Moluccas, and arri

ved in Firando, early in the year 1613.

When the "Clove" arrived, she was visited by King Foyne and

his nephew, accompanied by Adams ; nothing could exceed the

kindness and attention paid Captain Saris, who was quite unpre

pared for such a reception, having heard of the persecution of the

Portuguese Jesuits, a short time previous.

The King of Firando sent Captain Saris to Jedo, the capital,

providing every accommodation for his journey. His reception by

the heir apparent, was in every respect most cordial, and every

privilege required was freely granted, together with a letter and

presents for the King of England . The following is a copy of the

letter :

"To the King of Great Britain.

"Your Majesty's kind letter, sent by your servant Captain John

Saris, (who is the first I have known to arrive in any part of my

dominions) , I heartily embrace, being not a little glad to under

stand of your great wisdom and power, as having three plentiful

and mighty kingdoms, under your powerful command . I ac

knowledge your Majesty's great bounty, in sending me so unde

served a present of many rare things, such as my land affordeth

not, neither have I ever before seen ; which I receive not as from

a stranger, but as from your Majesty, whom I esteem as myself.

"Desiring the continuance of friendship with your Highness, and

that it may stand with your good- liking, to send your subjects to

any part or port of my dominions, where they shall be most

heartily welcome. Applauding much their worthiness in their ad

mirable navigation, having with much facility discovered a country

so remote, being no whit amazed with the distance of so mighty

a gulph, nor greatness of such infinite clouds and storms, from

prosecuting honorable enterprizes of discoveries and merchandising :

wherein they shall find me to further them, according to their

desires.

"I return to your Majesty a small token of my love, (by your

said subject) desiring you to accept thereof, as from him that much

rejoiceth in your friendship .

"And whereas your Majesty's subjects have desired certain

privileges for trade, and settling of a factory in my dominions,

I have not only granted what they demanded, but have confirmed

the same unto them under my broad seal, for better establishing

thereof.

JAPAN TREATY OF PRIVILEGES TO ENGLISH , 1613. 297

" From my Castle in Surunga, this fourth day of ninth

month, in the eighteenth year of our diary.

(6

Resting your Majesty's friend, the Highest Com

mander in this Kingdom of Japan.

"Mina, Mouttono, yei, ye, yeas."

The following is a copy of the treaty or charter of privileges

granted to the English.

(C

Imprimis . *— We give free license to the subjects of the King of

Great Britain, viz . :-Sir Thomas Smith, governor, and Company

of the East India merchants and adventurers, for ever safely to

come into any part of our empire of Japan, with their ships and

merchandise, without any hindrance to them or their goods. And

to abide, buy, sell, and barter, according to their own manner with

all nations ; to tarry here as long as they think good, and depart

at their pleasure .

Item the 2nd.- We grant unto them freedom of custom, for all

such merchandise as either now they have brought, or hereafter

shall bring, into our kingdom, or shall from hence transport to any

foreign port. And do authorise those ships that hereafter shall

arrive, and come from England , to proceed to present sale of their

commodities, without further coming or sending up to our court.

“ Item the 3rd.— If any of the ships shall happen to be in danger

of shipwreck, we will our subjects, not only to assist them, but that

such parts of the ship and goods as shall be saved, be returned to

their captain, or Cape merchant, or assigns . And that they shall

or may build one house or more for themselves in any part of our

empire, where they shall think fittest, and at their departure to

make sale thereof at their pleasure .

“ Item the 4th.— If any of the English merchants, or others, shall

depart this life within our dominions, the goods of the deceased

shall remain at the disposal of the Cape merchant . And all offences

committed by them, shall be punished by the said Cape merchant

according to his discretion ; and our laws to take no hold of their

persons or goods .

"Item the 5th.-We will that ye our subjects, trading with

them for any of their commodities, pay them for the same, accord

ing to agreement, without delay, or return of their goods again

unto them .

“ Item the 6th. - For such commodities as they have now

brought, or shall hereafter bring, fitting for our service and proper

use, we will that no arrest be made thereof, but that the price

be with the Cape merchant, according as they may sell to others,

and present payment upon the delivery of the goods .

" Item the 7th.- If, in discovery of other countries for trade and

return of their ships, they shall need men or provisions, we will

* I have a copy of this treaty, or charter of privileges, in the Firagone (Japanese

Cursive character, which has been examined by the distinguished oriental and ge

neral scholar, N. Bland, Esq., of Randall's Park, Leatherhead . - R . M. M.

298 ENGLISH FACTORY OPENED AT JAPAN .

that ye our subjects furnish them for their money, as their need

shall require .

Item the 8th. ~ And without any other passport, they shall and

may set out to the northward, upon discovery of Yeadzo, or any

other port in or about our empire.

" From our Castle, at Suringa, this first day of ninth

month, and in the eighteenth year of our " diary,"

according to our computation .

" Under-written, and sealed with our broad seal.

" Mina, Mouttono, yei, ye, yeas ."

Place of Seal .

A.D. 1613. On the return of Captain Saris, a factory was

opened, and the chief part of the cargo being broadcloth, he

was rather disappointed that it did not sell quickly. He was soon

told by the Natives , that it was strange that they should bring an

article there and recommend it so strongly, and they themselves

not make use of it. To this shrewd remark, Captain Saris, (or

Lord Saris, as he was called , having obtained that title from the

King of Firando) found some difficulty in replying, as he was

dressed in silk , and his subordinates in fustian . The Dutch were

selling English -made cloth, at the rate of £ 16 . per piece, and Cap

tain Saris reduced his to full one half, and yet had a handsome

profit.

Saris states that, at this period , the Japanese carried on an

extensive trade with India and China.

The prospects, under which a factory was opened in Japan,

as given by Saris, were the Emperor's promised friendship, and the

King of Firando's daily expression of kindness, by his personal

visits ; the encouragement the English had met with in the Mo

luccas ; the expectation of being soon permitted to trade with

China, and advices he had received from Siam, and several other

places adjacent .

The factory consisted of a captain, that is Cape merchant, R.

Cocks, William Adams, and six other Englishmen, three inter

preters, and two servants.

A.D. 1614. The following articles were in great demand : —

broadcloth, yellow and red ; baizes, same colours ; serges, silks,

camlets, velvets , and India cloths . Musk brought the same price

as silver ; thread of all colours, carpets ; pictures, especially those

representing battles ; warlike instruments, quicksilver, vermillion ,

lead ; tin, in sheets ; gold - leaf, cut and plain glass of every kind,

and elephants' tusks .

A.D. 1615. A letter of this date, from the head of the factory,

states that an edict had been issued against all priests, friars, and

DUTCH PIRATES CALL THEMSELVES ENGLISH . 299

nuns, but that no interference with the English factory had taken

place, but on the contrary every encouragement had been given ;

that several junks had been built under the direction of Adams,

that bright prospects of trade were likely to accrue from sending

their own junks to Siam and Loo- choo . On the report of a re

bellion breaking out in the northern part of the empire, all the

military stores and lead were sold to the Emperor at a good profit .

It was agreed that every vessel sent out must contain some pre

sent for the Emperor, according to the custom of the country.

An edict had been issued preventing all natives from leaving the

country ; and that no more native junks should leave the coast of

Japan, but that the English may go and come as they will.

J A.D. 1616. The advices of the year from Japan were most flat

tering ; the coasting trade was succeeding beyond their most san

guine hopes. The Emperor had visited the factory, which had

already excited the jealousy of the Portuguese and Dutch .

A.D. 1617. The chief complaint this year was the want of com

munication with China, to obtain raw silk, which was in greater

demand than the imports could supply . The Dutch had a squadron

in the seas of Japan and China, plundering Chinese junks, and

giving out that they were English ships, and, by this means,

damaging the character of Englishmen with the Chinese empire,

and thus rendering the chance of an opening with China more

uncertain . The demand for raw silk at this period was so great,

that the Dutch were permitted to bring the prizes obtained from

the Chinese junks (which is contrary to their treaty) into Firando .

This circumstance caused a bad feeling between the English and

Dutch, as shewn in the following letter from the superintendent of

the English factory at Japan, to the chairman of the East India

Company in London.

Port of Firando .

Most worshipful Sir, 10th March, A.D. 1619 .

It is now two years since I wrote your worship any letter,

and it is by means of the unlooked -for and unruly proceedings of

the Hollanders against our English nation, in all these parts of

the world, not sparing us in the kingdom of Japan, contrary to

the large privileges which the Emperor of Japan hath granted,

that the Japanese should not meddle with us . But the Hollanders

this year having seven ships, great and small, here, with sound of

trumpet, have proclaimed open war against our nation by sea and

land ; to take our English ships and goods, and kill our persons as

their mortal enemies, which was done by Adam Westerwood

(their admiral, as they term him,) openly proclaimed aboard all

their ships . Also, they came to brave us before our own doors,

and picking a quarrel, entered into our house, thinking to have

cut all our throats, yet wounded but two persons ; and had it not

been for the assistance of the Japanese, they would have killed us

all, as they were a hundred to our one. They took a boat of ours ;

300 DUTCH PERSECUTIONS OF ENGLISH IN JAPAN.

and one Richard King, one of our servants, they ill-treated ; and,

beside this, two of our barkes going beside their ships, they bent a

piece of ordnance against them, which took false fire, but they

shot at them with muskets, but missed the English and killed a

Japanese ; and for all this, no justice executed against them by

the King of Firando, although the Emperor hath commanded him

to do it .

"Two of the ships brought here this year are English ships,

which they took from the English in the Indies ; and also , they

took two others this year, riding at anchor in the road of Patania,

where we have a factory, and not doubting any such matter ; in

which fray they killed Captain Jourdan, our chief president of the

worshipful company in the Indies, with divers others, and carried

the ships and goods away. But six of the mariners, which were

in the English ships which they took, escaped from them, and

came to our house ; they sending to me to have them sent back

again ; unto whom I answered, I would first see their commission ,

how they durst presume to take our shipping and goods, and kill

our king's men as they did . So they went to the King of Firando,

desiring to have their English slaves (as it pleased them to call

them ) delivered unto them, and the answer they got was to de

mand them from the Emperor.

" This was the chief occasion that made them pick quarrels

against us, and to have killed us all ; but, I hope in God, his

Majesty, by the solicitation of our honourable and worshipful em

ployers, will not suffer his true and loyal subjects to lose their

ships, lives, and goods, in such order as they do, by such an unK

thankful and thievish rabble of them which are assembled together

in these parts of the world, who make a daily practice to rob and

spoil both friends and foes. I trust that yourself will be a solicitor

in so just a cause, against so common an enemie.

" This Adam West